Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 203 in total

  1. Ab Ghani N
    Accidental poisoning in children is a preventable condition. It is a problem mainly in children aged 1 to 4 years. This is a descriptive study of accidental poisoning in children below 12 years old admitted to Hospital Seremban from October 15, 1994 to October 14, 1995. A major cause of household accidental poisoning was kerosene ingestion (25%) followed by ingestion of medications (22%), liniment methyl salicylate (12 %), mothballs (12%) and hypochlorinate solution (9%). There was a higher incidence of poisoning in males (50.8%), among Indians (41.2%) and in children jiom lower social classes (67%). A greater proportion of the accident occurred when the child was taken care by the parents (53 %) and in the house (80%). Most ofthe poison was ingested from its )
    original package (81%). The immediate action taken was sending the child to the hospital (75%) without carrying out other actions such as washing the child ’s mouth. The delay of sending the child to hospital was due to husband not at home (57%). Most of the cases (72.1 %) were discharged well within 1-2 days following admission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  2. Abdul Adib A, Agnis S
    Expectations and satisfactions are two different yet interrelated area. Hence, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of working parent expectation on parenting satisfaction among working parents in Sabah. In addition, this study also examines the differences of the background of respondents in terms of socio-economic status and the level of education towards parenting satisfaction in Sabah. The study employed purposive sampling survey method with questionnaire. It has been distributed to 210 working parents in various sectors around Kota Kinabalu and Beaufort, Sabah. The set of questionnaire used in this study comprising the Parent Comparison Level Index (PCLI) to measure parental expectation and the Parent Satisfaction Scale (PSS) used to measure parenting satisfaction. The data obtained were analyzed using the IBM SPSS version 23 software through simple regression test and one-way ANOVA test according to the objectives of the study. The results of the analysis showed that parental expectations were significantly and positively influencing parenting satisfaction with a contribution of 34.6 percent variance. Whilst, the difference in education level and socio-economic status of parents shows that there is no difference in parenting satisfaction. In conclusion, higher parenting expectation will lead to higher parenting satisfaction. However, parenting satisfaction is not related to the differences in educational background and socioeconomic status of the parents. The implication of this study is toward parents and the aspect involving parenting satisfaction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  3. Adnan MH
    Media Asia, 1987;14(4):194-203.
    PMID: 12281076
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  4. Afroz R, Hanaki K, Tudin R
    Environ Monit Assess, 2011 Aug;179(1-4):509-19.
    PMID: 21046234 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-010-1753-4
    Information on waste generation, socioeconomic characteristics, and willingness of the households to separate waste was obtained from interviews with 402 respondents in Dhaka city. Ordinary least square regression was used to determine the dominant factors that might influence the waste generation of the households. The results showed that the waste generation of the households in Dhaka city was significantly affected by household size, income, concern about the environment, and willingness to separate the waste. These factors are necessary to effectively improve waste management, growth and performance, as well as to reduce the environmental degradation of the household waste.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  5. Agus MR
    Warasan Prachakon Lae Sangkhom, 1990 Jan;2(2):205-21, 242-3.
    PMID: 12283536
    The focus of this study is on urbanization in Malaysia. "This paper is divided into three parts. The first part examines the trend of uneven urban development in West Malaysia. The second part discusses the change [in] ethnic composition of urban population between 1970 and 1980 intercensal period. The third part analyses the impact of the urbanization process on the Malays in the context of housing problems of the lower income groups." (SUMMARY IN THA)
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  6. Aizuddin AN, Aljunid SM
    Ann Glob Health, 2017 11 21;83(3-4):654-660.
    PMID: 29221542 DOI: 10.1016/j.aogh.2017.10.002
    BACKGROUND: Malaysia is no exception to the challenging health care financing phenomenon of globalization.

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to assess the ability to pay among Malaysian households as preparation for a future national health financing scheme.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving representative samples of 774 households in Peninsular Malaysia.

    FINDINGS: A majority of households were found to have the ability to pay for their health care. Household expenditure on health care per month was between MYR1 and MYR2000 with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) of 73.54 (142.66), or in a percentage of per-month income between 0.05% and 50% with mean (SD) 2.74 (5.20). The final analysis indicated that ability to pay was significantly higher among younger and higher-income households.

    CONCLUSIONS: Sociodemographic and socioeconomic statuses are important eligibility factors to be considered in planning the proposed national health care financing scheme to shield the needed group from catastrophic health expenditures.

    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class*
  7. Akhavan Hejazi SM, Mazlan M, Abdullah SJ, Engkasan JP
    Singapore Med J, 2015 Feb;56(2):116-9.
    PMID: 25715857
    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the direct cost of outpatient care for patients with stroke, as well as the relationship between the aforementioned cost and the sociodemographic and stroke characteristics of the patients.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients with first-ever stroke who were attending outpatient stroke rehabilitation, and their family members. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire designed to obtain information regarding the cost of outpatient care. Stroke severity was measured using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale.

    RESULTS: This study comprised 49 patients (28 men, 21 women) with a mean age of 60.2 (range 35-80) years. The mean total cost incurred was USD 547.10 (range USD 53.50-4,591.60), of which 36.6% was spent on attendant care, 25.5% on medical aids, 15.1% on travel expenses, 14.1% on medical fees and 8.5% on out-of-pocket expenses. Stroke severity, age > 70 years and haemorrhagic stroke were associated with increased cost. The mean cost of attending outpatient therapy per patient was USD 17.50 per session (range USD 6.60-30.60), with travelling expenses (41.8%) forming the bulk of the cost, followed by medical fees (38.1%) and out-of-pocket expenses (10.9%). Multiple regression analysis showed that stroke severity was the main determinant of post-stroke outpatient care cost (p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Post-stroke outpatient care costs are significantly influenced by stroke severity. The cost of attendant care was the main cost incurred during the first three months after hospital discharge, while travelling expenses was the main cost incurred when attending outpatient stroke rehabilitation therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  8. Al-Dubai SA, Ganasegeran K, Perianayagam W, Rampal KG
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:137620.
    PMID: 24367238 DOI: 10.1155/2013/137620
    This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB) among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Mean (±SD) age of the respondents was 26.5 (±1.6). The most common source of job stress was "fear of making mistakes." Most of the participants were dissatisfied with the increase of residentship period from one year to two years. A high level of EB was reported by 36.6% of the respondents. In multivariate analysis, the most important correlates of EB were sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement. A high prevalence of EB was found among medical residents. Sociodemographic characteristics, performance pressure, and satisfaction with policies were significantly associated with EB. Although this study was limited by its cross-sectional design, its findings posit a sufficient foundation to relevant authorities to construct, amend, and amalgamate existing and future policies. Nothing will sustain you more potently than the power to recognize in your humdrum routine, as perhaps it may be thought, the true poetry of life-the poetry of the common place, of the common man, of the plain, toil-worn woman, with their loves and their joys, their sorrows and their grief.SirWilliam Osler, Aphorisms from the Student Life (Aequanimitas, 1952).
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  9. Al-Mekhlafi HM, Mahdy MA, 'Azlin MY, Fatmah MS, Norhayati M
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 2011 Mar;105(2):135-43.
    PMID: 21396250 DOI: 10.1179/136485911X12899838683368
    Cryptosporidium is a coccidian parasite that is prevalent worldwide, some species of which cause morbidity in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. The prevalence and predictors of Cryptosporidium infection, and its effect on nutritional status, have recently been explored among 276 children (141 boys and 135 girls, aged 2-15 years) in aboriginal (Orang Asli) villages in the Malaysian state of Selangor. Faecal smears were examined by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique while socio-economic data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric measurements. Cryptosporidium infection, which was detected in 7.2% of the aboriginal children, was found to be significantly associated with low birthweight (≤2.5 kg), being part of a large household (with more than seven members) and prolonged breast feeding (>2 years). The output of a binary logistic regression confirmed that large household size was a significant predictor of Cryptosporidium infection (giving an odds ratio of 2.15, with a 95% confidence interval of 1.25-5.02). Cryptosporidium infection is clearly a public-health problem among the aboriginal children of Selangor, with person-to-person the most likely mode of transmission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  10. Al-Mekhlafi MS, Atiya AS, Lim YA, Mahdy AK, Ariffin WA, Abdullah HC, et al.
    PMID: 18613540
    Despite great development in socioeconomic status throughout 50 years of independence, Malaysia is still plagued with soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH). STH continue to have a significant impact on public health particularly in rural communities. In order to determine the prevalence of STH among rural Orang Asli children and to investigate the possible risk factors affecting the pattern of this prevalence, fecal samples were collected from 292 Orang Asli primary schoolchildren (145 males and 147 females) age 7-12 years, from Pos Betau, Kuala Lipis, Pahang. The samples were examined by Kato-Katz and Harada Mori techniques. Socioeconomic data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. The overall prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm infections were 67.8, 95.5 and 13.4%, respectively. Twenty-nine point eight percent of the children had heavy trichuriasis, while 22.3% had heavy ascariasis. Sixty-seven point seven percent of the children had mixed infections. Age > 10 years (p = 0.016), no toilet in the house (p = 0.012), working mother (p = 0.040), low household income (p = 0.033), and large family size (p = 0.028) were identified as risk factors for ascariasis. Logistic regression confirmed low income, no toilet in the house and working mother as significant risk factors for ascariasis. The prevalence of STH is still very high in rural Malaysian communities. STH may also contribute to other health problems such as micronutrient deficiencies, protein-energy malnutrition and poor educational achievement. Public health personnel need to reassess current control measures and identify innovative and integrated ways in order to reduce STH significantly in rural communities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  11. Al-Naggar RA, Nagi NM, Ali MM, Almuasli M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(9):2335-41.
    PMID: 22296380
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the quality of life among breast cancer patients in Yemen based on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics.

    METHODOLOGY: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. The data collected from 106 female breast cancer patients who were chosen for recruitment from the outpatient in National Oncology Centre (NOC), Sana'a, Yemen from November 2008 to June 2011. Questionnaires were distributed to the patients during their visit to the outpatient clinics in the center. The instrument of this study consists of two parts: Socio-demographic and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) questionnaire. Regarding data analysis, means and SD of subscales were evaluated for descriptive purpose. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare the three groups regarding QOL subscales. Whereas, independent t-test was performed for comparing two groups regarding QOL subscales. Multiple linear regression using backward analysis was performed to obtain the final model for each domain. The final model was chosen depending on R2 and the p value of the model. A p value less than 0.05 is considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: A total number of 106 breast cancer patients were participated in this study. The majority of them were uneducated, unemployed with normal weight and had middle income (60.4%; 95.3%; 59.4%, 46.2%; respectively). As for clinical characteristics of the study participants; the majority of them had had no family history of breast cancer, have been diagnosed at least 2 years, were diagnosed at grade 3 and size of tumor greater than 2 cm (88.7%, 66.0%, 35.8%, 73.6%; respectively). The majority of them underwent mastectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and tamoxifen therapy (85.8%, 63.2%, 94.3% and 62.3%; respectively). For univariate analysis, the present study has identified several factors includes family monthly income, BMI, educational status, years after diagnosis, histological grade radiotherapy and surgery that influence the QOL of breast cancer patients in Yemen. For multivariate analysis, years after diagnosis, family monthly income and radiotherapy were significantly associated with total QOL of the breast cancer patients (p=0.01, p=0.023, p=0.039; respectively).

    CONCLUSION: Family monthly income, BMI, educational status, years after diagnosis, histological grade radiotherapy and surgery were significantly influence the QOL of breast cancer patients in Yemen, in univariate analysis. For multivariate analysis, years after diagnosis, family monthly income and radiotherapy were significantly associated with total QOL of the breast cancer patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  12. Al-Naggar RA, Chen R
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(4):1023-9.
    PMID: 21790245
    The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and associated factors of vitamin-mineral supplements use among Management and Science University students. The cross-sectional study protocol was approved by the Ethics and Research Committee and questionnaires were distributed randomly using simple random sampling to students from all faculties and consent was obtained. The data were analyzed using the SPSS version 13. Total number of the participants in this study is 105. More than half of them were female, older than 20 years of age and Malay (58.1%, 61.9 and 61.9% respectively). The prevalence of vitamin-mineral supplement use was 43%, the main reasons being 'to maintain good health' 80%, followed by 'to ensure adequate nutrition' (10.5%). There was a significant positive association with monthly household income and BMI (P=0.039; P=0.048), with significant dependence on race and knowledge about vitamin-mineral supplements (P=0.002). There was a significant difference between medical and health sciences as compared to non-medical and health science faculties (p =0.05). The conclusion is that although the prevalence of vitamin-mineral supplement use among university students is relatively high, many of them do not have accurate information about supplements. Therefore, there is a need to provide them with education and access to scientific and unbiased information.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  13. Alaudeen S, Muslim N, Faridah K, Azman A, Arshat H
    Malays J Reprod Health, 1988 Dec;6(2):102-7.
    PMID: 12342169
    PIP: The influence of socioeconomic status (ethnicity, income and parity) on electrolyte composition (sodium and potassium) in human milk is little known. We have thus quantitatively analyzed approximately 700 samples of milk (1-90 days postpartum) obtained from healthy Malaysian mothers' (Malay, Chinese and Indians) of full term infants. Results show that the mean concentration (mmol/l) of sodium is highest (48.2+or-1.7, Mean+or-SEM) in the Malaysian mothers' colostrum and this value decreased by 30% in their transitional milk and remained constant throughout subsequent days of lactation (mature milk). Ethnically, it is found that the level of sodium in colostrum of Malay and Chinese mothers were similar while the Indian mothers' colostrum showed apparently higher value (52.7+or-3.4 mmol/l) that is statistically insignificant. The transitional milk of all 3 ethnic groups studied exhibited similar levels of sodium. On subsequent days of lactation (mature milk) the Malay mothers exhibited lowest concentration (25.9+or-2.6 mmol/l) of sodium that is significantly (P0.05) different from that of Chinese and Indian mothers. Income and parity do not significantly affect the sodium level in Malaysian mothers' milk during all stages of lactation studied. The level of potassium, however did not change significantly with days of lactation. Like sodium, potassium too was not influenced by income and parity. (Author's).
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class*
  14. Alibrahim OA, Al-Sadat N, Elawad NA
    J Public Health Afr, 2010 Sep 01;1(1):e7.
    PMID: 28299041 DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2010.e7
    Depression is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the year 2000 depression accounted for 4.4% of the global disability adjusted life years (DALYs). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a population of 28 million people and is one of the countries experiencing demographic transition in its population structure. Improvements in socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with increased chronic diseases including chronic mental diseases like depression, but still there is no comprehensive review summarizing the various reports currently existing in the literature. Although individual studies within Saudi Arabia have reported prevalence rates and risks, the quality of such studies need to be subjected to rigorous assessment and their findings pooled to give combined weighted evidence that will provide basis for targeted intervention. Pooled risks have the advantage of adjusting inherent variations within sampled populations and therefore providing more reliable estimates even though there are concerns about possible magnification of smaller individual risks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  15. Alsaad MA, Shamsuddin K, Fadzil F
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(3):879-83.
    PMID: 22631665
    Cervical cancer is caused by HPV infection and can be prevented by early vaccination.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess Syrian women's level of knowledge and determinants of good knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV infection and its vaccines.

    METHODS: A cross sectional survey was undertaken among mothers with daughters in sixth grade classes enrolled in primary schools in Aleppo city, Syria. Samples were selected through cluster sampling and data collected using a self-administered questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Less than a third of the mothers had heard of HPV infection and vaccines against cervical cancer and levels of knowledge were generally low. Good knowledge was associated with high education level, higher family monthly income, having few--less than four children, positive history of cervical cancer screening, and working or having relatives working in the medical field. The main source of information was television and few reported health care providers as a source of knowledge on HPV infection and vaccine.

    CONCLUSION: Since knowledge of HPV infection and its connection with cervical cancer and its vaccine are low, more efforts must be made to educate Syrians prior to introduction of any HPV vaccination programme. Public health efforts must focus on educating mothers, the public as well as health care providers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  16. Ansari M, Ibrahim MI, Hassali MA, Shankar PR, Koirala A, Thapa NJ
    BMC Res Notes, 2012;5:576.
    PMID: 23095352 DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-576
    In developing countries, mothers usually manage diarrhea at home with the pattern of management depending on perceived disease severity and beliefs. The study was carried out with the objective of determining mothers' beliefs and barriers about diarrhea and its management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  17. Anuar TS, Azreen SN, Salleh FM, Moktar N
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2014;14:78.
    PMID: 24520940 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-78
    Giardia duodenalis is a flagellate parasite which has been considered the most common protozoa infecting human worldwide. Molecular characterization of G. duodenalis isolates have revealed the existence of eight groups (Assemblage A to H) which differ in their host distribution. Assemblages A and B are found in humans and in many other mammals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  18. Appleyard RT
    Asian Pac Migr J, 1992;1(1):1-18.
    PMID: 12317235
    "Wide income differentials, the threat of increased illegal immigration from developing countries, and sub-replacement fertility in the developed countries are some reasons for the recent reassessment of the relationship between migration and development.... The model presented in this article proposes different roles for permanent immigrants, contract workers, professional transients, illegal migrants and others according to the stages of modernization of the sending and receiving countries. The model was found consistent with the experiences of Mauritius, Seychelles, Singapore and, to a lesser extent, Malaysia."
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  19. Arain SS, Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Talpur FN, Kazi AG, Brahman KD, et al.
    Biol Trace Elem Res, 2015 Dec;168(2):287-95.
    PMID: 25975948 DOI: 10.1007/s12011-015-0355-y
    It has been extensively reported that chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) can lead to cancers of oral cavity. In present study, the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure via chewing/inhaling different SLT products in oral cancer patients have or/not consumed SLT products was studied. The As in different types of SLT products (gutkha, mainpuri, and snuff) and biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of different types of oral cancer patients and controls were analyzed. Both controls and oral cancer patients have same age group (ranged 30-60 years), socio-economic status, localities, and dietary habits. The concentrations of As in SLT products and biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials. The resulted data of present study indicates that the concentration of As was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients than those of controls (p<0.001). It was also observed that the values of As were two- to threefolds higher in biological samples of controls subjects, consuming SLT products as compared to those have none of these habits (p>0.01). The intake of As via consuming different SLT may have synergistic effects, in addition to other risk factors associated with oral cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
  20. Ariff F, Suthahar A, Ramli M
    Singapore Med J, 2011 Jan;52(1):29-34.
    PMID: 21298238
    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between hypertensive patients and their coping style and associated lifestyle factors.
    METHODS: A total of 502 participants attending nine outpatient clinics completed the validated Bahasa Malaysia version of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations and sociodemographic questionnaires. The height, weight, pulse rate and blood pressure of all the participants were measured using standardised methods.
    RESULTS: A total of 264 (52.6 percent) participants were hypertensive, while 238 (47.4 percent) were not. Participants with a high task-oriented score showed a significantly lower risk of hypertension compared to those with a low score (odds ratio [OR] 0.546; 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 0.371-0.804). Those with a high emotion-oriented coping score were associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR 1.691; 95 percent CI 1.107-2.582). Hypertension was also significantly associated with a higher mean body mass index, positive family history of hypertension, history of diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia. In multiple logistic regression analysis with hypertension status as the dependent variable, a high emotion-oriented coping score, a low task-oriented coping score, age, body mass index, positive family history of hypertension and history of diabetes mellitus remain significant factors in the final model.
    CONCLUSION: These results indicated a significant relationship between hypertension and coping styles and lifestyle factors. They underscored the importance of further study as well as the development and implementation of intervention measures to improve coping skills among hypertensive patients, which may be incorporated into the management of hypertension.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Class
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