Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 98 in total

  1. Aishah Hamzah, Ab Fatah Ab Rahman
    The appropriateness of sampling times and indications for monitoring of serum drug concentrations for the purpose of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) were evaluated at three hospitals on the east coast of Malaysia. Appropriateness criteria for indication and sampling were adapted from previously published criteria and with input from local TDM pharmacists. Six drugs were chosen, namely gentamicin, digoxin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and valproic acid. A total of 265 TDM requests were evaluated. Appropriateness of the indication for TDM ranged from 77.4% to 82%, while that for sampling ranged from 34.2% to 62.1%. There were no significant differences between the three hospitals in both categories of appropriateness. Among different drug groups, the percentage of appropriate indication was found to be highest with antiepileptic drugs. Antiepileptic drugs, however, had the lowest rate of appropriate sampling. Overall, findings from the three hospitals showed very encouraging results with almost 80% of the requests considered as appropriately indicated. However, the percentage of appropriateness of sampling was lower, and thus may require further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  2. Mustafa Al-Ahmad, Basma Ezzat, Sukmasari S., Abdul Jabbar O.
    Introductions: Recurrent oral ulcers primarily effect mucosal surfaces and are among the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. Numerous studies to find the aetiopathogenesis have been conducted however the cause still remains unclear. Saliva is of utmostimportance for oral health maintenance. In current study, saliva was used as a diagnostic tool for comparison of salivary flow rate and pH in patients suffering from recurrent oral ulcers and control group. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples taken from 20 recurrent aphthous ulcer patients and 20 control (healthy) patients using a convient sampling method. Drooling method was used to collect unstimulated whole saliva sample. Pre-weighted specimen bottles were used and then weighed after sample collection on a graduated scale where as chair-side pH meter was used to determine the salivary pH. Independent t-test and Pearson’s correlation were performed. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significance. Results: Positive correlation was found between the flow rate and pH in recurrent oral ulcer patients. Patients with recurrent oral ulcers had higher flow rate and pH compared to the control group. These effects were exaggerated in female patients with ulcers. Conclusions: Disturbances in salivary flow rate and pH were not significantly associated with recurrent oral ulcers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  3. Nurul Izni Rusli, Mastura Shafinaz Zainal Abidin, Budi Astuti, Ali NK, Abdul Manaf Hashim
    Sains Malaysiana, 2013;42:643-648.
    We report the formation of macropores in n-Si (100) substrates for different etching times of 20, 40 and 60 min at a constant current density of 25 mA/cm2 under front-side illumination in HF:ethanol (1:4) solution. After etching for 20 min, four-branch-shaped pores of various sizes were observed at discrete locations. Etching time of 40 min led to the formation of highly connected four-branch-shaped pores as the branches of adjacent pores appeared to connect to each other. As the etching time was increased further to 60 min, the density of interconnected branches increased remarkably. The macropore formation process occurred in three consecutive phases. The current burst model was used to discuss this process. Formation of four-branch-shaped pores at random locations were observed because current bursts are more likely to nucleate where other current bursts took place initially.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  4. Jusman Y, Ng SC, Abu Osman NA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:289817.
    PMID: 25610902 DOI: 10.1155/2014/289817
    This paper investigated the effects of critical-point drying (CPD) and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) sample preparation techniques for cervical cells on field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (FE-SEM/EDX). We investigated the visualization of cervical cell image and elemental distribution on the cervical cell for two techniques of sample preparation. Using FE-SEM/EDX, the cervical cell images are captured and the cell element compositions are extracted for both sample preparation techniques. Cervical cell image quality, elemental composition, and processing time are considered for comparison of performances. Qualitatively, FE-SEM image based on HMDS preparation technique has better image quality than CPD technique in terms of degree of spread cell on the specimen and morphologic signs of cell deteriorations (i.e., existence of plate and pellet drying artifacts and membrane blebs). Quantitatively, with mapping and line scanning EDX analysis, carbon and oxygen element compositions in HMDS technique were higher than the CPD technique in terms of weight percentages. The HMDS technique has shorter processing time than the CPD technique. The results indicate that FE-SEM imaging, elemental composition, and processing time for sample preparation with the HMDS technique were better than CPD technique for cervical cell preparation technique for developing computer-aided screening system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  5. Nur A'shirah Mohd Azman, Adekunle Qudus Adeleke
    This paper assessed the effect of time overruns on apartment building among
    Kuantan Malaysian construction industries. A survey was conducted among 10
    construction industries in Kuantan Pahang. Using proportionate stratified random
    sampling, out of which 10 questionnaires were distributed for data analysis. Using
    five point Likert scale categories from previous studies, statistical analysis affirmed a
    significant positive relationship between time overruns and apartment building
    among Kuantan Malaysian construction industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  6. Mohamed Zahidi J, Bee Yong T, Hashim R, Mohd Noor A, Hamzah SH, Ahmad N
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 2015 Apr;81(4):227-33.
    PMID: 25641125 DOI: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2014.12.012
    Molecular approaches have been investigated to overcome difficulties in identification and differentiation of Brucella spp. using conventional phenotypic methods. In this study, high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis was used for rapid identification and differentiation of members of Brucella genus. A total of 41 Brucella spp. isolates from human brucellosis were subjected to HRM analysis using 4 sets of primers, which identified 40 isolates as Brucella melitensis and 1 as Brucella canis. The technique utilized low DNA concentration and was highly reproducible. The assay is shown to be a useful diagnostic tool, which can rapidly differentiate Brucella up to species level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods
  7. Rao M, Rashid FA, Sabri FSAH, Jamil NN, Seradja V, Abdullah NA, et al.
    J Med Virol, 2021 04;93(4):2461-2466.
    PMID: 33393672 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.26773
    An optimal clinical specimen for accurate detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by minimizing the usage of consumables and reduce hazard exposure to healthcare workers is an urgent priority. The diagnostic performance of SARS-CoV-2 detection between healthcare worker-collected nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal (NP + OP) swabs and patient performed self-collected random saliva was assessed. Paired NP + OP swabs and random saliva were collected and processed within 48 h of specimen collection from two cohort studies which recruited 562 asymptomatic adult candidates. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction targeting Open reading frame 1a (ORF1a) and nucleocapsid (N) genes was performed and the results were compared. Overall, 65 of 562 (28.1%) candidates tested positive for COVID-19 based on random saliva, NP + OP swabs, or both testing techniques. The detection rate of SARS-CoV-2 was higher in random saliva compared to NP + OP testing (92.3%; 60/65 vs. 73.8%; 48/65; p specimens. Our findings demonstrate that random saliva is an alternative diagnostic specimen for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Self-collected random oropharyngeal saliva is a valuable specimen that provides accurate SARS-CoV-2 surveillance testing of a community.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods
  8. Rao M, Rashid FA, Sabri FSAH, Jamil NN, Zain R, Hashim R, et al.
    Clin Infect Dis, 2021 05 04;72(9):e352-e356.
    PMID: 32761244 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1156
    BACKGROUND: The ideal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARs-CoV-2) testing method would be accurate and also be patient-performed to reduce exposure to healthcare workers. The aim of this study was to compare patient-performed testing based on a morning saliva sample with the current standard testing method, healthcare worker-collected sampling via a nasopharyngeal swab (NPS).

    METHODS: This was a prospective single center study which recruited 217 asymptomatic adult male participants in a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quarantine center who had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 8-10 days prior to isolation. Paired NPS and saliva specimens were collected and processed within 5 hours of sample collection. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting Envelope (E) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes was performed and the results were compared.

    RESULTS: Overall, 160 of the 217 (74%) participants tested positive for COVID-19 based on saliva, NPS, or both testing methods. The detection rate for SARS-CoV-2 was higher in saliva compared to NPS testing (93.1%, 149/160 vs 52.5%, 84/160, P < .001). The concordance between the 2 tests was 45.6% (virus was detected in both saliva and NPS in 73/160), whereas 47.5% were discordant (87/160 tested positive for 1 whereas negative for the other). The cycle threshold (Ct) values for E and RdRp genes were significantly lower in saliva specimens compared to NP swab specimens.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that saliva is a better alternative specimen for detection of SARS-CoV-2. Taking into consideration, the simplicity of specimen collection, shortage of PPE and the transmissibility of the virus, saliva could enable self-collection for an accurate SARS-CoV-2 surveillance testing.

    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  9. Latiff LA, Rahman SA, Wee WY, Dashti S, Andi Asri AA, Unit NH, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2015;16(2):559-64.
    PMID: 25684487
    BACKGROUND: The participation of women in cervical cancer screening in Malaysia is low. Self-sampling might be able to overcome this problem.The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of self-sampling for cervical smear in our country.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 258 community dwelling women from urban and rural settings who participated in health campaigns. In order to reduce the sampling bias, half of the study population performed the self-sampling prior to the physician sampling while the other half performed the self-sampling after the physician sampling, randomly. Acquired samples were assessed for cytological changes as well as HPV DNA detection.

    RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 40.4±11.3 years. The prevalence of abnormal cervical changes was 2.7%. High risk and low risk HPV genotypes were found in 4.0% and 2.7% of the subjects, respectively. A substantial agreement was observed between self-sampling and the physician obtained sampling in cytological diagnosis (k=0.62, 95%CI=0.50, 0.74), micro-organism detection (k=0.77, 95%CI=0.66, 0.88) and detection of hormonal status (k=0.75, 95%CI=0.65, 0.85) as well as detection of high risk (k=0.77, 95%CI=0.4, 0.98) and low risk (K=0.77, 95%CI=0.50, 0.92) HPV. Menopausal state was found to be related with 8.39 times more adequate cell specimens for cytology but 0.13 times less adequate cell specimens for virological assessment.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that self-sampling has a good agreement with physician sampling in detecting HPV genotypes. Self-sampling can serve as a tool in HPV screening while it may be useful in detecting cytological abnormalities in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  10. Latiff LA, Ibrahim Z, Pei CP, Rahman SA, Akhtari-Zavare M
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2015;16(18):8495-501.
    PMID: 26745108
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to assess the agreement and differences between cervical self-sampling with a Kato device (KSSD) and gynecologist sampling for Pap cytology and human papillomavirus DNA (HPV DNA) detection.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women underwent self-sampling followed by gynecologist sampling during screening at two primary health clinics. Pap cytology of cervical specimens was evaluated for specimen adequacy, presence of endocervical cells or transformation zone cells and cytological interpretation for cells abnormalities. Cervical specimens were also extracted and tested for HPV DNA detection. Positive HPV smears underwent gene sequencing and HPV genotyping by referring to the online NCBI gene bank. Results were compared between samplings by Kappa agreement and McNemar test.

    RESULTS: For Pap specimen adequacy, KSSD showed 100% agreement with gynecologist sampling but had only 32.3% agreement for presence of endocervical cells. Both sampling showed 100% agreement with only 1 case detected HSIL favouring CIN2 for cytology result. HPV DNA detection showed 86.2%agreement (K=0.64, 95% CI 0.524-0.756, p=0.001) between samplings. KSSD and gynaecologist sampling identified high risk HPV in 17.3% and 23.9% respectively (p= 0.014).

    CONCLUSION: The self-sampling using Kato device can serve as a tool in Pap cytology and HPV DNA detection in low resource settings in Malaysia. Self-sampling devices such as KSSD can be used as an alternative technique to gynaecologist sampling for cervical cancer screening among rural populations in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  11. Abdullah NN, Daud S, Wang SM, Mahmud Z, Mohd Kornain NK, Al-Kubaisy W
    J Obstet Gynaecol, 2018 Apr;38(3):402-407.
    PMID: 29385850 DOI: 10.1080/01443615.2017.1379061
    This study aims to determine the acceptability of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) self-sampling and the factors associated with willingness to buy HPV self-sampling kit in the future. A total of 164 women aged 28-60 years old from Obstetrics & Gynaecology clinics at a teaching hospital performed HPV self-sampling using the Digene HC2 DNA collection kit. After samples were taken, the participants were given self-administered questionnaires. The majority of the participants were Malay (93.9%), had attained tertiary education (65.2%) and were employed (70.1%). The acceptability was good. More than half of the participants felt that self-sampling was easy. Only 1.2% felt that the procedure was difficult to perform. Most reported no pain at all during the procedure (66.9%). The commonest concern was getting a good sample (90.1%). A number of Pap smears were found to be significantly associated with the willingness to buy the HPV self-sampling kit. HPV self-sampling has the potential to be included in the cervical cancer screening programme. Impact Statement What is already known on this subject: HPV self-sampling is acceptable in some developed and developing countries. It is acceptable because it was easy to perform with very minimal pain or discomfort. Studies on the acceptance of self-screening are needed to plan a policy on self-sampling in the future. What the results of this study add: Our study adds new findings to the body of knowledge on self-sampling in the local population. We found that more women are willing to do the self-sampling at the clinic rather than at home. Although more than 90% expressed willingness to do self-sampling in the future, only 70% of them were willing to purchase the kit. Cost is a potential barrier to women who have the interest to perform the self-sampling. Given the global economic challenges, cost is inevitably an important predictor that we have to consider. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: Future research should examine women from the rural areas and those who are resilient to Pap smear screening. In clinical practice, clinicians should acknowledge that cost is a potential barrier for women who are willing to do self-sampling. Self-sampling could be an option for women with no financial constraint to buy the kit. However, clinicians should counsel women so that they can make an informed choice in determining their screening method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  12. Goossens B, Abdullah ZB, Sinyor JB, Ancrenaz M
    Folia Primatol., 2004 Jan-Feb;75(1):23-6.
    PMID: 14716150
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  13. Pham MD, Haile BA, Azwa I, Kamarulzaman A, Raman N, Saeidi A, et al.
    J Clin Microbiol, 2019 04;57(4).
    PMID: 30700508 DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01683-18
    HIV viral load (VL) testing is the recommended method for monitoring the response of people living with HIV and receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). The availability of standard plasma VL testing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and access to this testing, are limited by the need to use fresh plasma. Good specimen collection methods for HIV VL testing that are applicable to resource-constrained settings are needed. We assessed the diagnostic performance of the filtered dried plasma spot (FDPS), created using the newly developed, instrument-free VLPlasma device, in identifying treatment failure at a VL threshold of 1,000 copies/ml in fresh plasma. Performance was compared with that of the conventional dried blood spot (DBS). Venous blood samples from 201 people living with HIV and attending an infectious disease clinic in Malaysia were collected, and HIV VL was quantified using fresh plasma (the reference standard), FDPS, and DBS specimens. VL testing was done using the Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan v2.0 assay. At a threshold of 1,000 copies/ml, the diagnostic performance of the FDPS was superior (sensitivity, 100% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 89.1 to 100%]; specificity, 100% [95% CI, 97.8 to 100%]) to that of the DBS (sensitivity, 100% [95% CI, 89.4 to 100%]; specificity, 36.8% [95% CI, 29.4 to 44.7%]) (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  14. Salleh FM, Moktar N, Yasin AM, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Anuar TS
    J Microbiol Methods, 2014 Nov;106:143-145.
    PMID: 25193442 DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2014.08.019
    To improve the stool concentration procedure, we modified different steps of the standard formalin-ether concentration technique and evaluated these modifications by examining stool samples collected in the field. Seven samples were found positive by the modified formalin-ether concentration technique (M-FECT). Therefore, the M-FECT procedure provides enhanced detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  15. Mohammed Saghir SA, Al-Hassan FM, Alsalahi OS, Abdul Manaf FS, Baqir HS
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2012 May;22(5):294-7.
    PMID: 22538033 DOI: 05.2012/JCPSP.294297
    To determine the optimum storage temperature and time for prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time at various intervals at both room temperature and refrigerator.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  16. Amelia TSM, Lau NS, Amirul AA, Bhubalan K
    Data Brief, 2020 Aug;31:105971.
    PMID: 32685631 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2020.105971
    Marine sponges are acknowledged as a bacterial hotspot and resource of novel natural products or genetic material with industrial or commercial potential. However, sponge-associated bacteria are difficult to be cultivated and the production of their desirable metabolites is inadequate in terms of rate and quantity, yet bioinformatics and metagenomics tools are steadily progressing. Bacterial diversity profiles of high-microbial-abundance wild tropical marine sponges Aaptos aaptos and Xestospongia muta were obtained by sample collection at Pulau Bidong and Pulau Redang islands, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing on Illumina HiSeq2500 platform (250 bp paired-end) and metagenomics analysis using Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) classifier. Raw sequencing data in fastq format and relative abundance histograms of the dominant 10 species are available in the public repository Discover Mendeley Data (http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/zrcks5s8xp). Filtered sequencing data of operational taxonomic unit (OTU) with chimera removed is available in NCBI accession numbers from MT464469 to MT465036.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  17. Lim Swee Eng, Bin Mohamed Hussain AH
    Med J Malaysia, 1973 Dec;28(2):103-8.
    PMID: 4276266
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  18. Saville M, Hawkes D, Keung M, Ip E, Silvers J, Sultana F, et al.
    J Clin Virol, 2020 06;127:104375.
    PMID: 32361328 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104375
    BACKGROUND: In the last decade, human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been evaluated extensively for cervical screening, with studies finding increased sensitivity compared to cytology. Another advantage of HPV based-screening is the ability to test vaginal samples that can be collected by women themselves. Self-collection has the potential to extend cervical screening coverage by increasing participation rates, particularly among women who are under-screened or have never screened. This could have a significant impact on cervical cancer prevention, as the majority of invasive cervical cancer cases occur among under-screened women. Both the Netherlands and Australia have transitioned their national programs from cytology to HPV as the primary screening test and both countries include a pathway for self-collection.

    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the relative sensitivity for HPV detection of self-collection compared with practitioner-collected cervical specimens in the context of the Australian National Cervical Screening Program (NCSP).

    STUDY DESIGN: 303 women aged ≥18 years attending a single tertiary referral centre took their own sample using a flocked-swab, and then had a practitioner-collected sample taken at colposcopy. All samples were tested at a single laboratory on the six PCR-based HPV assays which can be utilised in the NCSP; Roche cobas 4800 and cobas, Abbott RealTime, BD Onclarity, Cepheid Xpert, and Seegene Anyplex.

    RESULTS: HPV16/18 results had high observed agreement between self- and practitioner-collected samples on all assays (range: 0.94-0.99), with good agreement for non-HPV16/18 oncogenic HPV types (range: 0.64-0.73).

    CONCLUSIONS: Self-collection for HPV-based cervical screening shows good concordance and relative sensitivity when compared to practitionercollected samples across assays in the NCSP.

    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  19. Ooi MH, Solomon T, Podin Y, Mohan A, Akin W, Yusuf MA, et al.
    J Clin Microbiol, 2007 Jun;45(6):1858-66.
    PMID: 17446325
    Human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 are important causes of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Like other enteroviruses, they can be isolated from a range of sterile and nonsterile sites, but which clinical sample, or combination of samples, is the most useful for laboratory diagnosis of HFMD is not clear. We attempted virus culture for 2,916 samples from 628 of 725 children with HFMD studied over a 3 1/2-year period, which included two large outbreaks. Overall, throat swabs were the single most useful specimen, being positive for any enterovirus for 288 (49%) of 592 patients with a full set of samples. Vesicle swabs were positive for 169 (48%) of 333 patients with vesicles, the yield being greater if two or more vesicles were swabbed. The combination of throat plus vesicle swabs enabled the identification of virus for 224 (67%) of the 333 patients with vesicles; for this patient group, just 27 (8%) extra patients were diagnosed when rectal and ulcer swabs were added. Of 259 patients without vesicles, use of the combination of throat plus rectal swab identified virus for 138 (53%). For 60 patients, virus was isolated from both vesicle and rectal swabs, but for 12 (20%) of these, the isolates differed. Such discordance occurred for just 11 (10%) of 112 patients with virus isolated from vesicle and throat swabs. During large HFMD outbreaks, we suggest collecting swabs from the throat plus one other site: vesicles, if these are present (at least two should be swabbed), or the rectum if there are no vesicles. Vesicle swabs give a high diagnostic yield, with the added advantage of being from a sterile site.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods
  20. Teoh XY, Goh CF, Aminu N, Chan SY
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2021 Jan 05;192:113631.
    PMID: 33011581 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113631
    Atovaquone (ATQ) is a poorly soluble drug. Therefore, formulating ATQ into its supersaturated state through solid dispersion for bioavailability enhancement can be of great value. However, due to fast crystallising properties of ATQ, the quantification of ATQ in a supersaturated solid dispersion system can be complicated. Therefore, in pursuit of accurate quantification of such sample, a simple HPLC analytical method utilising a C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm ID, 5 μm) for the quantitation of ATQ has been developed and validated. Atovaquone elution using the proposed method demonstrated a retention time around 7.6 min with good linearity (R2 > 0.999). The system suitability is also detailed with the tailing factor at 1.365 ± 0.002. The addition of solubilising agent as sample treatment step aided in ensuring the accurate quantitation of the fast crystallising ATQ. The developed HPLC quantitation method has been successfully employed in the analysis of ATQ from solid dispersion samples in in vitro dissolution as well as ex vivo permeation studies for formulation development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
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