Faecal sterols detection is a promising method for identifying sources of faecal pollution. In this study, faecal contamination in water samples from point source (sewage treatment plants, chicken farms, quail farms and horse stables) was extracted using the solid phase extraction (SPE) technique. Faecal sterols (coprostanol, cholesterol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol and stigmastanol) were selected as parameters to differentiate the source of faecal pollution. The results indicated that coprostanol, cholesterol and beta-sitosterol were the most significant parameters that can be used as source tracers for faecal contamination. Chemometric techniques, such as cluster analysis, principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were applied to the data set on faecal contamination in water from various pollution sources in order to validate the faecal sterols' profiles. Cluster analysis generated three clusters: coprostanol was in cluster 1, cholesterol and beta-sitosterol formed cluster 2, while cluster 3 contained stigmasterol and stigmastanol. Discriminant analysis suggested that coprostanol, cholesterol and beta-sitosterol were the most significant parameters to discriminate between the faecal pollution source. The use of chemometric techniques provides useful and promising indicators in tracing the source of faecal contamination.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry.
Cyclodextrin-ionic liquid polymer (βCD-BIMOTs-TDI) is a new class of macroporous material and has great potential to be used as an SPE adsorbent material for extraction of phenols in river water samples. Six phenols, as model analytes, were extracted on a βCD-BIMOTs-TDI SPE cartridge, and then, eluted with 2 mL of methanol containing 1% acetic acid. The optimum experimental condition was 15 mL of sample volume (sample at pH 6) and 2 mL of methanol containing 1% acetic acid as an eluent solvent. The eluent concentration was determined by using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). Under optimized condition, high sensitivity (detection limits 0.23-0.35 µg/L) and good recoveries (87-116%) were achieved with satisfactory relative standard deviation (RSD) (0.1-1.7%). The developed βCD-BIMOTs-TDI-SPE was then compared with other adsorbents, and the obtained results showed that the βCD-BIMOTs-TDI exhibited higher extraction recovery due to the unique structure and properties. Finally, the βCD-BIMOTs-TDI was applied as a solid phase extraction sorbent for phenols determination under optimized condition, in river and tap waters, prior to the GC-FID separation.
A solid phase extraction (SPE) method has been developed using a newly synthesized titanium (IV) butoxide-cyanopropyltriethoxysilane (Ti-CNPrTEOS) sorbent for polar selective extraction of aromatic amines in river water sample. The effect of different parameters on the extraction recovery was studied using the SPE method. The applicability of the sorbents for the extraction of polar aromatic amines by the SPE was extensively studied and evaluated as a function of pH, conditioning solvent, sample loading volume, elution solvent and elution solvent volume. The optimum experimental conditions were sample at pH 7, dichloromethane as conditioning solvent, 10 mL sample loading volume and 5 mL of acetonitrile as the eluting solvent. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for solid phase extraction using Ti-CNPrTEOS SPE sorbent (0.01-0.2; 0.03-0.61 µg L(-1)) were lower compared with those achieved using Si-CN SPE sorbent (0.25-1.50; 1.96-3.59 µg L(-1)) and C18 SPE sorbent (0.37-0.98; 1.87-2.87 µg L(-1)) with higher selectivity towards the extraction of polar aromatic amines. The optimized procedure was successfully applied for the solid phase extraction method of selected aromatic amines in river water, waste water and tap water samples prior to the gas chromatography-flame ionization detector separation.
As a widely consumed beverage, coffee tends to be a target for intentional adulteration. This study describes the application of modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) coupled to liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for simultaneous screening, identification, and quantification of undeclared phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors in instant coffee premixes (ICPs). The mass spectrometer was operated in auto MS/MS acquisition for simultaneous MS and MS/MS experiments. Qualitative establishments from the suspected-target screening and targeted identification processes led to an unambiguous analyte assignment from the protonated molecule ([M+H]+) precursor ion which is subsequently used for quantification of 23 targeted PDE5 inhibitors. The analytical method validation covered specificity, linearity, range, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precisions, matrix effect (ME), and extraction recovery (RE). The specificity was established using the optimised chromatographic separation as well as the distinguishable [M+H]+ precursor ion. The linearity of each target analyte was demonstrated with a coefficient of determination (r2) of >0.9960 over the expected range of sample concentrations. The accuracy ranged from 88.1%-119.3% with LOD and LOQ of <70 ng/mL and 80 ng/mL, respectively. Excellent precisions were established within 0.4%-9.1% of the relative standard deviation. An insignificant ME within -5.2% to +8.7% was achieved using three different strategies of chromatography, sample extraction, and sample dilution. The RE was good for all target analytes within 84.7%-123.5% except for N-desethylacetildenafil at low (53.8%) and medium (65.1%) quality control levels. The method was successfully applied to 25 samples of ICPs where 17 of them were found to be adulterated with PDE5 inhibitors and their analogues. Further quantification revealed the total amount of these adulterants ranged from 2.77 to 121.64 mg per sachet.
The non-ionic silicone surfactant (OFX 0309) has been applied in cloud point extraction for the extraction of triazine herbicides in food samples. Evidence has shown that the non-ionic silicone surfactant demonstrated a good performance as an extractor toward triazine herbicides. In this present study, OFX 0309 surfactant was combined with activated charcoal (AC) due to their valuable properties. Activated charcoal modified with non-ionic silicone surfactant coated with magnetic nanoparticles (AC-OFX MNPs) was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, VSM, SEM, TEM and BET. This novel material was applied as a magnetic adsorbent for the pre-concentration and separation of triazine herbicides due to hydrophobic interaction between polysiloxane polyether of OFX 0309 surfactant and triazine herbicides. Under optimal conditions, the proposed magnetic solid phase extraction method using AC-OFX MNPs adsorbent was applied to extract triazine herbicides from selected milk and rice samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector. The validation method revealed a good linearity (1 - 500 μg L-1) with the coefficient of determination (R2) in the range of 0.992-0.998 for the samples. The limits of detection (LOD) of the developed method were 0.04 - 0.05 µg L-1 (milk sample) and 0.02 - 0.05 µg L-1 (rice sample). The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.134 - 0.176 µg L-1 (milk sample) and 0.075 - 0.159 µg L-1 (rice sample). The recoveries of the triazine compounds ranged from 81% to 109% in spiked milk samples and from 81% to 111% in spiked rice samples, with relative standard deviations (RSD) values lower than 13.5% and 12.1% for milk and rice samples, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that have investigated the use of magnetic nanoparticles coated activated charcoal modified with OFX 0309 surfactant for pretreatment of triazine herbicides in food samples analysis for simultaneous separation of organic pollutants.
Estuary sediments are one of the important components of coastal ecosystems and have been regarded as a sink for various types of organic pollutants. Organic pollutants such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) which have been associated with various environmental and human health effects were detected in the estuary sediment at trace level. Considering various interferences that may exist in the estuarine sediment, a sensitive and selective method, capable of detecting multiclass EDC pollutants at the trace levels, needs to be developed and optimized to be applied for environmental analysis. A combination of Soxhlet extraction followed by offline solid phase extraction (SPE) cleaned up with detection based on LC triple quadrupole MS was optimized and validated in this study. The targeted compounds consisted of ten multiclass EDCs, namely, diclofenac, primidone, bisphenol A, estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), 4-octylphenol (4-OP), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), progesterone, and testosterone. The method showed high extraction efficiency with percentage of recovery from 78% to 108% and excellent sensitivity with detection limit between 0.02ngg-1 and 0.81ngg-1. Excellent linearity from 0.991 to 0.999 was achieved for the developed compounds and the relative standard deviation was less than 18%, an indication of good precision analysis. Evaluation of the matrix effects showed ionization suppression for all the developed compounds. Verification of the method was carried out by analyzing the estuarine sediment collected from Langat River. The analyzed estuarine sediments showed a trace concentration of diclofenac, bisphenol A, progesterone, testosterone, primidone, and E1. However, E2, EE2, 4-OP, and 4-NP were below the method's detection limit. Diclofenac exhibited the highest concentration at 2.67ngg-1 followed by bisphenol A (1.78ngg-1) while E1 showed the lowest concentration at 0.07ngg-1.
Proteome analysis of the human hair remains challenging due to the poor solubility of hair proteins and the difficulty in their extraction. In the present study, we have developed a rapid extraction protocol for hair shaft protein using alkaline-based buffer. The new protocol accelerated the procedure by reducing the extraction time from at least a day to less than two hours and showed a protein recovery of 47.3 ± 3.72%. Further analyses of the extracted protein sample through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis unveiled a total of 60 proteins, including 25 that were not previously reported. Identification of these proteins is anticipated to be crucial in helping to understand the molecular basis of hair for potential applications in the future.
Lower dye concentrations and the presence of several dyes along with other matrices in environmental samples restrict their determination. Herein, a highly sensitive and rapid ultra-performance tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for simultaneous determination of cationic dyes, namely methylene blue (MB), rhodamine B (RB) and crystal violet (CV), in environmental samples. To preconcentrate environmental samples, solid-phase extraction cartridges were developed by using hydrogen peroxide modified pistachio shell biomass (MPSB). The surface morphological and chemical functionalities of MPSB were well characterized. The developed method was validated considering different validation parameters. In terms of accuracy and precision, the %RSD for all three dyes at all four concentration points was found to be between 1.26 and 2.76, while the accuracy reported in terms of the recovery was found to be 98.02%-101.70%. The recovery was found to be in the range of 98.11% to 99.55%. The real sample analysis shows that MB, RB, and CV were found in the ranges of 0.39-5.56, 0.32-1.92 and 0.27-4.36 μg/mL, respectively.
Directed evolution is a proven approach to fine tune or modify biomolecules for various applications ranging from research to industry. The process of evolution requires methods that are capable of not only generating genetic diversity but also to distinguish the variants of desired characteristics. One method that is synonymous with directed evolution of proteins is phage display. Here, we present a protocol describing the application of magnetic nanoparticles coupled with a processor to carry out the identification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from a diverse antibody library via phage display. Target antigens are coupled to magnetic nanoparticles as the solid phase for the isolation of the binding mAbs via affinity. A gradual enrichment in clones would result in increasing ELISA readouts with increasing rounds of panning. During monoclonal level analysis, positivity can be deduced with comparison to background and controls. The biopanning process can also be adopted for the directed evolution of enzymes, scaffold proteins or even peptides.
A novel adsorbent, palm fatty acid coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNP-FA) was successfully synthesized with immobilization of the palm fatty acid onto the surface of MNPs. The successful synthesis of MNP-FA was further confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses and water contact angle (WCA) measurement. This newly synthesized MNP-FA was applied as magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent for the enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), namely fluoranthene (FLT), pyrene (Pyr), chrysene (Cry) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from environmental samples prior to High Performance Liquid Chromatography- Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis. The MSPE method was optimized by several parameters such as amount of sorbent, desorption solvent, volume of desorption solvent, extraction time, desorption time, pH and sample volume. Under the optimized conditions, MSPE method provided a low detection limit (LOD) for FLT, Pyr, Cry and BaP in the range of 0.01-0.05 ng mL(-1). The PAHs recoveries of the spiked leachate samples ranged from 98.5% to 113.8% with the RSDs (n = 5) ranging from 3.5% to 12.2%, while for the spiked sludge samples, the recoveries ranged from 81.1% to 119.3% with the RSDs (n = 5) ranging from 3.1% to 13.6%. The recyclability study revealed that MNP-FA has excellent reusability up to five times. Chromatrographic analysis demonstrated the suitability of MNP-FA as MSPE adsorbent for the efficient extraction of PAHs from environmental samples.
With the expanded use of the combination of artesunate (AS) and amodiaquine (AQ) for the treatment of falciparum malaria and the abundance of products on the market, comes the need for rapid and reliable bioanalytical methods for the determination of the parent compounds and their metabolites. While the existing methods were developed for the determination of either AS or AQ in biological fluids, the current validated method allows simultaneous extraction and determination of AS and AQ in human plasma. Extraction is carried out on Supelclean LC-18 extraction cartridges where AS, its metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and the internal standard artemisinin (QHS) are separated from AQ, its metabolite desethylamodiaquine (DeAQ) and the internal standard, an isobutyl analogue of desethylamodiaquine (IB-DeAQ). AS, DHA and QHS are then analysed using Hypersil C4 column with acetonitrile-acetic acid (0.05M adjusted to pH 5.2 with 1.00M NaOH) (42:58, v/v) as mobile phase at flow rate 1.50ml/min. The analytes are detected with an electrochemical detector operating in the reductive mode. Chromatography of AQ, DeAQ and IB-DeAQ is carried out on an Inertsil C4 column with acetonitrile-KH(2)PO(4) (pH 4.0, 0.05M) (11:89, v/v) as mobile phase at flow rate 1.00ml/min. The analytes are detected by an electrochemical detector operating in the oxidative mode. The recoveries of AS, DHA, AQ and DeAQ vary between 79.1% and 104.0% over the concentration range of 50-1400ng/ml plasma. The accuracies of the determination of all the analytes are 96.8-103.9%, while the variation for within-day and day-to-day analysis are <15%. The lower limit of quantification for all the analytes is 20ng/ml and limit of detection is 8ng/ml. The method is sensitive, selective, accurate, reproducible and suited particularly for pharmacokinetic study of AS-AQ drug combination and can also be used to compare the bioavailability of different formulations, including a fixed-dose AS-AQ co-formulation.
Mesoporous silica material, MCM-41, was utilized for the first time as an adsorbent in solid phase membrane tip extraction (SPMTE) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in urine prior to high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) analysis. The prepared MCM-41 material was enclosed in a polypropylene membrane tip and used as an adsorbent in SPMTE. Four NSAIDs namely ketoprofen, diclofenac, mefenamic acid and naproxen were selected as model analytes. Several important parameters, such as conditioning solvent, sample pH, salting-out effect, sample volume, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the MCM-41-SPMTE method showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-10μg/mL with excellent correlation coefficients (r=0.9977-0.9995), acceptable RSDs (0.4-9.4%, n=3), good limits of detection (5.7-10.6μg/L) and relative recoveries (81.4-108.1%). The developed method showed a good tolerance to biological sample matrices.
An analytical method that facilitated the analysis of 11 pharmaceuticals residue (caffeine, prazosin, enalapril, carbamazepine, nifedipine, levonorgestrel, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, gliclazide, diclofenac-Na, and mefenamic acid) with a single pre-treatment protocol was developed. The proposed method included an isolation and concentration procedure using solid phase extraction (Oasis HLB), a separation step using high-performance liquid chromatography, and a detection procedure that applies time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The method was validated for drinking water (DW), surface water (SW), sewage treatment plant (STP) influent and effluent, and hospital (HSP) influent and effluent. The limits of quantification were as low as 0.4, 1.6, 5, 3, 2.2 and 11 ng/L in DW, SW, HSP influent and effluent, STP effluent, and STP influent, respectively. On average, good recoveries higher than 75% were obtained for most of the target analytes in all matrices. Matrix effect was evaluated for all samples matrices. The proposed method successfully determined and quantified the target compounds in raw and treated wastewater of four STPs and three hospitals in Malaysia, as well as in two SW sites. The results showed that a number of the studied compounds pose moderate to high persistency in sewage treatment effluents as well as in the recipient rivers, namely; caffeine, simvastatin, and hydrochlorothiazide. Ten out of 11 compounds were detected and quantified in 13 sampling points. Caffeine was detected with the highest level, with concentrations reaching up to 9099 ng/L in STP influent.
Zeolite Linde Type L (LTL) crystals with different length, diameter and particle size (nanosized LTL, rod LTL, cylinder LTL and needle LTL) were synthesized, characterized and were used as sorbent in the micro-solid phase extraction of ochratoxin A (OTA) before the high performance liquid chromatography detection. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of OTA for coffee and cereal were 0.09 ng g(-1) and 0.03 ng g(-1), respectively, while the quantification limits were 0.28 ng g(-1) and 0.08 ng g(-1), respectively. The recoveries of OTA of coffee and cereal spiked at 0.5, 10 and 25 ng g(-1) ranged from 91.7 to 101.0%. The proposed method was applied to forty-five samples of coffee and cereal. The presence of OTA was found in twenty-five samples, ranging from 0.28 to 9.33 ng g(-1).
A novel sol-gel hybrid methyltrimethoxysilane-tetraethoxysilane (MTMOS-TEOS) was produced and applied as sorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE). Five selected organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) were employed as model compounds to evaluate the extraction performance of the synthesized sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS. Analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several important SPE parameters were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method using the sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS as SPE sorbent showed good linearity in the range of 0.001-1 μg L(-1), good repeatability (RSD 2.1-3.1%, n=5), low limits of detection at S/N=3 (0.5-0.9 pg mL(-1)) and limit of quantification (1-3 pg mL(-1), S/N=10). The performance of the MTMOS-TEOS SPE was compared to commercial C18 Supelclean SPE since C18 SPE is widely used for OPPs. The MTMOS-TEOS SPE method LOD was 500-600 × lower than the LOD of commercial C18 SPE. The LOD achieved with the sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS SPE sorbent allowed the detection of these OPPs in drinking water well below the level set by European Union (EU) at 0.1 μg L(-1) of each pesticides. The developed MTMOS-TEOS SPE method was successfully applied to real sample analysis of the selected OPPs from several water samples and its application extended to the analysis of several fruits samples. Excellent recoveries and RSDs of the OPPs were obtained from the various water samples (recoveries: 97-111%, RSDs 0.4-2.8%, n=3) and fruit samples (recoveries: 96-111%), RSDs 1-4%, n=5) using the sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS SPE sorbent. Recoveries and RSDs of OPPs from river water samples and fruit samples using C18 Supelclean SPE sorbent were 91-97%, RSD 0.9-2.6, n=3 and 86-96%, RSD 3-8%, n=5, respectively). The novel sol-gel hybrid MTMOS-TEOS SPE sorbent demonstrate the potential as an alternative inexpensive extraction sorbent for OPPs with higher sensitivity for the OPPs.
Pollutants such as human pharmaceuticals and synthetic hormones that are not covered by environmental legislation have increasingly become important emerging aquatic contaminants. This paper reports the development of a sensitive and selective multi-residue method for simultaneous determination and quantification of 23 pharmaceuticals and synthetic hormones from different therapeutic classes in water samples. Target pharmaceuticals include anti-diabetic, antihypertensive, hypolipidemic agents, β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, antihistamine, analgesic and sex hormones. The developed method is based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by instrumental analysis using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) with 30 min total run time. River water samples (150 mL) and (sewage treatment plant) STP effluents (100 mL) adjusted to pH 2, were loaded into MCX (3 cm(3), 60 mg) cartridge and eluted with four different reagents for maximum recovery. Quantification was achieved by using eight isotopically labeled internal standards (I.S.) that effectively correct for losses during sample preparation and matrix effects during LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Good recoveries higher than 70% were obtained for most of target analytes in all matrices. Method detection limit (MDL) ranged from 0.2 to 281 ng/L. The developed method was applied to determine the levels of target analytes in various samples, including river water and STP effluents. Among the tested emerging pollutants, chlorothiazide was found at the highest level, with concentrations reaching up to 865 ng/L in STP effluent, and 182 ng/L in river water.
A novel microextraction technique termed solid phase membrane tip extraction (SPMTE) was developed. Selected triazine herbicides were employed as model compounds to evaluate the extraction performance and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as the adsorbent enclosed in SPMTE device. The SPMTE procedure was performed in semi-automated dynamic mode and several important extraction parameters were comprehensively optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 1-100 microg/L, acceptable reproducibility (RSD 6-8%, n=5), low limits of detection (0.2-0.5 microg/L), and satisfactory relative recoveries (95-101%). The SPMTE device could be regenerated and reused up to 15 analyses with no analyte carry-over effects observed. Comparison was made with commercially available solid phase extraction-molecular imprinted polymer cartridge (SPE-MIP) for triazine herbicides as the reference method. The new developed method showed comparable or even better results against reference method and is a simple, feasible, and cost effective microextraction technique.
A method for the chiral separation of propiconazole using cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) with hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrin (HP-gamma-CD) as chiral selector is reported. The use of a mixture of 30 mM HP-gamma-CD, 50mM SDS, methanol-acetonitrile 10%:5% (v/v) in 25 mM phosphate buffer solution was able to separate two enantiomeric pairs of propiconazole. Stacking- and sweeping-CD-MEKC under neutral pH (pH 7) and under acidic condition (pH 3.0) were used as two on-line preconcentration methods to increase detection sensitivity of propiconazole. Good repeatabilities in the migration time, peak area and peak height were obtained in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD). A sensitivity enhancement factor of 100-fold was achieved using sweeping-CD-MEKC at acidic pH. This is the first report on the separation of two pairs of propiconazole enantiomers and all the enantiomers of fenbuconazole and tebuconazole using sweeping-CD-MEKC. The limit of detection (S/N=3) for the three triazole fungicides ranged from 0.09 to 0.1 microg/mL, which is well below the maximum residue limits (MRL) set by Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). Combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE) pretreatment and sweeping-CD-MEKC procedure was applied to the determination of selected triazole fungicides in grapes samples spiked at concentration 10-40 times lower than the MRL established by the CAC. The average recoveries of the selected fungicides in spiked grapes samples were good, ranging from 73% to 109% with RSD of 9-12% (n=3).
In this research, the Cu-based metal-organic framework (MOF-199) was fabricated and coated on the stainless steel mesh as substrates through sol-gel procedure. Then the coated substrates were placed in a small column known as solid-phase extraction cartridge. The SPE based coated stainless steel mesh coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-UV detector (HPLC-UV) was used for the fast extraction, and quantification of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) from human plasma and water samples. To find optimum extraction conditions, the impacts of effective parameters on analytical performance like sample pH, sample volume, type, and volume of desorption solvent were optimized. At the optimized conditions, calibration graphs of analytes were linear in the concentration range of 0.03-300 ng mL-1 for water samples, and 0.1-200 ng mL-1 for plasma samples. The correlation coefficients were in the range of 0.9938 to 0.9989. Also, the limits of detection (LODs) were from 0.01 to 0.02 ng mL-1 for water samples and 0.03 to 0.1 ng mL-1 for plasma samples. The cartridge repeatability was studied at different values, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs%) were achieved between 3.5 and 5.1%. Consequently, this procedure was successfully used in the extraction and detection of NSAIDs in real water and plasma samples with relative recoveries ranged from 93.6 to 99.6%.