Proteome analysis of the human hair remains challenging due to the poor solubility of hair proteins and the difficulty in their extraction. In the present study, we have developed a rapid extraction protocol for hair shaft protein using alkaline-based buffer. The new protocol accelerated the procedure by reducing the extraction time from at least a day to less than two hours and showed a protein recovery of 47.3 ± 3.72%. Further analyses of the extracted protein sample through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis unveiled a total of 60 proteins, including 25 that were not previously reported. Identification of these proteins is anticipated to be crucial in helping to understand the molecular basis of hair for potential applications in the future.
A simple and selective RP-HPLC-UV method with SPE was developed and validated for the quantification of cefotaxime in all-in-one total parenteral nutrition (AIO-TPN) admixtures. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a 5 pm particle size C18 DB column (250 x 4.6 mm id) using the mobile phase ammonium acetate (25 mM, pH 4.0)-50% acetonitrile in methanol (80 + 20, v/v). The flow rate was 0.9 mL/min and the detection wavelength was 254 nm. The analyte was extracted from AIO-TPN admixtures by means of an SPE method. The cefotaxime calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 100-1400 microg/mL with a correlation coefficient of > or = 0.9994. The intraday accuracy and precision for cefotaxime were < or = -3.15 and < or = 3.08%, respectively, whereas the interday accuracy and precision were < or = -2.48 and < or = 2.25%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to stability studies of cefotaxime in the presence of micronutrients together with low and high concentrations of macronutrients in AIO-TPN admixtures. Cefotaxime was degraded by 13.00 and 26.05% at room temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C) after 72 h in low and high macronutrient concentration formulations of AIO-TPN admixtures, respectively. The values of cefotaxime degradation rates for low and high macronutrient concentration formulations of AIO-TPN admixtures were -0.164 and -0.353, respectively. These results indicated that there was a higher rate of degradation in the AIO-TPN admixture formulations containing high concentrations of macronutrients.
Estuary sediments are one of the important components of coastal ecosystems and have been regarded as a sink for various types of organic pollutants. Organic pollutants such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) which have been associated with various environmental and human health effects were detected in the estuary sediment at trace level. Considering various interferences that may exist in the estuarine sediment, a sensitive and selective method, capable of detecting multiclass EDC pollutants at the trace levels, needs to be developed and optimized to be applied for environmental analysis. A combination of Soxhlet extraction followed by offline solid phase extraction (SPE) cleaned up with detection based on LC triple quadrupole MS was optimized and validated in this study. The targeted compounds consisted of ten multiclass EDCs, namely, diclofenac, primidone, bisphenol A, estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), 4-octylphenol (4-OP), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), progesterone, and testosterone. The method showed high extraction efficiency with percentage of recovery from 78% to 108% and excellent sensitivity with detection limit between 0.02ngg-1 and 0.81ngg-1. Excellent linearity from 0.991 to 0.999 was achieved for the developed compounds and the relative standard deviation was less than 18%, an indication of good precision analysis. Evaluation of the matrix effects showed ionization suppression for all the developed compounds. Verification of the method was carried out by analyzing the estuarine sediment collected from Langat River. The analyzed estuarine sediments showed a trace concentration of diclofenac, bisphenol A, progesterone, testosterone, primidone, and E1. However, E2, EE2, 4-OP, and 4-NP were below the method's detection limit. Diclofenac exhibited the highest concentration at 2.67ngg-1 followed by bisphenol A (1.78ngg-1) while E1 showed the lowest concentration at 0.07ngg-1.
The progress of novel sorbents and their function in preconcentration techniques for determination of trace elements is a topic of great importance. This review discusses numerous analytical approaches including the preparation and practice of unique modification of solid-phase materials. The performance and main features of ion-imprinting polymers, carbon nanotubes, biosorbents, and nanoparticles are described, covering the period 2007-2012. The perspective and future developments in the use of these materials are illustrated.
In this study, caged calcium alginate-caged multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersive microsolid phase extraction was described for the first time for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water samples prior to gas chromatographic analysis. Fluorene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene were selected as model compounds. The caged calcium alginate-caged multiwalled carbon nanotubes was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetry analyses. The effective parameters namely desorption solvent, solvent volume, extraction time, desorption time, the mass of adsorbent and sample volume were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the developed method showed good linearity in the range of 0.5-50 ng mL-1 (R2 ≥ 0.996), low limits of detection and quantification (0.42-0.22 ng mL-1) (0.73-1.38 ng mL-1) respectively, good relative recoveries (71.2-104.2%) and reproducibility (RSD 1.8-12.4%, n = 3) for the studied PAHs in water sample. With high enrichment factor (1,000), short extraction time (<30 min), low amounts of adsorbent (100 mg) and low amounts of solvent (0.1 mol) have proven that the microsolid phase extraction method based on calcium alginate-caged multiwalled carbon nanotubes are environmentally friendly and convenient extraction method to use as an alternative adsorbent in the simultaneous preconcentration of PAHs from environmental water samples.
Cellulose and its forms are widely used in biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability and lack of cytotoxicity. It provides ample opportunities for the functionalization of supported magnetic nanohybrids (CSMNs). Because of the abundance of surface hydroxyl groups, they are surface tunable in either homogeneous or heterogeneous solvents and thus act as a substrate or template for the CSMNs' development. The present review emphasizes on the synthesis of various CSMNs, their physicomagnetic properties, and potential applications such as stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems, MRI, enzyme encapsulation, nucleic acid extraction, wound healing and tissue engineering. The impact of CSMNs on cytotoxicity, magnetic hyperthermia, and folate-conjugates is highlighted in particular, based on their structures, cell viability, and stability. Finally, the review also discussed the challenges and prospects of CSMNs' development. This review is expected to provide CSMNs' development roadmap in the context of 21st-century demands for biomedical therapeutics.
Faecal sterols detection is a promising method for identifying sources of faecal pollution. In this study, faecal contamination in water samples from point source (sewage treatment plants, chicken farms, quail farms and horse stables) was extracted using the solid phase extraction (SPE) technique. Faecal sterols (coprostanol, cholesterol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol and stigmastanol) were selected as parameters to differentiate the source of faecal pollution. The results indicated that coprostanol, cholesterol and beta-sitosterol were the most significant parameters that can be used as source tracers for faecal contamination. Chemometric techniques, such as cluster analysis, principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were applied to the data set on faecal contamination in water from various pollution sources in order to validate the faecal sterols' profiles. Cluster analysis generated three clusters: coprostanol was in cluster 1, cholesterol and beta-sitosterol formed cluster 2, while cluster 3 contained stigmasterol and stigmastanol. Discriminant analysis suggested that coprostanol, cholesterol and beta-sitosterol were the most significant parameters to discriminate between the faecal pollution source. The use of chemometric techniques provides useful and promising indicators in tracing the source of faecal contamination.
Solid phase extraction (SPE) and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) were compared and evaluated for the determination of λ-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin in palm oil matrices by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Several SPE sorbents such as graphitised carbon black (GCB), primary secondary amine (PSA), C(18), silica, and florisil were tested in order to minimise fat residues. The results show that mixed sorbents using GCB and PSA obtained cleaner extracts than a single GCB and PSA sorbents. The average recoveries obtained for each pesticide ranged between 81% and 114% at five fortification levels with the relative standard deviation of less than 7% in all cases. The limits of detection for these pesticides were ranged between 0.025 and 0.05 μg/g. The proposed method was applied successfully for the residue determination of both λ-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin in crude palm oil samples obtained from local mills throughout Malaysia.
A headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME) procedure is optimized for the analysis of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues in food matrices, namely cucumbers and strawberries by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The parameters affecting the HS-SDME performance, such as selection of the extraction solvent, solvent drop volume, extraction time, temperature, stirring rate, and ionic strength, were studied and optimized. Extraction was achieved by exposing 1.5 microL toluene drop to the headspace of a 5 mL aqueous solution in a 15-mL vial and stirred at 800 rpm. The analytical parameters, such as linearity, correlation coefficients, precision, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), and recovery, were compared with those obtained from headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and solid-phase extraction. The mean recoveries for all three methods were all above 70% and below 104%. HS-SPME was the best method with the lowest LOD and LOQ values. Overall, the proposed HS-SDME method is acceptable in the analysis of pesticide residues in food matrices.
This review covers a developmental progression on early to modern taxonomy at cellular level following the advent of electron microscopy and the advancement in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction for expatiation of biological classification at DNA level. Here, we discuss the fundamental values of conventional chemical methods of DNA extraction using liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) followed by development of solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods, as well as recent advances in microfluidics device-based system for DNA extraction on-chip. We also discuss the importance of DNA extraction as well as the advantages over conventional chemical methods, and how Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) system plays a crucial role for the future achievements.
The Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize the extraction of pectin from Averrhoa bilimbi (ABP) using deep eutectic solvents (DES). The four variables of extraction were percentage of DES (X1), extraction time (X2), temperature (X3), and molar ratio of DES components (X4). The quadratic regression equation was established as a predicted model with R2 value of 0.9375. The optimal condition was X1 = 3.74% (w/v), X2 = 2.5 h, X3 = 80 °C, and X4 = 1:1. No significant difference between the predicted (14.70%) and experimental (14.44%) maximum yield of sample was noted. Characterization of physico-chemical properties characterization of ABP was performed. The main components of ABP were galacturonic acids, arabinoses, and xyloses. ABP also showed good functional properties such as water holding capacity (3.70 g/g), oil holding capacity (2.40 g/g), and foaming capacity (133.33%). The results also showed that ABP exhibited free radical scavenging activity (41.46%) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (1.15 mM).
A new solid phase extraction method for rapid high performance liquid chromatography-UV determination of mitragynine in plasma has been developed. Optimal separation was achieved with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-ammonium acetate buffer, 50 mM at pH 5.0 (50:50, v/v). The method had limits of detection and quantification of 0.025 and 0.050 microg/mL, respectively. The method was accurate and precise for the quantitative analysis of mitragynine in human and rat plasma with within-day and between-day accuracies between 84.0 and 109.6%, and their precision values were between 1.7 and 16.8%. Additional advantages over known methods are related to the solid phase extraction technique for sample preparation which yields a clean chromatogram, a short total analysis time, requires a smaller amount of plasma samples and has good assay sensitivity for bioanalytical application. The method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic and stability studies of mitragynine. In the present study, mitragynine was found to be fairly stable during storage and sample preparation. The present study showed for the first time the detailed pharmacokinetic profiles of mitragynine. Following intravenous administration, mitragynine demonstrated a biphasic elimination from plasma. Oral absorption of the drug was slow, prolonged and was incomplete, with a calculated absolute oral bioavailability value of 3.03%. The variations observed in previous pharmacokinetic studies after oral administration of mitragynine could be attributed to its poor bioavailability rather than to the differences in assay method, metabolic saturation or mitragynine dose.
As a widely consumed beverage, coffee tends to be a target for intentional adulteration. This study describes the application of modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) coupled to liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for simultaneous screening, identification, and quantification of undeclared phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors in instant coffee premixes (ICPs). The mass spectrometer was operated in auto MS/MS acquisition for simultaneous MS and MS/MS experiments. Qualitative establishments from the suspected-target screening and targeted identification processes led to an unambiguous analyte assignment from the protonated molecule ([M+H]+) precursor ion which is subsequently used for quantification of 23 targeted PDE5 inhibitors. The analytical method validation covered specificity, linearity, range, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precisions, matrix effect (ME), and extraction recovery (RE). The specificity was established using the optimised chromatographic separation as well as the distinguishable [M+H]+ precursor ion. The linearity of each target analyte was demonstrated with a coefficient of determination (r2) of >0.9960 over the expected range of sample concentrations. The accuracy ranged from 88.1%-119.3% with LOD and LOQ of <70 ng/mL and 80 ng/mL, respectively. Excellent precisions were established within 0.4%-9.1% of the relative standard deviation. An insignificant ME within -5.2% to +8.7% was achieved using three different strategies of chromatography, sample extraction, and sample dilution. The RE was good for all target analytes within 84.7%-123.5% except for N-desethylacetildenafil at low (53.8%) and medium (65.1%) quality control levels. The method was successfully applied to 25 samples of ICPs where 17 of them were found to be adulterated with PDE5 inhibitors and their analogues. Further quantification revealed the total amount of these adulterants ranged from 2.77 to 121.64 mg per sachet.
A solid phase extraction (SPE) method has been developed using a newly synthesized titanium (IV) butoxide-cyanopropyltriethoxysilane (Ti-CNPrTEOS) sorbent for polar selective extraction of aromatic amines in river water sample. The effect of different parameters on the extraction recovery was studied using the SPE method. The applicability of the sorbents for the extraction of polar aromatic amines by the SPE was extensively studied and evaluated as a function of pH, conditioning solvent, sample loading volume, elution solvent and elution solvent volume. The optimum experimental conditions were sample at pH 7, dichloromethane as conditioning solvent, 10 mL sample loading volume and 5 mL of acetonitrile as the eluting solvent. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for solid phase extraction using Ti-CNPrTEOS SPE sorbent (0.01-0.2; 0.03-0.61 µg L(-1)) were lower compared with those achieved using Si-CN SPE sorbent (0.25-1.50; 1.96-3.59 µg L(-1)) and C18 SPE sorbent (0.37-0.98; 1.87-2.87 µg L(-1)) with higher selectivity towards the extraction of polar aromatic amines. The optimized procedure was successfully applied for the solid phase extraction method of selected aromatic amines in river water, waste water and tap water samples prior to the gas chromatography-flame ionization detector separation.
A novel microextraction technique termed solid phase membrane tip extraction (SPMTE) was developed. Selected triazine herbicides were employed as model compounds to evaluate the extraction performance and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as the adsorbent enclosed in SPMTE device. The SPMTE procedure was performed in semi-automated dynamic mode and several important extraction parameters were comprehensively optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 1-100 microg/L, acceptable reproducibility (RSD 6-8%, n=5), low limits of detection (0.2-0.5 microg/L), and satisfactory relative recoveries (95-101%). The SPMTE device could be regenerated and reused up to 15 analyses with no analyte carry-over effects observed. Comparison was made with commercially available solid phase extraction-molecular imprinted polymer cartridge (SPE-MIP) for triazine herbicides as the reference method. The new developed method showed comparable or even better results against reference method and is a simple, feasible, and cost effective microextraction technique.
The scarcity of data about the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in water bodies in Malaysia prompted us to develop a suitable analytical method to address this issue. We therefore developed a method based on solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-TOF/MS) for the analysis of sixteen prescribed and two nonprescribed pharmaceuticals that are potentially present in water samples. The levels of these pharmaceuticals, which were among the top 50 pharmaceuticals consumed in Malaysia during the period 2011-2014, in influent and effluent of five sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Bangi, Malaysia, were then analyzed using the developed method. All of the pharmaceuticals were separated chromatographically using a 5 μm, 2.1 mm × 250 mm C18 column at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.3-8.2 ng/L, 6.5-89 ng/L, and 11.1-93.8 ng/L in deionized water (DIW), STP effluent, and STP influent, respectively, for most of the pharmaceuticals. Recoveries were 51-108%, 52-118%, and 80-107% from the STP influent, STP effluent, and DIW, respectively, for most of the pharmaceuticals. The matrix effect was also evaluated. The signals from carbamazepine, diclofenac sodium, and mefenamic acid were found to be completely suppressed in the STP influent. The signals from other compounds were found to be influenced by matrix effects more strongly in STP influent (enhancement or suppression of signal ≤180%) than in effluent (≤94%). The signal from prednisolone was greatly enhanced in the STP influent, indicating a matrix effect of -134%. Twelve pharmaceuticals were frequently detected in all five STPs, and caffeine, prazosin, and theophylline presented the highest concentrations among all the pharmaceuticals monitored: up to 7611, 550, and 319 ng/L in the STP influent, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that prazosin has been detected in a water matrix in Malaysia. Graphical abstract ᅟ.
Lower dye concentrations and the presence of several dyes along with other matrices in environmental samples restrict their determination. Herein, a highly sensitive and rapid ultra-performance tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for simultaneous determination of cationic dyes, namely methylene blue (MB), rhodamine B (RB) and crystal violet (CV), in environmental samples. To preconcentrate environmental samples, solid-phase extraction cartridges were developed by using hydrogen peroxide modified pistachio shell biomass (MPSB). The surface morphological and chemical functionalities of MPSB were well characterized. The developed method was validated considering different validation parameters. In terms of accuracy and precision, the %RSD for all three dyes at all four concentration points was found to be between 1.26 and 2.76, while the accuracy reported in terms of the recovery was found to be 98.02%-101.70%. The recovery was found to be in the range of 98.11% to 99.55%. The real sample analysis shows that MB, RB, and CV were found in the ranges of 0.39-5.56, 0.32-1.92 and 0.27-4.36 μg/mL, respectively.
New-generation adsorbent, Fe3O4@SiO2/GO, was developed by modification of graphene oxide (GO) with silica-coated (SiO2) magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4). The synthesized adsorbent was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The developed adsorbent was used for the removal and simultaneous preconcentration of As(III) and As(V) from environmental waters prior to ICP-MS analysis. Fe3O4@SiO2/GO provided high adsorption capacities, i.e., 7.51 and 11.46 mg g(-1) for As(III) and As(V), respectively, at pH 4.0. Adsorption isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic were investigated for As(III) and As(V) adsorption. Preconcentration of As(III) and As(V) were studied using magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) method at pH 9.0 as the adsorbent showed selective adsorption for As(III) only in pH range 7-10. MSPE using Fe3O4@SiO2/GO was developed with good linearities (0.05-2.0 ng mL(-1)) and high coefficient of determination (R (2) = 0.9992 and 0.9985) for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) (3× SD/m, n = 3) obtained were 7.9 pg mL(-1) for As(III) and 28.0 pg mL(-1) for As(V). The LOD obtained is 357-1265× lower than the WHO maximum permissible limit of 10.0 ng mL(-1). The developed MSPE method showed good relative recoveries (72.55-109.71 %) and good RSDs (0.1-4.3 %, n = 3) for spring water, lake, river, and tap water samples. The new-generation adsorbent can be used for the removal and simultaneous preconcentration of As(III) and As(V) from water samples successfully. The adsorbent removal for As(III) is better than As(V).
A novel porous coordination polymer adsorbent (BTCA-P-Cu-CP) based on a piperazine(P) as a ligand and 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) as a linker was synthesized and magnetized to form magnetic porous coordination polymer (BTCA-P-Cu-MCP). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), field emission scanning electron microscope(FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDS), CHN, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller(BET) analysis were used to characterize the synthesized adsorbent. BTCA-P-Cu-MCP was used for removal and preconcentration of Pb(II) ions from environmental water samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry(FAAS) analysis. The maximum adsorption capacity of BTCA-P-Cu-MCP was 582 mg g-1. Adsorption isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic parameters were investigated for Pb(II) ions adsorption. Magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) method was used for preconcentration of Pb(II) ions and the parameters influencing the preconcentration process have been examined. The linearity range of proposed method was 0.1-100 μg L-1 with a preconcentration factor of 100. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for lead were 0.03 μg L-1 and 0.11 μg L-1, respectively. The intra-day (n = 7) and inter-day (n = 3) relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.54 and 3.43% respectively. The recoveries from 94.75 ± 4 to 100.93 ± 1.9% were obtained for rapid extraction of trace levels of Pb(II) ions in different water samples. The results showed that the BTCA-P-Cu-MCP was steady and effective adsorbent for the decontamination and preconcentration of lead ions from the aqueous environment.
The non-ionic silicone surfactant (OFX 0309) has been applied in cloud point extraction for the extraction of triazine herbicides in food samples. Evidence has shown that the non-ionic silicone surfactant demonstrated a good performance as an extractor toward triazine herbicides. In this present study, OFX 0309 surfactant was combined with activated charcoal (AC) due to their valuable properties. Activated charcoal modified with non-ionic silicone surfactant coated with magnetic nanoparticles (AC-OFX MNPs) was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, VSM, SEM, TEM and BET. This novel material was applied as a magnetic adsorbent for the pre-concentration and separation of triazine herbicides due to hydrophobic interaction between polysiloxane polyether of OFX 0309 surfactant and triazine herbicides. Under optimal conditions, the proposed magnetic solid phase extraction method using AC-OFX MNPs adsorbent was applied to extract triazine herbicides from selected milk and rice samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector. The validation method revealed a good linearity (1 - 500 μg L-1) with the coefficient of determination (R2) in the range of 0.992-0.998 for the samples. The limits of detection (LOD) of the developed method were 0.04 - 0.05 µg L-1 (milk sample) and 0.02 - 0.05 µg L-1 (rice sample). The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.134 - 0.176 µg L-1 (milk sample) and 0.075 - 0.159 µg L-1 (rice sample). The recoveries of the triazine compounds ranged from 81% to 109% in spiked milk samples and from 81% to 111% in spiked rice samples, with relative standard deviations (RSD) values lower than 13.5% and 12.1% for milk and rice samples, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that have investigated the use of magnetic nanoparticles coated activated charcoal modified with OFX 0309 surfactant for pretreatment of triazine herbicides in food samples analysis for simultaneous separation of organic pollutants.