Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 108 in total

  1. Grismer LL, Wood PL, Quah ES, Anuar S, Ngadi E, Ahmad N
    Zootaxa, 2015 Jul 10;3985(2):203-218.
    PMID: 26250030 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3985.2.2
    A new, diminutive species of Rock Gecko Cnemaspis mahsuriae sp. nov. of the affinis group, is described from Gunung Raya on Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia and is differentiated from all other species in the affinis group by having a unique combination of characters including a maximum SVL of 36.6 mm; keeled subtibials and ventrals; 21-24 paravertebral tubercles; no tubercles in the lateral caudal furrows; caudal tubercles not encircling tail; no precloacal pores; 23-26 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; no white ocelli in the shoulder region; no yellow postscapular band; and faint yellow bars on the flanks. Cnemaspis mahsuriae sp. nov. is a forest-dwelling species living in close sympatry or paraptry with the insular endemic C. roticanai Grismer & Chan. The Langkawi Archipelago harbors a unique mix of Malaysian and Indochinese taxa and the frequency of new discoveries from this group of islands is increasing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder
  2. Grismer LL, Wood PL, Anuar S, Riyanto A, Ahmad N, Muin MA, et al.
    Zootaxa, 2014;3880:1-147.
    PMID: 25544645 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3880.1.1
    A well-supported and well-resolved phylogeny based on a concatenated data set from one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes, six morphological characters, and nine color pattern characters for 44 of the 50 species of the Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) is consistent with the previous taxonomy of Cnemaspis based solely on morphology and color pattern. Cnemaspis is partitioned into four major clades that collectively contain six species groups. The monophyly of all clades and species groups is strongly supported and they are parapatrically distributed across well-established, biogeographical regions ranging from southern Vietnam westward through southern Indochina, southward through the Thai-Malay Peninsula, then eastward to Borneo. Eight new species (Cnemaspis omari sp. nov. from the Thai-Malaysian border; C. temiah sp. nov. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia; C. stongensis sp. nov. from Gunung Stong, Kelantan, Malaysia; C. hangus sp. nov. from Bukit Hangus, Pahang, Malaysia; C. sundagekko sp. nov. from Pulau Siantan, Indonesia; C. peninsularis sp. nov. from southern Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, and C. mumpuniae sp. nov. and C. sundainsula sp. nov. from Pulau Natuna Besar, Indonesia) are described based on morphology and color pattern and all but C. sundagekko sp. nov. are included in the phylogenetic analyses. Cnemaspis kendallii is polyphyletic and a composite of six species. An updated taxonomy consistent with the phylogeny is proposed for all 50 species and is based on 25 morphological and 53 color pattern characters scored across 594 specimens. Cladogenetic events and biogeographical relationships within Cnemaspis were likely influenced by this group's low vagility and the cyclical patterns of geographical and environmental changes in Sundaland over the last 25 million years and especially within the last 2.5 million years. The phylogeny indicates that nocturnality, diurnality, substrate preferences, and the presence of ocelli in the shoulder regions have evolved independently multiple times. 
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder
  3. Rahman MN, Rani MR, Rohani JM
    Work, 2012;43(4):507-14.
    PMID: 22927603 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-2012-1404
    The aim of this study was to investigate the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among workers in wall plastering jobs within the construction industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder Pain/complications
  4. Rusli R, Haque MM, Saifuzzaman M, King M
    Traffic Inj Prev, 2018;19(7):741-748.
    PMID: 29932734 DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2018.1482537
    OBJECTIVE: Traffic crashes along mountainous highways may lead to injuries and fatalities more often than along highways on plain topography; however, research focusing on the injury outcome of such crashes is relatively scant. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the likelihood that traffic crashes along rural mountainous highways result in injuries.

    METHOD: This study proposes a combination of decision tree and logistic regression techniques to model crash severity (injury vs. noninjury), because the combined approach allows the specification of nonlinearities and interactions in addition to main effects. Both a scobit model and a random parameters logit model, respectively accounting for an imbalance response variable and unobserved heterogeneities, are tested and compared. The study data set contains a total of 5 years of crash data (2008-2012) on selected mountainous highways in Malaysia. To enrich the data quality, an extensive field survey was conducted to collect detailed information on horizontal alignment, longitudinal grades, cross-section elements, and roadside features. In addition, weather condition data from the meteorology department were merged using the time stamp and proximity measures in AutoCAD-Geolocation.

    RESULTS: The random parameters logit model is found to outperform both the standard logit and scobit models, suggesting the importance of accounting for unobserved heterogeneity in crash severity models. Results suggest that proportion of segment lengths with simple curves, presence of horizontal curves along steep gradients, highway segments with unsealed shoulders, and highway segments with cliffs along both sides are positively associated with injury-producing crashes along rural mountainous highways. Interestingly, crashes during rainy conditions are associated with crashes that are less likely to involve injury. It is also found that the likelihood of injury-producing crashes decreases for rear-end collisions but increases for head-on collisions and crashes involving heavy vehicles. A higher order interaction suggests that single-vehicle crashes involving light and medium-sized vehicles are less severe along straight sections compared to road sections with horizontal curves. One the other hand, crash severity is higher when heavy vehicles are involved in crashes as single vehicles traveling along straight segments of rural mountainous highways.

    CONCLUSION: In addition to unobserved heterogeneity, it is important to account for higher order interactions to have a better understanding of factors that influence crash severity. A proper understanding of these factors will help develop targeted countermeasures to improve road safety along rural mountainous highways.

    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder
  5. Ho PF, Kam YH, Wee MC, Chong YN, Por LY
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:838623.
    PMID: 24991649 DOI: 10.1155/2014/838623
    Traditionally, picture-based password systems employ password objects (pictures/icons/symbols) as input during an authentication session, thus making them vulnerable to "shoulder-surfing" attack because the visual interface by function is easily observed by others. Recent software-based approaches attempt to minimize this threat by requiring users to enter their passwords indirectly by performing certain mental tasks to derive the indirect password, thus concealing the user's actual password. However, weaknesses in the positioning of distracter and password objects introduce usability and security issues. In this paper, a new method, which conceals information about the password objects as much as possible, is proposed. Besides concealing the password objects and the number of password objects, the proposed method allows both password and distracter objects to be used as the challenge set's input. The correctly entered password appears to be random and can only be derived with the knowledge of the full set of password objects. Therefore, it would be difficult for a shoulder-surfing adversary to identify the user's actual password. Simulation results indicate that the correct input object and its location are random for each challenge set, thus preventing frequency of occurrence analysis attack. User study results show that the proposed method is able to prevent shoulder-surfing attack.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder
  6. Kuan YC, Tan F
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):231-3.
    PMID: 25934952 MyJurnal
    We describe the clinical presentation, investigation and management of an eventually fatal case of hypercalcemic crisis due to primary hyperparathyridism (PHPT). A 60 year-old lady with history of urolithiasis presented with worsening generalized bone pain, spinal scoliosis and a limp. Laboratory data showed hypercalcemia and raised alkaline phosphatase. Left hip x-ray revealed a subcapital femoral neck fracture. Intact parathyroid hormone was elevated, 187.6 pmol/L (1.6 – 6.9) and ultrasound showed an enlarged right parathyroid gland. Despite initial reduction of serum calcium with saline infusion and multiple doses of intravenous pamidronate, her calcium increased to 4.14 mmol/L a week following application of Buck’s traction for persistent left hip pain. She succumbed eventually with serum calcium peaking at 6.28 mmol/L despite multiple therapeutic interventions.
    KEY WORDS: Primary hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemic crisis, pathological fracture, urolithiasis
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder
  7. Lim PJ, Peh WC
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Oct;69(5):231-3.
    PMID: 25638239
    The scapula is a flat, triangular bone overlying the posterior chest wall and forming the posterior aspect of the shoulder girdle. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous description of a notch of the medial aspect of the superior border of the scapula in the literature. The imaging findings of a supero-medial scapula border notch mimicking a bone tumour are presented in this case report.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder
  8. Tan GJS, Tan AGS, Peh WCG
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Jun;63(2):164-5.
    PMID: 18942311
    A 74-year-old woman was incidentally found to have a left breast mass. The mass could not be adequately compressed to be visualized on mammography. Ultrasonography showed a heavily-calcified rounded mass in the left axillary tail of the left breast. Chest radiograph confirmed that the mass was a migrated humeral head. Remotely-displaced fracture-dislocations of the humeral head are very rare and to our knowledge, displacement into the breast, clinically mimicking a breast mass, has not been previously described.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder Dislocation/complications*; Shoulder Fractures/complications*
  9. Wong ELW, Kwan MK, Loh WYC, Ahmad TS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl C:72-7.
    PMID: 16381288
    Shoulder arthrodesis is a secondary reconstructive option for patients with brachial plexus injuries requiring a stable shoulder. This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of shoulder fusion in six patients with flail upper limbs following complete brachial plexus injuries. The shoulder was fused in 30 degrees abduction, 30 degrees internal rotation and 30 degrees flexion via a direct lateral approach by using a 4.5 mm reconstruction plate without bone grafting. The average follow-up was 10.3 months. Radiological union was obtained in all patients. Five patients (83%) had relief of pain after the shoulder fusion. Improvement of function was observed in all patients with a mean improvement of 56.6 degrees (range 30 degrees-75 degrees) and 47.5 degrees (range 30 degrees-60 degrees) active flexion and abduction respectively. One patient developed humeral fracture distal to the plate and the fracture eventually healed with a splint. Successful stable fusion of the shoulder in patients with brachial plexus injuries requires rigid fixation with a single 4.5 mm reconstruction plate, protection of bone healing with a triangular abduction brace for 12 weeks and functional trapezius, levator scapulae, serratus anterior and rhomboid muscles for optimizing the functional result.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder Joint/surgery*
  10. Hazmy CHW, Parwathi A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl C:22-5.
    PMID: 16381278
    This retrospective study was conducted in a state hospital set-up and aimed at identifying the incidence of sports-related shoulder dislocations and their characteristics and the sports events involved. All patients with shoulder dislocation related to sporting activities admitted to the hospital from January 1999 to December 2002 were included in the study. There were 18 sports-related shoulder dislocations out of 106 all shoulder dislocations admitted during this 4-year period. The average age of the patients was 25.4 years. All but two were male. All were anterior dislocations. Recurrent dislocation constitutes 78% of the cases with an average of 3 times re-dislocation. Rugby and badminton were the major contributors to the injuries followed by volleyball, soccer and swimming. Conservative treatment was successfully instituted for 88% of the patients and 12% opted for surgical intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder Dislocation/etiology; Shoulder Dislocation/epidemiology*; Shoulder Dislocation/therapy
  11. Hazmy CHW, Parwathi A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl C:17-21.
    PMID: 16381277
    This retrospective study was conducted in a state hospital set-up and aimed at identifying the magnitude of shoulder dislocations and their demographic data, characteristics of the injury, mechanism and predisposing factors, and the instituted treatment. Patients with radiographic evidence of shoulder dislocation admitted to the hospital from January 1999 to December 2002 were included. Data were recorded from the case notes. There were 105 shoulder dislocations with male predomination in 77% cases and age ranged between 11 and 90 years (average 30.9 years). The right shoulder was affected in 68% of the cases. The contributing events were fall in 37% of cases, road traffic accident 23%, sports 17% and pathological conditions 13%. Anterior dislocation occurred in 96.2% of the cases. Posterior and inferior dislocations encountered in two patients for each type. Twelve dislocations were associated fracture of the greater tuberosity, two each with humeral neck fracture and cerebral injuries. First time dislocation occurred in 73.6% of the cases. The recurrences ranged between 2 to 6 times (average 3.4 times). Closed manipulative reduction and strapping was the definitive treatment in 92.4% of the cases and the remaining needed surgical reconstruction. Four patients had open reduction and internal fixation of the associated fractures while another four had arthroscopic Bankart's repair. In conclusion, shoulder dislocation represents the most common shoulder problems. It afflicted young adults of reproductive age (21-40 years) and participation in sports was a risk factor in men. Women over 40 years and fall were at risk to develop shoulder dislocation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder Dislocation/etiology; Shoulder Dislocation/epidemiology*; Shoulder Dislocation/therapy
  12. Lee DJK, Yeap JS, Fazir M, Muhd Borhan TA, Kareem BA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Mar;60(1):15-20.
    PMID: 16250275
    The radiographs of 115 anterior shoulder dislocations (100 patients; 74 males, 26 female were reviewed to assess the radiographic views used in the management of this dislocation. Eighty-eight patients (88%) had only the anteroposterior (AP) view, 10 patients had 2 radiographic views taken and only 2 patients had three radiographic views. Hill-Sachs lesions were found in 18%, and glenoid rim fractures in 3% of the patients. A greater tuberosity fracture was found in 18% of the patients. Therefore, the current practice in the management of an acute anterior shoulder dislocation appears to be to perform a single view (AP) pre-reduction radiograph to confirm the diagnosis and a single view (AP) post reduction radiograph to confirm reduction after a close manipulative reduction has been performed. This practice is likely to result in an underestimate of associated Hill Sachs lesion and glenoid rim fractures, but not greater tuberosity fractures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder Dislocation/epidemiology; Shoulder Dislocation/radiography*
  13. Widiastuti-Samekto M, Sianturi GP
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 Aug;59(3):312-6.
    PMID: 15727375
    Twenty-six patients with frozen shoulder syndrome (Stage 2 and 3) were included in this study conducted at Dr. Kariadi General Hospital, Semarang, Indonesia and randomly allocated into 2 groups: 40 mg triamcinolone intra-articular injection and triamcinolone oral tablets. The result showed that triamcinolone intra-articular injection group "cured" rate was 5.8 times higher at week one compared to the triamcinolone tablet group. Sixty-two percent of the cases with triamcinolone intra-articular injection achieved their "cured" condition after one week of therapy, compared with only 14% of the triamcinolone tablets group. We conclude that, intra-articular corticosteroid injection provide faster improvement compared to oral route.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder Joint/pathology*; Shoulder Pain/drug therapy; Shoulder Pain/etiology
  14. Yeap JS, Lee DJK, Fazir M, Borhan TAM, Kareem BA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 Dec;59 Suppl F:19-23.
    PMID: 15941156 MyJurnal
    The case notes of 102 patients (117 shoulder dislocations) were reviewed retrospectively to improve the understanding of the epidemiology of this common injury. Eighty-one dislocations were primary and 36 dislocations were second or recurrent dislocations. The age distribution was characterized by a peak in male patients aged between 21-30 years. The mean age for males was 30.5 years and 47.7 years for females. The male:female ratio in first time dislocations was 5:2, while it was 5:1 in recurrent dislocations. Ninety-eight percent were anterior dislocations and 2% were posterior dislocations. Greater tuberosity fractures were found in 17 patients and almost half of these patients were aged between 41-50 years. The most common cause of first time dislocation was a direct blow or fall onto the shoulder, accounting for 42 patients (55%). The majority of these patients were aged 40 years and above. Next common cause was motor vehicle accident which occurred mostly in the younger age group. Dislocations due to sporting injuries accounted for only 5.3% of all first time dislocations. Nearly 97% were successfully reduced without a general anaesthesia. Seventy-seven percent of the patients had their shoulders immobilized after reduction, mostly with body strapping only. Fifteen patients (14.7%) were referred for physiotherapy for stiffness. Few operations were performed for recurrent dislocations but surgery does not appear to be well accepted as yet by our patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder Dislocation/etiology; Shoulder Dislocation/epidemiology*
  15. Yeap JS, Lee DJK, Fazir M, Kareem BA, Yeap JK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 Oct;59(4):450-4.
    PMID: 15779576
    A retrospective study was conducted to determine the incidence of nerve injuries in anterior dislocations of the shoulder and to determine if a neurological examination is routinely performed in such cases. One hundred and fifteen shoulder dislocations in 100 patients (74 males, 26 females; mean age 35+/-18 years) were reviewed. Eighty-seven patients were examined for neurological injuries prior to reduction and 8 of these patients (9.2%) were found to have sustained neurological injuries. Following reduction, neurological examination was performed in 85 patients. Three patients who were not examined initially prior to reduction were subsequently found to have nerve injuries after reduction. Seven patients (7%) were not examined for neurological injury both before and after reduction of the dislocation. Eleven patients were found to have sustained nerve injuries in the final analysis. Axillary nerve injuries were the most common, occurring in 8 patients. In conclusion, nerve injuries are common in shoulder dislocations. The importance of performing and documenting the findings of neurological examination anterior shoulder dislocations needs to be reiterated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder Dislocation/complications*
  16. Loh YC, Trail IA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2002 Jun;57(2):205-8.
    PMID: 24326652
    Fourteen fit and healthy patients underwent arthroscopic subacromial decompression (ASD) of shoulder for rotator cuff impingement. Their blood chemistry was analysed pre-operatively, 24 hours post-operatively and 2-3 weeks post-operatively. Levels of haematocrit, sodium, potassium, creatinine and urea were measured. The blood chemistry returned almost to the pre-operative level at 2-3 weeks post-operatively. There was no statistically significant differences found. This study concludes that arthroscopic subacromial decompression is a safe technique when considering the blood parameters despite the haemodilution seen in all patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder*; Shoulder Impingement Syndrome*
  17. Razif MAM, Rajasingam V
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2002 Dec;57(4):496-8.
    PMID: 12733178
    We report a rare case of left axillary artery injury associated with anterior dislocation of the left shoulder in a 25 yrs old male as a result of a road traffic accident. The shoulder dislocation was reduced. A left upper limb angiogram showed an obstructed left axillary artery. The obstructed segment was surgically reconstructed with a Dacron graft. Six months post operation in follow up, he was found to have good left shoulder function and no neurovascular deficit. This is an injury that could have been easily missed without a simple clinical examination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder Dislocation/complications*; Shoulder Dislocation/diagnosis*; Shoulder Dislocation/surgery
  18. Yeap JS, Noor Zehan AR, Ezlan S, Borhan Tan A, Harwant S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2001 Jun;56 Suppl C:13-8.
    PMID: 11814242
    The functional outcome of 27 patients (16 males, 11 females) with a proximal humeral fracture was evaluated using the Simple Shoulder Test. Fifteen patients were also assessed using the Constant system. The mean age of the patients was 46.3 years (range 16-90 years) and the mean follow-up was 14 months (range 6-29 months). There were ten 2-part fractures, eight minimally displaced fractures, two 3-part fractures, three 4-part fractures, three 1-part fracture-dislocations and one 3 parts fracture-dislocation. Twenty-four fractures were treated conservatively and 3 surgically. Thirteen patients (48%) regained full function on the simple shoulder test and almost all regained range of movement sufficient for activities of daily living. Six patients were not able to return to their previous job. All patients were pain free at rest and were able to sleep on the affected side comfortably, although 9 patients had pain with activity, even though most pain were mild in nature. The mean Constant scores for the fractured arm and the normal arm were 72.5 points and 91 points respectively. The strength of shoulder abduction was reduced by a mean of 34%. Although the outcome was generally satisfactory, there was nevertheless a statistically significant deterioration of function following the fracture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder Fractures/therapy*
  19. Lui SK, Koh MM
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2019 Aug;74(4):333-334.
    PMID: 31424044
    Although post-stroke shoulder pain is a common medical complication among the stroke population, pseudotumor deltoideus which is non-malignant is rarely seen. This case report demonstrates a thorough history, physical examination followed by the relevant investigations are essential when managing a common post-stroke complication. We postulate that pseudotumor deltoideus is likely a pre-existing asymptomatic variant in our patient before the stroke and has presented symptomatically after the stroke due to the associated neurological and musculoskeletal impairments. As post-stroke shoulder pain is associated with unfavourable outcomes, it is important to recognise the underlying causes of post-stroke shoulder pain early and institute prompt appropriate treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder; Shoulder Pain
  20. Chew KK
    Med J Malaya, 1968 Mar;22(3):190-4.
    PMID: 4234354
    Matched MeSH terms: Shoulder/physiopathology
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