OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of self-reported low back pain (LBP), and neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP) among secondary school teachers; and to evaluate the association of LBP and NSP with psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among teachers in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The participants were recruited via a two stage sampling method. Information on demographic, psychological distress, work-related psychosocial factors, and musculoskeletal pain (LBP and NSP) in the past 12 months was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) for the associations between psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors with LBP and NSP.
RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported LBP and NSP among 1482 teachers in the past 12 months was 48.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 45.2%, 50.9%) and 60.1% (95% CI 57.4%, 62.9%) respectively. From the multivariate analysis, self-reported LBP was associated with teachers who reported severe to extremely severe depression (PR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.25, 2.32), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.46, 95% CI 1.22, 1.75), high psychological job demand (1.29, 95% CI 1.06, 1.57), low skill discretion (1.28, 95% CI 1.13, 1.47) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). Self-reported NSP was associated with mild to moderate anxiety (1.18, 95% CI 1.06, 1.33), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.25, 95% CI 1.09, 1.43), low supervisory support (1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.25) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99).
CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported LBP and NSP were common among secondary school teachers. Interventions targeting psychological distress and work-related psychosocial characteristics may reduce musculoskeletal pain among school teachers.
Methods: This is a retrospective cohort review of data obtained from the Malaysian National Obstetrics and Gynaecology Registry between the year 2010 and year 2012. All women in their first pregnancy with a booking BMI in their first trimester were included in this study. The association between BMI classifications as defined by the WHO cut-offs and the potential public health action points identified by WHO expert consultations towards adverse obstetric outcomes was compared.
Results: A total of 88,837 pregnant women were included in this study. We noted that the risk of adverse obstetric outcomes was significantly higher using the public health action points identified by WHO expert consultations even among the overweight group as the risk of stillbirths was (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.0,1.4), shoulder dystocia (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.2,2.9), foetal macrosomia (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.6,2.0), caesarean section (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.8,2.0) and assisted conception (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.6,2.1).
Conclusion: A specifically lower BMI references based on the potential public health action points for BMI classifications were a more sensitive predictor of adverse obstetric outcomes, and we recommend the use of these references in pregnancy especially among Asian population.
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to assess the conformity of the radiological neck and shoulder balance parameters throughout a follow-up period of more than 2 years.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Postoperative shoulder and neck imbalance are undesirable features among Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) patients who underwent Posterior Spinal Fusion (PSF). There are many clinical and radiological parameters used to assess this clinical outcome. However, we do not know whether these radiological parameters conform throughout the entire follow-up period.
METHODS: This was a retrospective study done in a single academic institution. Inclusion criteria were patients with scoliosis who underwent posterior instrumented spinal fusion with pedicle screw fixation and attended all scheduled follow-ups for at least 24 months postoperatively. Radiological shoulder parameters were measured from both preoperative antero-posterior (AP) and postoperative AP radiographs. Lateral shoulder parameters were: Radiographic Shoulder Height (RSH), Clavicle angle (Cla-A), Clavicle-Rib Intersection Difference (CRID) and Coracoid Height Difference (CHD). Medial shoulder and neck parameters were: T1 tilt and Cervical Axis (CA).
RESULTS: The radiographs of 50 patients who had surgery done from November 2013 to November 2015 were analyzed. Mean age of this cohort was 16.3 ± 7.0 years. There were 38 (76%) female patients and 12 (24%) male patients. Mean final follow-up was 38.6 ± 5.8 months. When conformity assessment of the radiological parameter using the interclass coefficient correlation (ICC) was done, we found that all parameters had significant correlation (p shoulder and neck balance parameters studied were conformed and suitable to be used to assess the patient postoperatively. Amongst these radiological parameters, T1 tilt followed by CA recorded to be the most reliable parameters over time.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.
METHODS: Seventy clavicle fractures were non-surgically treated in the Orthopedics Department at the Tuanku Ja'afar General Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Seremban, Malaysia, an average of six months after injury. The clavicle fractures were treated conservatively with an arm sling and a figure-eight splint for three weeks. No attempt was made to reduce displaced fractures, and the patients were allowed immediate free-shoulder mobilization, as tolerated. They were prospectively evaluated clinically and radiographically. Shoulder function was evaluated using the Constant scoring technique.
RESULTS: There were statistically significant functional outcome impairments in non-surgically treated clavicle fractures that correlated with the fracture type (comminution), the fracture displacement (21 mm or more), shortening (15 mm or more) and the fracture union (malunion).
CONCLUSION: This article reveals the need for surgical intervention to treat clavicle fractures and improve shoulder functional outcomes.
METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 660 public hospital nurses. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on the occurrence of WRMSDs according to body regions, socio-demographic profiles, occupational information and psychosocial risk factors. 468 questionnaires were returned (response rate of 71%), and 376 questionnaires qualified for subsequent analysis. Univariate analyses were applied to test for mean and categorical differences across the WRMSDs; multiple logistic regression was applied to predict WRMSDs based on the Job Strain Model's psychosocial risk factors.
RESULTS: Over two thirds of the sample of nurses experienced discomfort or pain in at least one site of the musculoskeletal system within the last year. The neck was the most prevalent site (48.94%), followed by the feet (47.20%), the upper back (40.69%) and the lower back (35.28%). More than 50% of the nurses complained of having discomfort in region one (neck, shoulders and upperback) and region four (hips, knees, ankles, and feet). The results also revealed that psychological job demands, job strain and iso-strain ratio demonstrated statistically significant mean differences (p shoulders and upper back) and region 4 (hips, knees, ankles, and feet). All demographic variables except for years of employment were statistically and significantly associated with WRMSDs (p