METHOD: Patient records from a single surgery centre were searched for all patients presenting with late fracture complication following arthroscopically assisted acromioclavicular stabilization. Medical reports including the operative notes and pre- and post-operative X-rays were reviewed. A telephone interview was conducted with each patient to access the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder score.
RESULTS: A total of four patients presented with late fracture complication following arthroscopic-assisted ACJ stabilization surgery. All patients were males and presented following trauma at a median duration of 19.5 months after the index surgery. Fracture morphology differed between patients; the treatment was conservative in three patients, while one patient underwent osteosynthesis.
CONCLUSION: Traumatic peri-implant fractures can occur, even 2 years after arthroscopically assisted ACJ reconstruction. This needs to be considered when planning for surgical intervention in acute ACJ disruption, especially in a high-risk population.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, Level IV.
OBJECTIVE: This article provides the reader with an understanding of the natural history, pathophysiology, phases and clinical features of idiopathic frozen shoulder. It also outlines patients at risk of developing idiopathic frozen shoulder and addresses an evidence-based conservative approach to the management of this condition.
DISCUSSION: The primary care physician plays a pivotal part in the identification and management of idiopathic frozen shoulder, with the vast majority of patients responding to conservative management. A shared care approach with a skilled physiotherapist is essential.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all RSAs performed in 7 centers from 1998 to 2010. The inclusion criteria were primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis with B1, B2, B3, or C glenoid. Forty-nine shoulders in 45 patients fulfilled the criteria. Bone grafting was performed in 16 cases. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with the Constant score (CS) and shoulder range of motion.
RESULTS: The mean total CS increased from 30 preoperatively to 68 points (P < .001) with significant improvements in all the subsections of the CS and range of motion. Scapular notching was observed in 20 shoulders (43%), grade 1 in 5 (11%), grade 2 in 7 (15%), grade 3 in 5 (11%), and grade 4 in 3 (6%). The glenoid bone graft healed in all the shoulders. Partial inferior lysis of the bone graft was present in 8 cases (50%). Scapular notching and glenoid bone graft resorption had no influence on the CS (P = .147 and P = .798).
CONCLUSION: RSA for the treatment of primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis in patients with posterior glenoid deficiency and humeral subluxation without rotator cuff insufficiency resulted in excellent clinical outcomes at a minimum of 5 years of follow-up.
OBJECTIVE: This study looked into whether crossbar can reliably measure Upper Instrumend Vertebra (UIV) tilt angle intraoperatively and accurately predict the UIV tilt angle postoperatively and at final follow-up.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Postoperative shoulder imbalance is a common cause of poor cosmetic appearance leading to patient dissatisfaction. There were no reports describing the technique or method in measuring the UIV tilt angle intraoperatively. Therefore, this study was designed to look into the reliability and accuracy of the usage of intraoperative crossbar in measuring the UIV tilt angle intraoperatively.
METHODS: Lenke 1 and 2 Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis patients who underwent instrumented Posterior Spinal Fusion using pedicle screw constructs with minimum follow-up of 24 months were recruited for this study. After surgical correction, intraoperative UIV tilt angle was measured using a crossbar. Immediate postoperative and final follow up UIV tilt angle was measured on the standing anteroposterior radiographs.
RESULTS: A total of 100 patients were included into this study. The reliability of the intraoperative crossbar to measure the optimal UIV tilt angle intraoperatively was determined by repeated measurements by assessors and measurement by different assessors. We found that the intra observer and inter observer reliability was very good with intraclass correlation coefficient values of >0.9. The accuracy of the intraoperative crossbar to measure the optimal UIV tilt angle intraoperatively was determined by comparing this measurement with the postoperative UIV tilt angle. We found that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between intraoperative, immediate postoperative, and follow-up UIV tilt angle.
CONCLUSIONS: The crossbar can be used to measure the intraoperative UIV tilt angle consistently and was able to predict the postoperative UIV tilt angle. It was a cheap, simple, reliable, and accurate instrument to measure the intraoperative UIV tilt angle.
Methods: Nineteen young state-level weightlifters performed concentric strength tests of the upper limbs using an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque/body weight was measured for each weightlifter in dominant and non-dominant limbs.
Results: Peak torque/body weight was significantly different in external rotation (p 0.05). Time to peak torque in external rotation was less in the dominant than in the non-dominant limb. However, opposite results were obtained in external rotation, whereby time to peak torque was longer in the dominant limb compared to the non-dominant limb. Similarly, no significant difference was found between dominant and non-dominant limbs in terms of average power (p > 0.05).
Conclusions: The findings of this study may help in establishing potential imbalance in variables of muscular contractions between dominant and non-dominant limbs of weightlifters. This may help to maximise performance and minimise potential shoulder injury.
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to assess the conformity of the radiological neck and shoulder balance parameters throughout a follow-up period of more than 2 years.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Postoperative shoulder and neck imbalance are undesirable features among Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) patients who underwent Posterior Spinal Fusion (PSF). There are many clinical and radiological parameters used to assess this clinical outcome. However, we do not know whether these radiological parameters conform throughout the entire follow-up period.
METHODS: This was a retrospective study done in a single academic institution. Inclusion criteria were patients with scoliosis who underwent posterior instrumented spinal fusion with pedicle screw fixation and attended all scheduled follow-ups for at least 24 months postoperatively. Radiological shoulder parameters were measured from both preoperative antero-posterior (AP) and postoperative AP radiographs. Lateral shoulder parameters were: Radiographic Shoulder Height (RSH), Clavicle angle (Cla-A), Clavicle-Rib Intersection Difference (CRID) and Coracoid Height Difference (CHD). Medial shoulder and neck parameters were: T1 tilt and Cervical Axis (CA).
RESULTS: The radiographs of 50 patients who had surgery done from November 2013 to November 2015 were analyzed. Mean age of this cohort was 16.3 ± 7.0 years. There were 38 (76%) female patients and 12 (24%) male patients. Mean final follow-up was 38.6 ± 5.8 months. When conformity assessment of the radiological parameter using the interclass coefficient correlation (ICC) was done, we found that all parameters had significant correlation (p shoulder and neck balance parameters studied were conformed and suitable to be used to assess the patient postoperatively. Amongst these radiological parameters, T1 tilt followed by CA recorded to be the most reliable parameters over time.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.
METHOD: This study utilized a quantitative, nonexperimental, cross-sectional research design. A total of 60 subjects were randomly selected after passing the study's sampling criteria. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was to used to determine common MSDs affecting the various regions in the body. The Demographic Pofile Sheet was provided to gather a subject's demographic characteristics.
RESULTS: Filipino migrant workers mostly complain of pain in the low back area (60%) and shoulder pain (60%), followed by pain in the upper back (48.3%) and neck pain (45%) in the last 12 months. Household workers accounting for 73.3% of the subjects commonly complain of pain in the hips/thighs (78.9%), while workers in the service industry commonly complain of knee pain (39.1%).
CONCLUSIONS: Results imply that Filipino migrant workers have a higher prevalence of shoulder and lower back pain in the last 12 months. Household workers are more susceptible to hip/thigh pain. Interventions focusing on ergonomics policy implementation, education on posture and lifting techniques and physical function is recommended. Further studies should consider the psychological and psychosocial aspects of migrant employment, which are known risk factors for MSDs.
Methods: This is a retrospective cohort review of data obtained from the Malaysian National Obstetrics and Gynaecology Registry between the year 2010 and year 2012. All women in their first pregnancy with a booking BMI in their first trimester were included in this study. The association between BMI classifications as defined by the WHO cut-offs and the potential public health action points identified by WHO expert consultations towards adverse obstetric outcomes was compared.
Results: A total of 88,837 pregnant women were included in this study. We noted that the risk of adverse obstetric outcomes was significantly higher using the public health action points identified by WHO expert consultations even among the overweight group as the risk of stillbirths was (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.0,1.4), shoulder dystocia (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.2,2.9), foetal macrosomia (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.6,2.0), caesarean section (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.8,2.0) and assisted conception (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.6,2.1).
Conclusion: A specifically lower BMI references based on the potential public health action points for BMI classifications were a more sensitive predictor of adverse obstetric outcomes, and we recommend the use of these references in pregnancy especially among Asian population.
Methods: A three-unit bridge master model was fabricated using cold-cure acrylic resin. Four combinations of different viscosities of PVS impression materials - regular body (monophase) alone, light body with regular body, light body with heavy body, and light body with putty - were used to make an impression of the master model. Ten impressions from each group were taken and Type IV gypsum stone was used to generate the dies. The dies were measured at the inter-abutment distance, occlusogingival length, and shoulder width with a measuring microscope and were compared with the master model using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey (honest significant difference) test.
Results: Differences were found for inter-abutment distance between the master model and the light body with regular body and light body with putty dies (both P < 0.02). A difference was found for shoulder width between the master model and the regular body alone die (P = 0.01). No differences were found for occlusogingival distance (all P > 0.08).
Conclusion: Results suggested inter-abutment distance was most accurate when using a PVS light body combination. Occlusogingival length was accurate using any of the studied PVS combinations, and shoulder width was more accurate when using the regular body PVS.
Relevance for patients: These results should be considered when choosing the viscosity of the PVS to use for producing impressions of high accuracy and fabricating a well-fitting fixed prosthesis.
METHOD: This study proposes a combination of decision tree and logistic regression techniques to model crash severity (injury vs. noninjury), because the combined approach allows the specification of nonlinearities and interactions in addition to main effects. Both a scobit model and a random parameters logit model, respectively accounting for an imbalance response variable and unobserved heterogeneities, are tested and compared. The study data set contains a total of 5 years of crash data (2008-2012) on selected mountainous highways in Malaysia. To enrich the data quality, an extensive field survey was conducted to collect detailed information on horizontal alignment, longitudinal grades, cross-section elements, and roadside features. In addition, weather condition data from the meteorology department were merged using the time stamp and proximity measures in AutoCAD-Geolocation.
RESULTS: The random parameters logit model is found to outperform both the standard logit and scobit models, suggesting the importance of accounting for unobserved heterogeneity in crash severity models. Results suggest that proportion of segment lengths with simple curves, presence of horizontal curves along steep gradients, highway segments with unsealed shoulders, and highway segments with cliffs along both sides are positively associated with injury-producing crashes along rural mountainous highways. Interestingly, crashes during rainy conditions are associated with crashes that are less likely to involve injury. It is also found that the likelihood of injury-producing crashes decreases for rear-end collisions but increases for head-on collisions and crashes involving heavy vehicles. A higher order interaction suggests that single-vehicle crashes involving light and medium-sized vehicles are less severe along straight sections compared to road sections with horizontal curves. One the other hand, crash severity is higher when heavy vehicles are involved in crashes as single vehicles traveling along straight segments of rural mountainous highways.
CONCLUSION: In addition to unobserved heterogeneity, it is important to account for higher order interactions to have a better understanding of factors that influence crash severity. A proper understanding of these factors will help develop targeted countermeasures to improve road safety along rural mountainous highways.