An analytical method that facilitated the analysis of 11 pharmaceuticals residue (caffeine, prazosin, enalapril, carbamazepine, nifedipine, levonorgestrel, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, gliclazide, diclofenac-Na, and mefenamic acid) with a single pre-treatment protocol was developed. The proposed method included an isolation and concentration procedure using solid phase extraction (Oasis HLB), a separation step using high-performance liquid chromatography, and a detection procedure that applies time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The method was validated for drinking water (DW), surface water (SW), sewage treatment plant (STP) influent and effluent, and hospital (HSP) influent and effluent. The limits of quantification were as low as 0.4, 1.6, 5, 3, 2.2 and 11 ng/L in DW, SW, HSP influent and effluent, STP effluent, and STP influent, respectively. On average, good recoveries higher than 75% were obtained for most of the target analytes in all matrices. Matrix effect was evaluated for all samples matrices. The proposed method successfully determined and quantified the target compounds in raw and treated wastewater of four STPs and three hospitals in Malaysia, as well as in two SW sites. The results showed that a number of the studied compounds pose moderate to high persistency in sewage treatment effluents as well as in the recipient rivers, namely; caffeine, simvastatin, and hydrochlorothiazide. Ten out of 11 compounds were detected and quantified in 13 sampling points. Caffeine was detected with the highest level, with concentrations reaching up to 9099 ng/L in STP influent.
The non-ionic silicone surfactant (OFX 0309) has been applied in cloud point extraction for the extraction of triazine herbicides in food samples. Evidence has shown that the non-ionic silicone surfactant demonstrated a good performance as an extractor toward triazine herbicides. In this present study, OFX 0309 surfactant was combined with activated charcoal (AC) due to their valuable properties. Activated charcoal modified with non-ionic silicone surfactant coated with magnetic nanoparticles (AC-OFX MNPs) was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, VSM, SEM, TEM and BET. This novel material was applied as a magnetic adsorbent for the pre-concentration and separation of triazine herbicides due to hydrophobic interaction between polysiloxane polyether of OFX 0309 surfactant and triazine herbicides. Under optimal conditions, the proposed magnetic solid phase extraction method using AC-OFX MNPs adsorbent was applied to extract triazine herbicides from selected milk and rice samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector. The validation method revealed a good linearity (1 - 500 μg L-1) with the coefficient of determination (R2) in the range of 0.992-0.998 for the samples. The limits of detection (LOD) of the developed method were 0.04 - 0.05 µg L-1 (milk sample) and 0.02 - 0.05 µg L-1 (rice sample). The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.134 - 0.176 µg L-1 (milk sample) and 0.075 - 0.159 µg L-1 (rice sample). The recoveries of the triazine compounds ranged from 81% to 109% in spiked milk samples and from 81% to 111% in spiked rice samples, with relative standard deviations (RSD) values lower than 13.5% and 12.1% for milk and rice samples, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that have investigated the use of magnetic nanoparticles coated activated charcoal modified with OFX 0309 surfactant for pretreatment of triazine herbicides in food samples analysis for simultaneous separation of organic pollutants.
The scarcity of data about the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in water bodies in Malaysia prompted us to develop a suitable analytical method to address this issue. We therefore developed a method based on solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-TOF/MS) for the analysis of sixteen prescribed and two nonprescribed pharmaceuticals that are potentially present in water samples. The levels of these pharmaceuticals, which were among the top 50 pharmaceuticals consumed in Malaysia during the period 2011-2014, in influent and effluent of five sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Bangi, Malaysia, were then analyzed using the developed method. All of the pharmaceuticals were separated chromatographically using a 5 μm, 2.1 mm × 250 mm C18 column at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.3-8.2 ng/L, 6.5-89 ng/L, and 11.1-93.8 ng/L in deionized water (DIW), STP effluent, and STP influent, respectively, for most of the pharmaceuticals. Recoveries were 51-108%, 52-118%, and 80-107% from the STP influent, STP effluent, and DIW, respectively, for most of the pharmaceuticals. The matrix effect was also evaluated. The signals from carbamazepine, diclofenac sodium, and mefenamic acid were found to be completely suppressed in the STP influent. The signals from other compounds were found to be influenced by matrix effects more strongly in STP influent (enhancement or suppression of signal ≤180%) than in effluent (≤94%). The signal from prednisolone was greatly enhanced in the STP influent, indicating a matrix effect of -134%. Twelve pharmaceuticals were frequently detected in all five STPs, and caffeine, prazosin, and theophylline presented the highest concentrations among all the pharmaceuticals monitored: up to 7611, 550, and 319 ng/L in the STP influent, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that prazosin has been detected in a water matrix in Malaysia. Graphical abstract ᅟ.
Mesoporous silica material, MCM-41, was utilized for the first time as an adsorbent in solid phase membrane tip extraction (SPMTE) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in urine prior to high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) analysis. The prepared MCM-41 material was enclosed in a polypropylene membrane tip and used as an adsorbent in SPMTE. Four NSAIDs namely ketoprofen, diclofenac, mefenamic acid and naproxen were selected as model analytes. Several important parameters, such as conditioning solvent, sample pH, salting-out effect, sample volume, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the MCM-41-SPMTE method showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-10μg/mL with excellent correlation coefficients (r=0.9977-0.9995), acceptable RSDs (0.4-9.4%, n=3), good limits of detection (5.7-10.6μg/L) and relative recoveries (81.4-108.1%). The developed method showed a good tolerance to biological sample matrices.
A simple and selective RP-HPLC-UV method with SPE was developed and validated for the quantification of cefotaxime in all-in-one total parenteral nutrition (AIO-TPN) admixtures. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a 5 pm particle size C18 DB column (250 x 4.6 mm id) using the mobile phase ammonium acetate (25 mM, pH 4.0)-50% acetonitrile in methanol (80 + 20, v/v). The flow rate was 0.9 mL/min and the detection wavelength was 254 nm. The analyte was extracted from AIO-TPN admixtures by means of an SPE method. The cefotaxime calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 100-1400 microg/mL with a correlation coefficient of > or = 0.9994. The intraday accuracy and precision for cefotaxime were < or = -3.15 and < or = 3.08%, respectively, whereas the interday accuracy and precision were < or = -2.48 and < or = 2.25%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to stability studies of cefotaxime in the presence of micronutrients together with low and high concentrations of macronutrients in AIO-TPN admixtures. Cefotaxime was degraded by 13.00 and 26.05% at room temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C) after 72 h in low and high macronutrient concentration formulations of AIO-TPN admixtures, respectively. The values of cefotaxime degradation rates for low and high macronutrient concentration formulations of AIO-TPN admixtures were -0.164 and -0.353, respectively. These results indicated that there was a higher rate of degradation in the AIO-TPN admixture formulations containing high concentrations of macronutrients.
Cyclodextrin-ionic liquid polymer (βCD-BIMOTs-TDI) is a new class of macroporous material and has great potential to be used as an SPE adsorbent material for extraction of phenols in river water samples. Six phenols, as model analytes, were extracted on a βCD-BIMOTs-TDI SPE cartridge, and then, eluted with 2 mL of methanol containing 1% acetic acid. The optimum experimental condition was 15 mL of sample volume (sample at pH 6) and 2 mL of methanol containing 1% acetic acid as an eluent solvent. The eluent concentration was determined by using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). Under optimized condition, high sensitivity (detection limits 0.23-0.35 µg/L) and good recoveries (87-116%) were achieved with satisfactory relative standard deviation (RSD) (0.1-1.7%). The developed βCD-BIMOTs-TDI-SPE was then compared with other adsorbents, and the obtained results showed that the βCD-BIMOTs-TDI exhibited higher extraction recovery due to the unique structure and properties. Finally, the βCD-BIMOTs-TDI was applied as a solid phase extraction sorbent for phenols determination under optimized condition, in river and tap waters, prior to the GC-FID separation.
Pollutants such as human pharmaceuticals and synthetic hormones that are not covered by environmental legislation have increasingly become important emerging aquatic contaminants. This paper reports the development of a sensitive and selective multi-residue method for simultaneous determination and quantification of 23 pharmaceuticals and synthetic hormones from different therapeutic classes in water samples. Target pharmaceuticals include anti-diabetic, antihypertensive, hypolipidemic agents, β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, antihistamine, analgesic and sex hormones. The developed method is based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by instrumental analysis using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) with 30 min total run time. River water samples (150 mL) and (sewage treatment plant) STP effluents (100 mL) adjusted to pH 2, were loaded into MCX (3 cm(3), 60 mg) cartridge and eluted with four different reagents for maximum recovery. Quantification was achieved by using eight isotopically labeled internal standards (I.S.) that effectively correct for losses during sample preparation and matrix effects during LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Good recoveries higher than 70% were obtained for most of target analytes in all matrices. Method detection limit (MDL) ranged from 0.2 to 281 ng/L. The developed method was applied to determine the levels of target analytes in various samples, including river water and STP effluents. Among the tested emerging pollutants, chlorothiazide was found at the highest level, with concentrations reaching up to 865 ng/L in STP effluent, and 182 ng/L in river water.
Lower dye concentrations and the presence of several dyes along with other matrices in environmental samples restrict their determination. Herein, a highly sensitive and rapid ultra-performance tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for simultaneous determination of cationic dyes, namely methylene blue (MB), rhodamine B (RB) and crystal violet (CV), in environmental samples. To preconcentrate environmental samples, solid-phase extraction cartridges were developed by using hydrogen peroxide modified pistachio shell biomass (MPSB). The surface morphological and chemical functionalities of MPSB were well characterized. The developed method was validated considering different validation parameters. In terms of accuracy and precision, the %RSD for all three dyes at all four concentration points was found to be between 1.26 and 2.76, while the accuracy reported in terms of the recovery was found to be 98.02%-101.70%. The recovery was found to be in the range of 98.11% to 99.55%. The real sample analysis shows that MB, RB, and CV were found in the ranges of 0.39-5.56, 0.32-1.92 and 0.27-4.36 μg/mL, respectively.
A novel sol-gel hybrid methyltrimethoxysilane-tetraethoxysilane (MTMOS-TEOS) was produced and applied as sorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE). Five selected organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) were employed as model compounds to evaluate the extraction performance of the synthesized sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS. Analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several important SPE parameters were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method using the sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS as SPE sorbent showed good linearity in the range of 0.001-1 μg L(-1), good repeatability (RSD 2.1-3.1%, n=5), low limits of detection at S/N=3 (0.5-0.9 pg mL(-1)) and limit of quantification (1-3 pg mL(-1), S/N=10). The performance of the MTMOS-TEOS SPE was compared to commercial C18 Supelclean SPE since C18 SPE is widely used for OPPs. The MTMOS-TEOS SPE method LOD was 500-600 × lower than the LOD of commercial C18 SPE. The LOD achieved with the sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS SPE sorbent allowed the detection of these OPPs in drinking water well below the level set by European Union (EU) at 0.1 μg L(-1) of each pesticides. The developed MTMOS-TEOS SPE method was successfully applied to real sample analysis of the selected OPPs from several water samples and its application extended to the analysis of several fruits samples. Excellent recoveries and RSDs of the OPPs were obtained from the various water samples (recoveries: 97-111%, RSDs 0.4-2.8%, n=3) and fruit samples (recoveries: 96-111%), RSDs 1-4%, n=5) using the sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid MTMOS-TEOS SPE sorbent. Recoveries and RSDs of OPPs from river water samples and fruit samples using C18 Supelclean SPE sorbent were 91-97%, RSD 0.9-2.6, n=3 and 86-96%, RSD 3-8%, n=5, respectively). The novel sol-gel hybrid MTMOS-TEOS SPE sorbent demonstrate the potential as an alternative inexpensive extraction sorbent for OPPs with higher sensitivity for the OPPs.
A method for the chiral separation of propiconazole using cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) with hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrin (HP-gamma-CD) as chiral selector is reported. The use of a mixture of 30 mM HP-gamma-CD, 50mM SDS, methanol-acetonitrile 10%:5% (v/v) in 25 mM phosphate buffer solution was able to separate two enantiomeric pairs of propiconazole. Stacking- and sweeping-CD-MEKC under neutral pH (pH 7) and under acidic condition (pH 3.0) were used as two on-line preconcentration methods to increase detection sensitivity of propiconazole. Good repeatabilities in the migration time, peak area and peak height were obtained in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD). A sensitivity enhancement factor of 100-fold was achieved using sweeping-CD-MEKC at acidic pH. This is the first report on the separation of two pairs of propiconazole enantiomers and all the enantiomers of fenbuconazole and tebuconazole using sweeping-CD-MEKC. The limit of detection (S/N=3) for the three triazole fungicides ranged from 0.09 to 0.1 microg/mL, which is well below the maximum residue limits (MRL) set by Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). Combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE) pretreatment and sweeping-CD-MEKC procedure was applied to the determination of selected triazole fungicides in grapes samples spiked at concentration 10-40 times lower than the MRL established by the CAC. The average recoveries of the selected fungicides in spiked grapes samples were good, ranging from 73% to 109% with RSD of 9-12% (n=3).
Recently, a simple, rapid, high-efficiency, selective, and sensitive method for isolation, preconcentration, and enrichment of analytes has been developed. This new method of sample handling is based on ferum oxides as magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and has been used for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of various analytes from various matrices. This review focuses on the applications of modified ferum oxides, especially modified Fe3O4 MNPs, as MSPE adsorbent for pesticide isolation from various matrices. Further perspectives on MSPE based on modified Fe3O4 for inorganic metal ions, organic compounds, and biological species from water samples are also presented. Ferum(III) oxide MNPs (Fe2O3) are also highlighted.
A new graphene-based tetraethoxysilane-methyltrimethoxysilane sol-gel hybrid magnetic nanocomposite (Fe3O4@G-TEOS-MTMOS) was synthesised, characterized and successfully applied in magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) for simultaneous analysis of polar and non-polar organophosphorus pesticides from several water samples. The Fe3O4@G-TEOS-MTMOS nanocomposite was characterized using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Separation, determination and quantification were achieved using gas chromatography coupled with micro electron capture detector. Adsorption capacity of the sorbent was calculated using Langmuir equation. MSPE was linear in the range 100-1000 pg mL(-1) for phosphamidon and dimethoate, and 10-100 pg mL(-1) for chlorpyrifos and diazinon, with limit of detection (S/N = 3) of 19.8, 23.7, 1.4 and 2.9 pg mL(-1) for phosphamidon, dimethoate, diazinon and chlorpyrifos, respectively. The LODs obtained is well below the maximum residual level (100 pg mL(-1)) as set by European Union for pesticides in drinking water. Acceptable precision (%RSD) was achieved for intra-day (1.3-8.7%, n = 3) and inter-day (7.6-17.8%, n = 15) analyses. Fe3O4@G-TEOS-MTMOS showed high adsorption capacity (54.4-76.3 mg g(-1)) for the selected OPPs. No pesticide residues were detected in the water samples analysed. Excellent extraction recoveries (83-105%) were obtained for the spiked OPPs from tap, river, lake and sea water samples. The newly synthesised Fe3O4@G-TEOS-MTMOS showed high potential as adsorbent for OPPs analysis.
Magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) employing oil-palm fiber activated carbon (OPAC) modified with magnetite (Fe3O4) and polypyrrole (OPAC-Fe3O4-PPy) was successfully used for the determination of two organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), namely endosulfan and dieldrin in environmental water samples. Analysis was performed using gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection (GC-μECD). The effects of three preparation variables, namely Fe3O4:OPAC ratio, amount of pyrrole monomer, and amount of FeCl3 oxidant were optimized using Box-Behnken design (BBD) (R2 < 0.99, p-value < 0.001%). The optimum conditions were as follows: Fe3O4:OPAC ratio of 2:1 w/w, 1 g of FeCl3 and 100 μL of pyrrole monomer. The experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily with the model prediction (> 90% agreement). Optimized OPAC-Fe3O4-PPy composite was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Four numerical parameters of MSPE procedure was optimized using BBD. The significance of the MSPE parameters were salt addition > sample solution pH > extraction time and desorption time. Under the optimized conditions (extraction time: 90 s, desorption time: 10 min, salt: 0%, and pH: 5.8), the method demonstrated good linearity (25-1000 ng L-1) with coefficients of determination, R2 > 0.991, and low detection limits for both endosulfan (7.3 ng L-1) and dieldrin (8.6 ng L-1). The method showed high analyte recoveries in the range of 98.6-103.5% for environmental water samples. The proposed OPAC-Fe3O4-PPy MSPE method offered good features such as sustainability, simplicity, and rapid extraction.
New-generation adsorbent, Fe3O4@SiO2/GO, was developed by modification of graphene oxide (GO) with silica-coated (SiO2) magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4). The synthesized adsorbent was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The developed adsorbent was used for the removal and simultaneous preconcentration of As(III) and As(V) from environmental waters prior to ICP-MS analysis. Fe3O4@SiO2/GO provided high adsorption capacities, i.e., 7.51 and 11.46 mg g(-1) for As(III) and As(V), respectively, at pH 4.0. Adsorption isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic were investigated for As(III) and As(V) adsorption. Preconcentration of As(III) and As(V) were studied using magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) method at pH 9.0 as the adsorbent showed selective adsorption for As(III) only in pH range 7-10. MSPE using Fe3O4@SiO2/GO was developed with good linearities (0.05-2.0 ng mL(-1)) and high coefficient of determination (R (2) = 0.9992 and 0.9985) for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) (3× SD/m, n = 3) obtained were 7.9 pg mL(-1) for As(III) and 28.0 pg mL(-1) for As(V). The LOD obtained is 357-1265× lower than the WHO maximum permissible limit of 10.0 ng mL(-1). The developed MSPE method showed good relative recoveries (72.55-109.71 %) and good RSDs (0.1-4.3 %, n = 3) for spring water, lake, river, and tap water samples. The new-generation adsorbent can be used for the removal and simultaneous preconcentration of As(III) and As(V) from water samples successfully. The adsorbent removal for As(III) is better than As(V).
Zeolite Linde Type L (LTL) crystals with different length, diameter and particle size (nanosized LTL, rod LTL, cylinder LTL and needle LTL) were synthesized, characterized and were used as sorbent in the micro-solid phase extraction of ochratoxin A (OTA) before the high performance liquid chromatography detection. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of OTA for coffee and cereal were 0.09 ng g(-1) and 0.03 ng g(-1), respectively, while the quantification limits were 0.28 ng g(-1) and 0.08 ng g(-1), respectively. The recoveries of OTA of coffee and cereal spiked at 0.5, 10 and 25 ng g(-1) ranged from 91.7 to 101.0%. The proposed method was applied to forty-five samples of coffee and cereal. The presence of OTA was found in twenty-five samples, ranging from 0.28 to 9.33 ng g(-1).
Graphene-magnetite composite (G-Fe3O4) was successfully synthesized and applied as adsorbent for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of two phenolic acids namely 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB) from stingless bee honey prior to analysis using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible detection (HPLC-UV/Vis). Several MSPE parameters affecting extraction of these two acids were optimized. Optimum MSPE conditions were 50 mg of G-Fe3O4 adsorbent, 5 min extraction time at 1600 rpm, 30 mL sample volume, sample solution pH 0.5, 200 µL methanol as desorption solvent (5 min sonication assisted) and 5% w/v NaCl. The LODs (3 S/N) calculated for 4-HB and 3,4-DHB were 0.08 and 0.14 µg/g, respectively. Good relative recoveries (72.6-110.6%) and reproducibility values (RSD
Poly(β-cyclodextrin functionalized ionic liquid) immobilized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@βCD-Vinyl-TDI) as sorbent in magnetic µ-SPE was developed for the determination of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rice samples coupled with gas chromatographic-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The nanocomposite was characterized by various tools and significant parameters that affected the extraction efficiency of PAHs were investigated. The calibration curves were linear for the concentration ranging between 0.1 and 500 μg kg-1 with correlation determinations (R2) from 0.9970 to 0.9982 for all analytes. Detection limits ranged at 0.01-0.18 μg kg-1 in real matrix. The RSD values ranged at 2.95%-5.34% (intra-day) and 4.37%-7.05% (inter-day) precision for six varied days. The sorbents showed satisfactory reproducibility in 2.9% to 9.9% range and acceptable recovery values at 80.4%-112.4% were obtained for the real sample analysis. The optimized method was successfully applied to access content safety of selected PAHs for 24 kinds of commercial rice available in Malaysia.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry.
In this study, a new magnetic adsorbent based on magnetite-sporopollenin/graphene oxide (Fe3O4-SP/GO) was successfully developed. The adsorbent was applied for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of three selected polar organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), namely, dimethoate, phenthoate, and phosphamidon, prior to gas chromatography analysis with electron capture detection (GC-μECD). The Fe3O4-SP/GO adsorbent combines the advantages of superior adsorption capability of the modified sporopollenin (SP) with graphene oxide (GO) and magnetite (Fe3O4) for easy isolation from sample solution. Several MSPE parameters were optimized. Under optimized conditions, excellent linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9994) was achieved using matrix match calibration in the range of 0.1 to 500 ng mL-1. The limit of detection (LOD) method (S/N = 3) was from 0.02 to 0.05 ng mL-1. The developed Fe3O4-SP/GO MSPE method was successfully applied for the determination of these three polar OPPs in cucumber, long beans, bell pepper, and tomato samples. Good recoveries (81.0-120.0%) and good relative standard deviation (RSD) (1.4-7.8%, n = 3) were obtained for the spiked OPPs (1 ng mL-1) from real samples. This study is beneficial for adsorptive removal of toxic pesticide compounds from vegetable samples.
A simple, sensitive and specific reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection at 251 nm was developed for quantitation of buparvaquone (BPQ) in human and rabbit plasma. The method utilizes 250 microL of plasma and sample preparation involves protein precipitation followed by solid-phase extraction. The method was validated on a C18 column with mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate buffer (0.02 m, pH 3.0) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 18:82 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.1 mL/min. The calibration curves were linear (correlation coefficient>or=0.998) in the selected range. The method is specific and sensitive with limit of quantitation of 50 ng/mL for BPQ. The validated method was found to be accurate and precise in the working calibration range. Stability studies were carried out at different storage conditions and BPQ was found to be stable. Partial validation studies were carried out using rabbit plasma and intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within 7%. This method is simple, reliable and can be routinely used for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies for BPQ.