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  1. Boyd MA, Amin J, Mallon PW, Kumarasamy N, Lombaard J, Wood R, et al.
    Lancet HIV, 2017 01;4(1):e13-e20.
    PMID: 27815068 DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)30189-8
    BACKGROUND: Lipoatrophy is one of the most feared complications associated with the use of nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N[t]RTIs). We aimed to assess soft-tissue changes in participants with HIV who had virological failure of a first-line antiretroviral (ART) regimen containing a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor plus two N(t)RTIs and were randomly assigned to receive a second-line regimen containing a boosted protease inhibitor given with either N(t)RTIs or raltegravir.

    METHODS: Of the 37 sites that participated in the randomised, open-label, non-inferiority SECOND-LINE study, eight sites from five countries (Argentina, India, Malaysia, South Africa, and Thailand) participated in the body composition substudy. All sites had a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner and all participants enrolled in SECOND-LINE were eligible for inclusion in the substudy. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), via a computer-generated allocation schedule, to receive either ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus raltegravir (raltegravir group) or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus two or three N(t)RTIs (N[t]RTI group). Randomisation was stratified by site and screening HIV-1 RNA. Participants and investigators were not masked to group assignment, but allocation was concealed until after interventions were assigned. DXA scans were done at weeks 0, 48, and 96. The primary endpoint was mean percentage and absolute change in peripheral limb fat from baseline to week 96. We did intention-to-treat analyses of available data. This substudy is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01513122.

    FINDINGS: Between Aug 1, 2010, and July 10, 2011, we recruited 211 participants into the substudy. The intention-to-treat population comprised 102 participants in the N(t)RTI group and 108 participants in the raltegravir group, of whom 91 and 105 participants, respectively, reached 96 weeks. Mean percentage change in limb fat from baseline to week 96 was 16·8% (SD 32·6) in the N(t)RTI group and 28·0% (37·6) in the raltegravir group (mean difference 10·2%, 95% CI 0·1-20·4; p=0·048). Mean absolute change was 1·04 kg (SD 2·29) in the N(t)RTI group and 1·81 kg (2·50) in the raltegravir group (mean difference 0·6, 95% CI -0·1 to 1·3; p=0·10).

    INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that for people with virological failure of a first-line regimen containing efavirenz plus tenofovir and lamivudine or emtricitabine, the WHO-recommended switch to a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor plus zidovudine (a thymidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) and lamivudine might come at the cost of peripheral lipoatrophy. Further study could help to define specific groups of people who might benefit from a switch to an N(t)RTI-sparing second-line ART regimen.

    FUNDING: The Kirby Institute and the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  2. Guan R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:52-6.
    PMID: 16108174
    In the Asia Pacific region Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is often acquired in individuals already infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The immune suppression caused by HIV infection reduces cellular immune response against HBV and liver inflammation may improve, but the risk of developing cirrhosis is not. HBV infection does not affect the progression of HIV disease. Anti-retroviral agents may be directly hepatotoxic and cause ALT elevations in patients with chronic hepatitis. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) improves immunity and as cytotoxic lymphocyte responses improve, hepatitis flares can occur, usually r within 3 months of initiation of HAART. These hepatitis flares may be followed by normalization of ALT and clearance of HBVDNA. If lamivudine is included in the HAART regime, hepatitis flares may not occur till late and these late flares signal the development of lamivudine resistant HBV strains (90% of HBV/HIV co-infection). Treatment options for chronic HBV infection include interferon (IFN), and nucleoside analogues. Lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) are nucleoside analogues with activity against both HBVDNA polymerase and HIV reverse transcriptase. The latter two compounds have added activity against lamivudine resistant HBVDNA. Lamivudine should be avoided in the initial treatment of both hepatitis B as well as HIV because of the high incidence of resistance. Interferon should be considered first for treatment of HBV in HIV co-infected individuals and is usually unsuccessful in the later stages of HIV infection when immune suppression is extreme. As new and improved agents in HAART continue to prolong survival, the use of liver transplantation for cirrhotic patients co-infected with HIV and HBV may increase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  3. Lau GK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:57-62.
    PMID: 16108175
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  4. Gane E
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:88-9.
    PMID: 16108183
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
  5. Leung N
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:22-7.
    PMID: 16108169
    Nucleot(s)ide analogues are making milestones in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) as safe oral therapy. FDA approved lamivudine in adult patients in 1998, adefovir dipivoxil in 2002, and entecavir in March 2005. Lamivudine is effective in viral suppression, ALT normalization, and improvement in histology in both HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative / HBV DNA positive patients. HBeAg seroconversion rates correlate directly with pretreatment ALT levels at 18-30% after one year of therapy. Hepatitis flares may occur if lamivudine is stopped before HBeAg seroconversion. Lamivudine resistant YMDD mutants emerge at a rate of 15-20% per year of therapy; often associated with the rebound viraemia, relapse of hepatitis or even hepatic decompensation. Durability of response off lamivudine therapy is not satisfactory and may be dependent on duration of therapy post-seroconversion. Lamivudine is well tolerated with few serious adverse events, even in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Long term therapy in viraemic patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis delays clinical progression. Adefovir dipivoxil is an oral prodrug of adefovir. 10 mg daily is effective in suppressing both wild-type HBV and YMDD mutants, normalising ALT and improving histology. Adefovir dipivoxil has been shown to be well tolerated in longterm therapy. Renal toxicity reported in higher dosages is rarely seen except among patients with creatinine clearance less than 50 ml/min. Adefovir resistance may emerge and the overall rate is much lower than lamivudine, reaching 18% after 4 years of therapy. Adefovir-resistant mutants (rt N236T) are susceptible to lamivudine and entecavir. Little data is available for durability of response off therapy. Entecavir is an oral nucleoside analogue with a recommended dosage of 0.5 mg daily for nucleoside-naive patients, and 1 mg daily for lamivudine-refractory patients. It is a potent antiviral and may also reduced intrahepatitic cccDNA. Entecavir resistance so far has only been detected in lamivudine resistant patients in the one-year studies. Patient counseling is very important to decide on the choice among available therapeutic options. The assessment of the risks/benefits of each option should be carefully explained to individual patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  6. Boettiger DC, Sudjaritruk T, Nallusamy R, Lumbiganon P, Rungmaitree S, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    J Adolesc Health, 2016 Apr;58(4):451-459.
    PMID: 26803201 DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.11.006
    PURPOSE: About a third of untreated, perinatally HIV-infected children reach adolescence. We evaluated the durability and effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in this population.

    METHODS: Data from perinatally HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve patients initiated on NNRTI-based ART aged 10-19 years who had ≥6 months of follow-up were analyzed. Competing risk regression was used to assess predictors of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure (World Health Organization Stage 3/4 event or death). Viral suppression was defined as a viral load <400 copies/mL.

    RESULTS: Data from 534 adolescents met our inclusion criteria (56.2% female; median age at treatment initiation 11.8 years). After 5 years of treatment, median height-for-age z score increased from -2.3 to -1.6, and median CD4+ cell count increased from 131 to 580 cells/mm(3). The proportion of patients with viral suppression after 6 months was 87.6% and remained >80% up to 5 years of follow-up. NNRTI substitution and clinical failure occurred at rates of 4.9 and 1.4 events per 100 patient-years, respectively. Not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation was associated with NNRTI substitution (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5 vs. using; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-2.2; p = .05). Baseline CD4+ count ≤200 cells/mm(3) (HR, 3.3 vs. >200; 95% CI = 1.2-8.9; p = .02) and not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation (HR, 2.1 vs. using; 95% CI = 1.0-4.6; p = .05) were both associated with clinical failure.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite late ART initiation, adolescents achieved good rates of catch-up growth, CD4+ count recovery, and virological suppression. Earlier ART initiation and routine cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in this population may help to reduce current rates of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  7. Boettiger DC, Kerr S, Ditangco R, Merati TP, Pham TT, Chaiwarith R, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(9):e106525.
    PMID: 25184314 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106525
    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has evolved rapidly since its beginnings. This analysis describes trends in first-line ART use in Asia and their impact on treatment outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  8. Hanna L
    BETA, 1999 Apr;12(2):8-9.
    PMID: 11366704
    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
  9. Cain LE, Phillips A, Lodi S, Sabin C, Bansi L, Justice A, et al.
    AIDS, 2012 Aug 24;26(13):1691-705.
    PMID: 22546987
    OBJECTIVE: To compare regimens consisting of either efavirenz or nevirapine and two or more nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) among HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive, and AIDS-free individuals with respect to clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes.

    DESIGN: Prospective studies of HIV-infected individuals in Europe and the US included in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration.

    METHODS: Antiretroviral therapy-naive and AIDS-free individuals were followed from the time they started an NRTI, efavirenz or nevirapine, classified as following one or both types of regimens at baseline, and censored when they started an ineligible drug or at 6 months if their regimen was not yet complete. We estimated the 'intention-to-treat' effect for nevirapine versus efavirenz regimens on clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes. Our models included baseline covariates and adjusted for potential bias introduced by censoring via inverse probability weighting.

    RESULTS: A total of 15 336 individuals initiated an efavirenz regimen (274 deaths, 774 AIDS-defining illnesses) and 8129 individuals initiated a nevirapine regimen (203 deaths, 441 AIDS-defining illnesses). The intention-to-treat hazard ratios [95% confidence interval (CI)] for nevirapine versus efavirenz regimens were 1.59 (1.27, 1.98) for death and 1.28 (1.09, 1.50) for AIDS-defining illness. Individuals on nevirapine regimens experienced a smaller 12-month increase in CD4 cell count by 11.49 cells/μl and were 52% more likely to have virologic failure at 12 months as those on efavirenz regimens.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our intention-to-treat estimates are consistent with a lower mortality, a lower incidence of AIDS-defining illness, a larger 12-month increase in CD4 cell count, and a smaller risk of virologic failure at 12 months for efavirenz compared with nevirapine.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use*
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