Objectives: This study describes an unusual septicaemia cases with Janthinobacterium lividum in neonatal Intensive Care Units.
Methods: Bacterial causes of early onset neonatal sepsis in Kuala Lumpur Hospital Malaysia were investigated using broad range 16S rDNA PCR and sequencing. The bacterial DNA was isolated directly from blood without pre-incubation. All samples collected were equally cultured and incubated in automated BACTEC system.
Results: Two hundred and fifty two neonates were recruited in this study with mean (SD) gestational age of 35.9. Neonates with J. lividum infection lacked microbiological evidence of septicaemia as their blood culture yielded no bacterial growth. However, the PCR analysis of these samples yielded 1100bp corresponding to bacteria species.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates the value of PCR in detecting bacteria where special growth requirement is involved.
METHODS: In this study, mouthwash, saliva, and buccal cytobrush samples were collected from β-thalassemia major patients who had previously been characterized using DNA extracted from peripheral blood. DNA was extracted from mouthwash, saliva, and buccal cytobrush samples using the conventional inexpensive phenol-chloroform method and was measured by spectrophotometry for yield and purity. Molecular characterization of β-globin gene mutations was carried out using the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS).
RESULTS: DNA extracted from mouthwash, saliva, and buccal cytobrush samples produced high concentration and pure DNA. The purified DNA was successfully amplified using ARMS. Results of the β-globin gene mutations using DNA from the three non-invasive samples were in 100% concordance with results from DNA extracted from peripheral blood.
CONCLUSIONS: The conventional in-house developed methods for non-invasive sample collection and DNA extraction from these samples are effective and negate the use of more expensive commercial kits. In conclusion, DNA extracted from mouthwash, saliva, and buccal cytobrush samples provided sufficiently high amounts of pure DNA suitable for molecular analysis of β-thalassemia.
METHODS: The following electronic resources were searched: Medline @EBSCOHOST(Medline), Embase, PubMed, and CINAHL databases. Manual searches were also conducted. The main outcome of interest was the acceptability of HPV DNA testing by self-sampling in comparison with clinician-collected sampling.
RESULTS: In total, 23 articles were included in this systematic review. The majority (19 studies) were quantitative intervention studies and 4 studies were qualitative observational studies. Eleven studies reported a preference for self-sampling by women compared with clinician-collected sampling (64.7%-93%). The remaining studies found that women preferred clinician-collected sampling because mainly of respondents' lack of confidence in their ability to complete self-sampling correctly. In most articles reviewed, the studied associated factors, such as demographic factors (age, marital status, and ethnicity), socioeconomic factors (income, education level), reproductive factors (condom use, number of children, current use of contraception, and number of partners), and habits (smoking status) were not found to be significantly associated with preference.
CONCLUSIONS: Both methods of sampling were found to be acceptable to women. Self-sampling is cost-effective and could increase the screening coverage among underscreened populations. However, more information about the quality, reliability, and accuracy of self-sampling is needed to increase women's confidence about using to this method.