Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 98 in total

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  1. Thompson CW, Phelps KL, Allard MW, Cook JA, Dunnum JL, Ferguson AW, et al.
    mBio, 2021 01 12;12(1).
    PMID: 33436435 DOI: 10.1128/mBio.02698-20
    Despite being nearly 10 months into the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic, the definitive animal host for SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), the causal agent of COVID-19, remains unknown. Unfortunately, similar problems exist for other betacoronaviruses, and no vouchered specimens exist to corroborate host species identification for most of these pathogens. This most basic information is critical to the full understanding and mitigation of emerging zoonotic diseases. To overcome this hurdle, we recommend that host-pathogen researchers adopt vouchering practices and collaborate with natural history collections to permanently archive microbiological samples and host specimens. Vouchered specimens and associated samples provide both repeatability and extension to host-pathogen studies, and using them mobilizes a large workforce (i.e., biodiversity scientists) to assist in pandemic preparedness. We review several well-known examples that successfully integrate host-pathogen research with natural history collections (e.g., yellow fever, hantaviruses, helminths). However, vouchering remains an underutilized practice in such studies. Using an online survey, we assessed vouchering practices used by microbiologists (e.g., bacteriologists, parasitologists, virologists) in host-pathogen research. A much greater number of respondents permanently archive microbiological samples than archive host specimens, and less than half of respondents voucher host specimens from which microbiological samples were lethally collected. To foster collaborations between microbiologists and natural history collections, we provide recommendations for integrating vouchering techniques and archiving of microbiological samples into host-pathogen studies. This integrative approach exemplifies the premise underlying One Health initiatives, providing critical infrastructure for addressing related issues ranging from public health to global climate change and the biodiversity crisis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  2. Ho HC, Smith DG, Mccosker JE, Hibino Y, Loh KH, Tighe KA, et al.
    Zootaxa, 2015;4060:140-89.
    PMID: 26701598 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4060.1.16
    An annotated checklist of eels, orders Anguilliformes and Saccopharyngiformes, occurring in Taiwanese waters is presented. The checklist is the result of a series of systematic studies conducted by the authors in the past few years. The eel fauna of Taiwan is one of the richest in the world with a total of 206 species in 74 genera and 13 families in Anguilliformes and a single species in Saccopharyngiformes. The most species-rich families are the Muraenidae with 71 species, followed by the Ophichthidae with 60 species, the Congridae with 29 species, and the Synaphobranchidae with 17 species. Moreover, three genera and 42 species have been described based on at least one type specimen collected from Taiwan. Of these, 36 species are recognized as valid and 23 species are known only from Taiwanese waters at present. Historical records of all Taiwanese eel species are reviewed by examining the original descriptions and figures, vouchers, as well as the recently collected specimens, where available. This represents the first detailed checklist of eels from Taiwanese waters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  3. Takaoka H, Sofian-Azirun M, Ya'cob Z, Chen CD, Lau KW, Fernandez K, et al.
    Zootaxa, 2015;3985(1):1-30.
    PMID: 26250021 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3985.1.1
    Species of the Simulium (Simulium) melanopus species-group in Sabah are taxonomically revised by examining type specimens of S. (S.) crassimanum S. (S.) laterale, and S. (S.) nigripilosum, all described from females by Edwards in 1933, and newly collected samples from the vicinity of Mt. Kinabalu. The females of these three species are redescribed, and their males and pupae are described for the first time based on adults reared from pupae. Simulium (S.) liewi Takaoka, 2007 and S. (S.) kinabaluense Smart & Clifford, 1969 are synonymized with S. (S.) crassimanum and S. (S.) laterale, respectively. Simulium (S.) cheedhangi Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Ya'cob, 2015 is newly recorded from Sabah. Two new related species, S. (S.) lardizabalae and S. (S.) timpohonense, are described from males reared from pupae. Keys to identify eight species of the S. melanopus species-group in Sabah are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  4. Scharpf C
    Zootaxa, 2015;3986(4):499-500.
    PMID: 26250205 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3986.4.10
    In a meristic, morphometric and distributional study of Neolissochilus from Peninsular Malaysia, Khaironizam et al. (2015) subsumed Lissochilus tweediei Herre in Herre & Myers 1937 and a taxon they called "Tor soro Bishop 1973" into the synonymy of N. soroides (Duncker 1904) based on data collected from museum specimens. However, "Bishop 1973" is not the correct author citation for Tor soro. Instead, Tor (now placed in Neolissochilus) soro was originally described as Barbus soro by Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes (1842:191). Since "Tor soro Bishop 1973" is not a valid name/author combination, Neolissochilus soro, as treated by Khaironizam et al. (2015), cannot be considered a junior synonym of N. soroides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  5. Liew TS, Vermeulen JJ, Marzuki ME, Schilthuizen M
    Zookeys, 2014.
    PMID: 24715783 DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.393.6717
    Plectostoma is a micro land snail restricted to limestone outcrops in Southeast Asia. Plectostoma was previously classified as a subgenus of Opisthostoma because of the deviation from regular coiling in many species in both taxa. This paper is the first of a two-part revision of the genus Plectostoma, and includes all non-Borneo species. In the present paper, we examined 214 collection samples of 31 species, and obtained 62 references, 290 pictures, and 155 3D-models of 29 Plectostoma species and 51 COI sequences of 19 species. To work with such a variety of taxonomic data, and then to represent it in an integrated, scaleable and accessible manner, we adopted up-to-date cybertaxonomic tools. All the taxonomic information, such as references, classification, species descriptions, specimen images, genetic data, and distribution data, were tagged and linked with cyber tools and web servers (e.g. Lifedesks, Google Earth, and Barcoding of Life Database). We elevated Plectostoma from subgenus to genus level based on morphological, ecological and genetic evidence. We revised the existing 21 Plectostoma species and described 10 new species, namely, P. dindingensis sp. n., P. mengaburensis sp. n., P. whitteni sp. n., P. kayiani sp. n., P. davisoni sp. n., P. relauensis sp. n., P. kubuensis sp. n., P. tohchinyawi sp. n., P. tenggekensis sp. n., and P. ikanensis sp. n. All the synthesised, semantic-tagged, and linked taxonomic information is made freely and publicly available online.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  6. Shafie IN, Anderson TJ, Penderis J, Eckersall PD, McLaughlin M
    Vet. J., 2013 Sep;197(3):836-41.
    PMID: 23820135 DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.05.039
    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a potential source for disease-specific biomarkers that may assist in the staging and determining the prognosis of neurodegenerative conditions in animals. However, the validity of such putative biomarkers may be influenced by pre-analytical variables, including the procedures adopted to collect and store the CSF. This study assessed the effect of three handling practices on the stability of a panel of CSF proteins: clusterin (also known as apolipoprotein J), haptoglobin, cystatin C, and transthyretin (TTR). The three handling procedures for canine CSF were mimicked in the laboratory as follows: (1) storage in a refrigerator overnight (4 °C for 18 h); (2) carrying a sample in the pocket of a clinician (37 °C for 4h); and (3) mailing a sample to a remote laboratory for analysis (room temp for 48 h). The impact of these three scenarios on the concentrations of the selected proteins was assessed using Western blotting and compared to an aliquot of CSF that had been kept frozen. The level of clusterin was significantly reduced following 48 h at room temperature (P<0.05), while the concentration of the dimeric form of TTR increased following this handling procedure and also when held at 37 °C for 4h. A reducing agent prevented this increase at 37 °C. In conclusion, exposing CSF samples to various environmental conditions can significantly alter their protein content, a factor that must be considered in studies assessing potential biomarkers in canine CSF.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods; Specimen Handling/veterinary
  7. Lau SM, Vythilingam I, Doss JI, Sekaran SD, Chua TH, Wan Sulaiman WY, et al.
    Trop Med Int Health, 2015 Oct;20(10):1271-80.
    PMID: 26094839 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12555
    To determine the effectiveness of using sticky traps and the NS1 dengue antigen kit for the surveillance of Aedes mosquitoes for dengue control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  8. Jamail M, Andrew K, Junaidi D, Krishnan AK, Faizal M, Rahmah N
    Trop Med Int Health, 2005 Jan;10(1):99-104.
    PMID: 15655019
    We conducted a field study of a rapid test (Brugia Rapid) for detection of Brugia malayi infection to validate its sensitivity and specificity under operational conditions. Seven districts in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia, which are endemic for brugian filariasis, were used to determine the test sensitivity. Determination of specificity was performed in another state in Malaysia (Bachok, Kelantan) which is non-endemic for filariasis but endemic for soil-transmitted helminths. In Sarawak both the rapid test and thick blood smear preparation were performed in the field. The rapid test was interpreted on site, whereas blood smears were taken to the district health centres for staining and microscopic examination. Sensitivity of Brugia Rapid dipstick as compared with microscopy of thick blood smears was 87% (20/23; 95% CI: 66.4-97.2) whereas the specificity was 100% (512/512). The lower sensitivity of the test in the field than in laboratory evaluations (> or =95%), was probably due to the small number of microfilaraemic individuals, in addition to difficulties in performing the test in remote villages by field personnel. The overall prevalence of brugian filariasis as determined by the dipstick is 9.4% (95% CI: 8.2-0.5) while that determined by microscopy is 0.90% (95% CI: 0.5-1.3) thus the dipstick detected about 10 times more cases than microscopy. Equal percentages of adults and children were found to be positive by the dipstick whereas microscopy showed that the number of infected children was seven times less than infected adults. The rapid dipstick test was useful as a diagnostic tool for mapping and certification phases of the lymphatic filariasis elimination programme in B. malayi-endemic areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods
  9. Yahaya ZS, Izzaudin NA, Razak AF
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2017 Jan;28(1):145-149.
    PMID: 28228922 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2017.28.1.10
    A study on the prevalence of a common endoparasite in the wild population of the American cockroach was conducted in Penang Island using a trapping method at several sampling sites on the island. Gregarine blattarum was found in the digestive tract in 5 out of 115, or 4.35%, of the wild American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, that were sampled. This is the first report in Malaysia of Gregarine blattarum in local American cockroaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  10. Morni WZ, Rahim SA, Rumpet R, Musel J, Hassan R
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2017 Jan;28(1):117-129.
    PMID: 28228920 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2017.28.1.8
    This study provides the first marine gastropod checklist from the Sarawak Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Gastropod samples were collected from selected stations in the Sarawak EEZ using an otter trawl net with a stretched mesh size of 38 mm at the cod end. The trawling operations were conducted more than 12 nautical miles from the coast, and the area was divided into three depth strata: I) 20-50 m, II) 50-100 m and III) 100-200 m. A total of 23 gastropod species were identified during the two-month sampling period from 16 August until 6 October 2015, representing 8 superfamilies, 15 families and 20 genera. Superfamily Tonnoidea was represented by 7 species, followed by Muricoidea (5 species), Cypraeoidea (4 species), and Buccinoidea and Conoidea (both with 2 species). Other superfamilies were represented by a single species. Only 3 species were obtained in 2 depth strata, namely Melo melo, Murex aduncospinosus and Tonna galea. In addition, 9, 13 and 4 species of gastropods were found in strata I, II and III, respectively. The information on gastropod distributions at different depth strata in the Sarawak EEZ could be useful in updating the Malaysian species diversity database.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  11. Nurul Fazlinda Mohd Fadzil, Amir Shah Ruddin Md Sah, Mohd Shafiq Zakeyuddin, Zarul Hazrin Hashim, Mohd Syaiful Mohammad, Khalid Puteh
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2016;27(11):79-85.
    MyJurnal
    A study was conducted at five selected rivers around Bukit Merah Reservoir,
    Perak, Malaysia for eight weeks in order to determine the fish diversity and distribution. A
    total of 28 species comprised of 9 families were identified. The study depicted that there
    were significant changes to the fish composition when compared to previous study which
    had captured 36 species due to different areas covered and different types of sampling
    gear used between both studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  12. Latif B, Kannan Kutty M, Muslim A, Hussaini J, Omar E, Heo CC, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Sep;32(3):444-52.
    PMID: 26695204 MyJurnal
    One thousand and forty-five tissue samples of skeletal muscles, tongue, heart, diaphragm and esophagus were collected from 209 animals (43 sheep, 89 goats and 77 cattle) from an abattoir in Selangor between February and October, 2013. Each sample was divided into three pieces with each piece measuring 2-3 mm3. Each piece was then squeezed between two glass slides and examined microscopically at x 10 magnification for the presence of sarcocystosis. Three positive samples from each animal species were then fixed in 10% formalin for histological processing. Seven positive samples collected from each animal species were preserved at -80°C or 90% ethanol for gene expression studies. Microsarcocysts were detected in 114 (54.5%) animals by light microscopy (LM). The infection rates in sheep, goat and cattle were 86, 61.8 and 28.6% respectively. The highest rate of infection was in the skeletal muscles of sheep (64.9%) and goats (63.6%) and in the heart of cattle (63.6%). The cysts were spindle to oval in shape and two stages were recognized, the peripheral metrocytes and centrally located banana-shaped bradyzoites. 18S rRNA gene expression studies confirmed the isolates from the sheep as S. ovicanis, goats as S. capracanis and cattle as S. bovicanis. This, to the best of our knowledge, is the first molecular identification of an isolate of S. ovicanis and S. capracanis in Malaysia. Further studies with electron microscopy (EM) are required in the future to compare the features of different types of Sarcocysts spp.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods
  13. Kavitha R, Tan TC, Lee HL, Nazni WA, Sofian AM
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Jun;30(2):211-9.
    PMID: 23959486 MyJurnal
    DNA identification of blow fly species can be a very useful tool in forensic entomology. One of the potential benefits that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has offered in the field of forensic entomology is species determination. Conventional identification methods have limitations for sibling and closely related species of blow fly and stage and quality of the specimen used. This could be overcome by DNA-based identification methods using mitochondrial DNA which does not demand intact or undamaged specimens. Mitochondrial DNA is usually isolated from whole blow fly and legs. Alternate sources for mitochondrial DNA isolation namely, egg, larva, puparium and empty puparium were explored in this study. The sequence of DNA obtained for each sample for every life cycle stage was 100% identical for a particular species, indicating that the egg, 1st instar, 2nd instar, 3rd instar, pupa, empty puparium and adult from the same species and obtained from same generation will exhibit similar DNA sequences. The present study also highlighted the usefulness of collecting all life cycle stages of blow fly during crime scene investigation with proper preservation and subsequent molecular analysis. Molecular identification provides a strong basis for species identification and will prove an invaluable contribution to forensic entomology as an investigative tool in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods
  14. Anisah N, Amal H, Kamel AG, Yusof S, Noraina AR, Norhayati M
    Trop Biomed, 2005 Jun;22(1):11-4.
    PMID: 16880749 MyJurnal
    Is Acanthamoeba sp. normally found in the eyes? A study was carried out to establish the possibility of Acanthamoeba sp. as a part of the normal conjunctival flora. Conjunctiva swabbing were carried out in 286 healthy Orang Asli school children using sterile cotton swab. The swab was then inoculated onto non-nutrient agar (NN-A). Heat killed Escherichia coli that was used as food source for the growth of the amoebae was pipetted onto and away from the smear. The plates were incubated at 30 degrees C and examined daily using an inverted microscope for 14 days. Morphology of the trophozoites and cysts of the amoebae were used as the taxonomic criteria for identification. Positive-controls and negative-controls were done to check for the consistency of the technique used and monitoring of contamination respectively. None of the conjunctiva swab cultured was positive for Acanthamoeba sp. This finding may indicate that Acanthamoeba sp. is not part of normal conjunctival flora or conjunctiva swab is an insensitive technique to isolate the organism. However, a more extensive research is needed to investigate these possibilities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/instrumentation
  15. Sarirah M, Wijayanti MA, Murhandarwati EEH
    Trop Biomed, 2019 Sep 01;36(3):677-686.
    PMID: 33597489
    In Soil-Transmitted Helminth (STH) control programs, microscopic examination is applied as a standard method for detecting the presence and the number of STH eggs. The time limitations of fresh specimen processing, especially for an accurate quantitative diagnosis, cause the specimen processing to be delayed or should be performed at a referral laboratory. This deferment requires preservatives to keep the stool integrity without reducing the accuracy. The aims of this study were: 1) to compare the proportion of positive samples and the intensity of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm infection based on the examination of fresh samples and stool preserved by 10% formalin for >12 months and 2) to determine the most reliably accurate between Kato-Katz and mini-FLOTAC methods in detecting A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm eggs in preserved stools both qualitatively and quantitatively. Seventy-eight (78) stool samples were examined by mini-FLOTAC, and KatoKatz methods. Proportion of positive samples of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworms in fresh and in >=12 months 10% formalin preserved stools had no significant difference. Helminths density (eggs per gram of stool/EPG) in fresh samples was fewer compared to EPG in preserved samples (p <0.05) which leads to a lower proportion of moderate and high level groups in fresh stools samples compared to those in preserved samples (p <0.05). In preserved samples, as qualitative method, mini-FLOTAC detected more A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura eggs than Kato-Katz, while hookworm eggs were detected more by Kato-Katz than the miniFLOTAC. As a quantitative detection, Kato-Katz showed higher calculation of STH EPG than mini-FLOTAC. Using 10% formalin preservation for stool samples, the STH eggs' morphology could still be well identified. Homogenization process and low number of samples tested, were acknowledged as the limitation of this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  16. Mohd Thabit AA, Peariasamy KM, Kuan PX, Fern Ying DK, Nheu N, Cyncynatus C, et al.
    Travel Med Infect Dis, 2021 07 21;43:102144.
    PMID: 34302954 DOI: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2021.102144
    BACKGROUND: The standard for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis is RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swabs. Major airports require COVID-19 screening, and saliva has the potential as a substitute specimen for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. We investigated the utility of fresh drooled saliva against NPS for COVID-19 screening of travelers.

    METHODS: We recruited 81 travelers and 15 non-travelers (including ten controls) prospectively within a mean of 3·22 days of RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19. Each study participant provided 2 mls of early morning fresh drooled whole saliva separately into a sterile plastic container and GeneFiX™ saliva collection kit. The saliva specimens were processed within 4 h and tested for SARS-CoV-2 genes (E, RdRP, and N2) and the results compared to paired NPS RT-PCR for diagnostic accuracy.

    RESULTS: Majority of travellers were asymptomatic (75·0%) with a mean age of 34·26 years. 77 travelers were RT-PCR positive at the time of hospitalization whilst three travelers had positive contacts. In this group, the detection rate for SARS-CoV-2 with NPS, whole saliva, and GeneFiX™ were comparable (89·3%, 50/56; 87·8%, 43/49; 89·6%, 43/48). Both saliva collection methods were in good agreement (Kappa = 0·69). There was no statistical difference between the detection rates of saliva and NPS (p > 0·05). Detection was highest for the N2 gene whilst the E gene provided the highest viral load (mean = 27·96 to 30·10, SD = 3·14 to 3·85). Saliva specimens have high sensitivity (80·4%) and specificity (90·0%) with a high positive predictive value of 91·8% for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis.

    CONCLUSION: Saliva for SARS-CoV-2 screening is a simple accurate technique comparable with NPS RT-PCR.

    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  17. Jusman Y, Ng SC, Abu Osman NA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:289817.
    PMID: 25610902 DOI: 10.1155/2014/289817
    This paper investigated the effects of critical-point drying (CPD) and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) sample preparation techniques for cervical cells on field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (FE-SEM/EDX). We investigated the visualization of cervical cell image and elemental distribution on the cervical cell for two techniques of sample preparation. Using FE-SEM/EDX, the cervical cell images are captured and the cell element compositions are extracted for both sample preparation techniques. Cervical cell image quality, elemental composition, and processing time are considered for comparison of performances. Qualitatively, FE-SEM image based on HMDS preparation technique has better image quality than CPD technique in terms of degree of spread cell on the specimen and morphologic signs of cell deteriorations (i.e., existence of plate and pellet drying artifacts and membrane blebs). Quantitatively, with mapping and line scanning EDX analysis, carbon and oxygen element compositions in HMDS technique were higher than the CPD technique in terms of weight percentages. The HMDS technique has shorter processing time than the CPD technique. The results indicate that FE-SEM imaging, elemental composition, and processing time for sample preparation with the HMDS technique were better than CPD technique for cervical cell preparation technique for developing computer-aided screening system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  18. Rashid Ali MR, Parameswaran U, William T, Bird E, Wilkes CS, Lee WK, et al.
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2015 May;19(5):620-1.
    PMID: 25868033 DOI: 10.5588/ijtld.14.0938
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods
  19. Isa NH, Sulaiman S, Shahid MS, Rose IM, Eugene CB
    PMID: 7825018
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling*
  20. Bahyah MK, Murad ZA, Ghazali I, Roszaman R, Noraziana AW, Mokhtar A, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Mar;65(1):23-6.
    PMID: 21265243 MyJurnal
    A one year study was carried out to determine the outcome of the seminal fluid parameters collected via masturbation and coitus interruptus in 151 patients who were undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) and patients who came for seminal analysis. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of volume, concentration, progressive motility and normal morphology from specimens collected via coitus interruptus compared to specimens collected via masturbation. Pregnancy outcomes were also comparable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
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