Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 98 in total

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  1. Noor Azlinda Ahmad, Zawani Amirah Rasid, Zuraimy Adzis
    MyJurnal
    Lightning is among the most deadly natural phenomena to mankind. This phenomenon
    is seen to increase globally as well as in Malaysia. Lightning does strike open areas
    such as playing fields and playgrounds and these areas are places people gather.
    Sensors that can detect the early occurrence of lightning have been developed for
    detecting approaching lightning activity in this project. The main objective is to provide
    early lightning warning system to the public and hence to reduce the number of
    fatalities due to lightning strike. The warning circuit was designed and simulated using
    Multism11. Basic operational method of the circuit is based on the comparative
    voltage method using LM339N integrated circuit comparator (IC). Light Emitting Diodes
    (LEDs) were used as indicators to indicate if the incoming voltage level is higher or
    lower than that of the safety level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  2. Latif B, Kannan Kutty M, Muslim A, Hussaini J, Omar E, Heo CC, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Sep;32(3):444-52.
    PMID: 26695204 MyJurnal
    One thousand and forty-five tissue samples of skeletal muscles, tongue, heart, diaphragm and esophagus were collected from 209 animals (43 sheep, 89 goats and 77 cattle) from an abattoir in Selangor between February and October, 2013. Each sample was divided into three pieces with each piece measuring 2-3 mm3. Each piece was then squeezed between two glass slides and examined microscopically at x 10 magnification for the presence of sarcocystosis. Three positive samples from each animal species were then fixed in 10% formalin for histological processing. Seven positive samples collected from each animal species were preserved at -80°C or 90% ethanol for gene expression studies. Microsarcocysts were detected in 114 (54.5%) animals by light microscopy (LM). The infection rates in sheep, goat and cattle were 86, 61.8 and 28.6% respectively. The highest rate of infection was in the skeletal muscles of sheep (64.9%) and goats (63.6%) and in the heart of cattle (63.6%). The cysts were spindle to oval in shape and two stages were recognized, the peripheral metrocytes and centrally located banana-shaped bradyzoites. 18S rRNA gene expression studies confirmed the isolates from the sheep as S. ovicanis, goats as S. capracanis and cattle as S. bovicanis. This, to the best of our knowledge, is the first molecular identification of an isolate of S. ovicanis and S. capracanis in Malaysia. Further studies with electron microscopy (EM) are required in the future to compare the features of different types of Sarcocysts spp.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods
  3. Gardner EM, Johnson MG, Pereira JT, Puad ASA, Arifiani D, Wickett NJ, et al.
    Syst Biol, 2020 Sep 24.
    PMID: 32970819 DOI: 10.1093/sysbio/syaa073
    We present a 517-gene phylogenetic framework for the breadfruit genus Artocarpus (ca. 70 spp., Moraceae), making use of silica-dried leaves from recent fieldwork and herbarium specimens (some up to 106 years old) to achieve 96% taxon sampling. We explore issues relating to assembly, paralogous loci, partitions, and analysis method to reconstruct a phylogeny that is robust to variation in data and available tools. While codon partitioning did not result in any substantial topological differences, the inclusion of flanking non-coding sequence in analyses significantly increased the resolution of gene trees. We also found that increasing the size of datasets increased convergence between analysis methods but did not reduce gene tree conflict. We optimized the HybPiper targeted-enrichment sequence assembly pipeline for short sequences derived from degraded DNA extracted from museum specimens. While the subgenera of Artocarpus were monophyletic, revision is required at finer scales, particularly with respect to widespread species. We expect our results to provide a basis for further studies in Artocarpus and provide guidelines for future analyses of datasets based on target enrichment data, particularly those using sequences from both fresh and museum material, counseling careful attention to the potential of off-target sequences to improve resolution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  4. Hayati AR, Khong TY, Zainul R
    Malays J Pathol, 1998 Dec;20(2):99-102.
    PMID: 10879270
    144 placentas were sampled from all cases of stillbirth weighing 500 g and above seen over a period of thirteen months in the UKM Unit of the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Sampling was limited to 1-3 blocks per placenta for histological study. Placental abnormalities were found in 121 (85%) placentas, 78 of which had definite lesions known to contribute to foetal death while the remainder showed lesions suggestive of an underlying disease. This study supports the usefulness of limited sampling of the placenta in the face of unavailability of complete placental examination and autopsy for assessment of the cause of stillbirth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  5. Shinkafi SH, Umar S, Neela VK, Noordin SM, Noordin SA, Hudu SA, et al.
    Afr Health Sci, 2019 Sep;19(3):2378-2389.
    PMID: 32127808 DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v19i3.11
    Background: The term early onset neonatal septicaemia (EONS) refers to invasive bacterial infections that primarily involve the blood stream of neonates during the first 3 days of life. Although early onset neonatal septicaemia is relatively uncommon, it may be associated with case fatality rates of 15-30% and substantial morbidity in surviving infants.

    Objectives: This study describes an unusual septicaemia cases with Janthinobacterium lividum in neonatal Intensive Care Units.

    Methods: Bacterial causes of early onset neonatal sepsis in Kuala Lumpur Hospital Malaysia were investigated using broad range 16S rDNA PCR and sequencing. The bacterial DNA was isolated directly from blood without pre-incubation. All samples collected were equally cultured and incubated in automated BACTEC system.

    Results: Two hundred and fifty two neonates were recruited in this study with mean (SD) gestational age of 35.9. Neonates with J. lividum infection lacked microbiological evidence of septicaemia as their blood culture yielded no bacterial growth. However, the PCR analysis of these samples yielded 1100bp corresponding to bacteria species.

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates the value of PCR in detecting bacteria where special growth requirement is involved.

    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  6. Samad MA, Hashim SH, Simarani K, Yaacob JS
    Molecules, 2016 Mar 26;21(4):419.
    PMID: 27023514 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21040419
    Phoenix dactylifera or date palm fruits are reported to contain natural compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial properties. This research aimed to study the effect of fruit chilling at 4 °C for 8 weeks, extract storage at -20 °C for 5 weeks, and extraction solvents (methanol or acetone) on total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of Saudi Arabian P. dactylifera cv Mabroom, Safawi and Ajwa, as well as Iranian P. dactylifera cv Mariami. The storage stability of total anthocyanin content (TAC) was also evaluated, before and after storing the extracts at -20 °C and 4 °C respectively, for 5 weeks. Mariami had the highest TAC (3.18 ± 1.40 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW) while Mabroom had the lowest TAC (0.54 ± 0.15 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW). The TAC of all extracts increased after storage. The chilling of date palm fruits for 8 weeks prior to solvent extraction elevated the TPC of all date fruit extracts, except for methanolic extracts of Mabroom and Mariami. All IC50 values of all cultivars decreased after the fruit chilling treatment. Methanol was a better solvent compared to acetone for the extraction of phenolic compounds in dates. The TPC of all cultivars extracts decreased after 5 weeks of extract storage. IC50 values of all cultivars extracts increased after extract storage except for the methanolic extracts of Safawi and Ajwa. Different cultivars exhibited different antibacterial properties. Only the methanolic extract of Ajwa exhibited antibacterial activity against all four bacteria tested: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli. These results could be useful to the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries in the development of natural compound-based products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  7. Choi JR, Tang R, Wang S, Wan Abas WA, Pingguan-Murphy B, Xu F
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2015 Dec 15;74:427-39.
    PMID: 26164488 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2015.06.065
    Nucleic acid testing (NAT), as a molecular diagnostic technique, including nucleic acid extraction, amplification and detection, plays a fundamental role in medical diagnosis for timely medical treatment. However, current NAT technologies require relatively high-end instrumentation, skilled personnel, and are time-consuming. These drawbacks mean conventional NAT becomes impractical in many resource-limited disease-endemic settings, leading to an urgent need to develop a fast and portable NAT diagnostic tool. Paper-based devices are typically robust, cost-effective and user-friendly, holding a great potential for NAT at the point of care. In view of the escalating demand for the low cost diagnostic devices, we highlight the beneficial use of paper as a platform for NAT, the current state of its development, and the existing challenges preventing its widespread use. We suggest a strategy involving integrating all three steps of NAT into one single paper-based sample-to-answer diagnostic device for rapid medical diagnostics in the near future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/instrumentation
  8. Ma'som M, Bhoo-Pathy N, Nasir NH, Bellinson J, Subramaniam S, Ma Y, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2016 08 04;6(8):e011022.
    PMID: 27491667 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-011022
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the attitudes and acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling compared with conventional physician-acquired Papanicolaou (Pap) smear among multiethnic Malaysian women.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out via interviewer-administered surveys from August 2013 through August 2015 at five government-run, urban health clinics in the state of Selangor. Subjects were participants from an ongoing community-based human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study who answered a standard questionnaire before and after self-sampling. The cervicovaginal self-sampling for HPV genotyping was performed using a simple brush ('Just for Me'; Preventive Oncology International, Hong Kong). Detailed data on sociodemographics, previous Pap smear experience, and attitudes towards self-administered cervicovaginal sampling were collected and analysed. Acceptability was inferred using a five-item Likert scale that included six different subjective descriptives: experience, difficulty, convenience, embarrassment, discomfort or pain, and confidence in collecting one's own sample.

    RESULTS: Of the 839 participants, 47.9% were Malays, followed by 30.8% Indians, 18.8% Chinese and 2.5% from other ethnicities. The median age of the participants was 38 years (IQR 30-48). Some 68.2% of participants indicated a preference for self-sampling over the Pap test, with 95% indicating willingness to follow-up a positive result at the hospital. Age, ethnicity and previous Pap test experience were significant independent factors associated with preference for self-sampling. The older the individual, the less likely they were to prefer self-sampling (adjusted OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98). The Chinese were less likely to prefer self-sampling (72.6%) than the Malays (85.1%) (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.98, p=0.004). Participants who had never undergone a Pap smear were also more likely to prefer self-sampling (88.5%) than women who had undergone a previous Pap (80.9%) (adjusted OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.87).

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, urban Malaysian women from multiethnic backgrounds found self-sampling to be an acceptable alternative to Pap smear.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  9. Khoo SP, Lim WT, Rajasuriar R, Nasir NH, Gravitt P, Woo YL
    Cancer Prev Res (Phila), 2021 Jan;14(1):105-112.
    PMID: 32917643 DOI: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0280
    Vaginal self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing can potentially increase cervical screening coverage. This study aimed to investigate the acceptability of vaginal self-sampling for HPV testing and factors that might influence a woman's preference for this as a cervical screening method. This was a cross-sectional study that recruited 725 women from the urban and suburban areas of Selangor, Malaysia. All study participants were instructed to self-collect vaginal sample using a dry flocked swab before responding to a detailed questionnaire documenting their experience and preference for self-sampling. Most of the study participants (>80%) perceived vaginal self-sampling as easy, convenient, not embarrassing, comfortable, and were confident in performing the test. This suggests high acceptability toward vaginal self-sampling for HPV testing. Of the 725 women, 83% preferred self-sampling HPV testing over healthcare personnel sampling HPV testing and Pap test. Women with higher household income and full-time employment status were more likely to prefer self-sampling. Those who had not undergone Pap test also expressed preference for self-sampling HPV testing. Convenience and women's confidence in performing a vaginal self-sampling for HPV testing were the independent key factors that influenced the preference for self-sampling method. Vaginal self-sampling for HPV testing is highly acceptable among Malaysian women. It is the preferred choice as a primary cervical screening method and serves as an alternative to healthcare-acquired sample for Pap test. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Organized cervical cancer screening remains unachievable in many countries. Self-sampling HPV testing is an evidence-based method that can remove barriers to cervical screening. This is particularly important for developing countries in order to achieve the WHO global strategy to accelerate cervical cancer elimination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  10. Permeen AM, Sam CK, Pathmanathan R, Prasad U, Wolf H
    J Virol Methods, 1990 Mar;27(3):261-7.
    PMID: 2157729
    The presence of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) DNA in biopsies from the post-nasal space (PNS) of patients suspected of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) was detected by in situ cytohybridization with an EBV DNA probe labelled with the novel labelling compound digoxigenin. The digoxigenin probe was hybridised to cryostat sections of NPC biopsies and subsequently detected by an enzyme immunoassay procedure. It was found that in situ cytohybridization using the digoxigenin probe was much more rapid and sensitive (96 h compared to five weeks) than the current method of using 3H-labelled probe. Using the digoxigenin EBV probe, it was found that in all the eighteen NPC biopsies tested, EBV DNA was detected in malignant epithelial cells and infiltrating lymphocytes. EBV DNA was also detected in some normal epithelial cells in these NPC biopsies. EBV DNA was not detected in epithelial cells of non-malignant biopsies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  11. Meor Yusoff, M.S., Masliana, M., Wilfred, P.
    MyJurnal
    Even though EDXRF analysis has major advantages in the analysis of stainless steel samples such as simultaneous determination of the minor elements, analysis can be done without sample preparation and non-destructive analysis, the matrix issue arised from the inter element interaction can make the the final quantitative result to be in accurate. The paper relates a comparative quantitative analysis using standard and standardless methods in the determination of these elements. Standard method was done by plotting regression calibration graphs of the interested elements using BCS certified stainless steel standards. Different calibration plots were developed based on the available certified standards and these stainless steel grades include low alloy steel, austentic, ferritic and high speed. The standardless method on the other hand uses a mathematical modelling with matrix effect correction derived from Lucas-Tooth and Price model. Further
    improvement on the accuracy of the standardless method was done by inclusion of pure elements into the development of the model. Discrepancy tests were then carried out for these quantitative methods on different certified samples and the results show that the high speed method is most reliable for determining of Ni and the standardless method for Mn.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  12. Lim KL, Johari NA, Wong ST, Khaw LT, Tan BK, Chan KK, et al.
    PLoS One, 2020;15(8):e0238417.
    PMID: 32857823 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0238417
    The rapid global spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has inflicted significant health and socioeconomic burden on affected countries. As positive cases continued to rise in Malaysia, public health laboratories experienced an overwhelming demand for COVID-19 screening. The confirmation of positive cases of COVID-19 has solely been based on the detection of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In efforts to increase the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of COVID-19 screening, we evaluated the feasibility of pooling clinical Nasopharyngeal/Oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swab specimens during nucleic acid extraction without a reduction in sensitivity of qRT-PCR. Pools of 10 specimens were extracted and subsequently tested by qRT-PCR according to the WHO-Charité protocol. We demonstrated that the sample pooling method showed no loss of sensitivity. The effectiveness of the pooled testing strategy was evaluated on both retrospective and prospective samples, and the results showed a similar detection sensitivity compared to testing individual sample alone. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a pooled testing strategy to increase testing capacity and conserve resources, especially when there is a high demand for disease testing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  13. Lau SM, Vythilingam I, Doss JI, Sekaran SD, Chua TH, Wan Sulaiman WY, et al.
    Trop Med Int Health, 2015 Oct;20(10):1271-80.
    PMID: 26094839 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12555
    To determine the effectiveness of using sticky traps and the NS1 dengue antigen kit for the surveillance of Aedes mosquitoes for dengue control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  14. Ng MY, Tan WS, Abdullah N, Ling TC, Tey BT
    J Chromatogr A, 2007 Nov 16;1172(1):47-56.
    PMID: 17945242
    Direct recovery of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) from unclarified Escherichia coli homogenates via expanded bed adsorption chromatography (EBA) has been explored in this study. Streamline DEAE was selected as the anion exchanger to recover HBcAg from heat-treated and non-heat-treated unclarified feedstocks. The use of anion-exchanger for direct extraction of proteins from unclarified feedstock is not preferred due to lack of specificity of its ligand. In this study, thermal treatment of the unclarified feedstock at 60 degrees C has resulted in 1.2- and 1.8-fold increases in yield and purity of HBcAg, respectively, compared with that purified from non-heat-treated feedstock. Heating the crude feedstock has resulted in denaturation and precipitation of contaminants in the feedstock, hence reducing non-specific interactions between the cell debris and adsorbent. The selectivity of the anion-exchanger has also been increased as shown in the breakthrough curve obtained. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the antigenicity of the HBcAg from heat-treated unclarified feedstock is still preserved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  15. Yap PS, Ahmad Kamar A, Chong CW, Yap IK, Thong KL, Choo YM, et al.
    Pathog Glob Health, 2016 Sep;110(6):238-246.
    PMID: 27650884
    The prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of intestinal carriage of Gram-negative bacteria among preterm infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia were determined. A total of 34 stool specimens were obtained from preterm infants upon admission and once weekly up to two weeks during hospitalization. The presumptive colonies of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were selected for identification, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and subtyping by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Out of 76 Gram-negative isolates, highest resistance was detected for amoxicillin/clavulanate (30.8%, n = 16), ceftriaxone (42.3%, n = 22), ceftazidime (28.8%, n = 15), cefoxitin (28.8%, n = 15), aztreonam (36.5%, n = 19), and polymyxin B (23.1%, n = 12). Three colistin resistant K. pneumoniae have also been detected based on E-test analysis. Thirty-nine isolates of K. pneumoniae and 20 isolates of E. coli were resistant to more than three antimicrobial classes and were categorized as multidrug resistant (MDR). PFGE analysis revealed a higher diversity in pulsotypes for K. pneumoniae (18 pulsotypes) in comparison to E. coli (four pulsotypes). In addition, a total of fifteen pulsotypes was observed from 39 MDR K. pneumoniae. The risk factors for antibiotic resistance were assessed using random forest analysis. Gender was found to be the most important predictor for colistin resistant while length, OFC, and delivery mode were showing greater predictive power in the polymyxin B resistance. This study revealed worrying prevalence rates of intestinal carriage of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae and E. coli of hospitalized preterm infants in Malaysia, particularly high resistance to polymyxins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods
  16. Latif MA, Omar MY, Rafii MY, Malek MA, Tan SG
    C. R. Biol., 2013 Jul;336(7):354-63.
    PMID: 23932255 DOI: 10.1016/j.crvi.2013.06.006
    Morphological and host-plant relationship studies were conducted to differentiate two sympatric populations of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, one from rice (Oryza sativa) and the other from Leersia hexandra, a weed grass. In morphometric studies based on esterase activities, an UPGMA dendrogram using 17 quantitative morphological characters, including stridulatory organs (courtship signal-producing organs) between two sympatric populations of N. lugens, one from rice and the other from L. hexandra, a weed grass revealed that both populations were separated from each other. An out-group, N. bakeri, was found to be completely different from the two sympatric populations of N. lugens. Rice plants were best suited for the establishment of the rice-infesting population, and L. hexandra was a favourable host for the Leersia-infesting population. The individuals derived from one host did not thrive on the other host, as shown by a significant reduction in survival and nymphal development, ovipositional preferences, ovipositional response, and egg hatchability. Therefore, morphological and host-plant relationship studies indicate that rice-associated population with high esterase activities and L. heaxandra-associated population with low esterase activities are two closely related sibling species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling
  17. Abd Rahim MR, Kho SL, Kuppusamy UR, Tan JA
    Clin. Lab., 2015;61(9):1325-30.
    PMID: 26554253
    BACKGROUND: Beta-thalassemia is the most common genetic disorder in Malaysia. Confirmation of the β-globin gene mutations involved in thalassemia is usually carried out by molecular analysis of DNA extracted from leukocytes in whole blood. Molecular analysis is generally carried out when affected children are around 1 - 2 years as clinical symptoms are expressed during this period. Blood taking at this age can be distressing for the child. High yield and pure DNA extracted from non-invasive sampling methods can serve as alternative samples in molecular studies for genetic diseases especially in pediatric cases.

    METHODS: In this study, mouthwash, saliva, and buccal cytobrush samples were collected from β-thalassemia major patients who had previously been characterized using DNA extracted from peripheral blood. DNA was extracted from mouthwash, saliva, and buccal cytobrush samples using the conventional inexpensive phenol-chloroform method and was measured by spectrophotometry for yield and purity. Molecular characterization of β-globin gene mutations was carried out using the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS).

    RESULTS: DNA extracted from mouthwash, saliva, and buccal cytobrush samples produced high concentration and pure DNA. The purified DNA was successfully amplified using ARMS. Results of the β-globin gene mutations using DNA from the three non-invasive samples were in 100% concordance with results from DNA extracted from peripheral blood.

    CONCLUSIONS: The conventional in-house developed methods for non-invasive sample collection and DNA extraction from these samples are effective and negate the use of more expensive commercial kits. In conclusion, DNA extracted from mouthwash, saliva, and buccal cytobrush samples provided sufficiently high amounts of pure DNA suitable for molecular analysis of β-thalassemia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/instrumentation; Specimen Handling/methods*
  18. Nazar Majeed Z, Philip K, Alabsi AM, Pushparajan S, Swaminathan D
    Dis Markers, 2016;2016:1804727.
    PMID: 28074077 DOI: 10.1155/2016/1804727
    Background. Several studies in the last decades have focused on finding a precise method for the diagnosis of periodontal disease in its early stages. Aim. To evaluate from current scientific literature the most common and precise method for gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) sample collection, biomarker analytical methods, and the variability of biomarker quantification, even when using the same analytical technique. Methodology. An electronic search was conducted on in vivo studies that presented clinical data on techniques used for GCF collection and biomarker analysis. Results. The results showed that 71.1%, 24.7%, and 4.1% of the studies used absorption, microcapillary, and washing techniques, respectively, in their gingival crevicular fluid collection. 73.1% of the researchers analyzed their samples by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 22.6%, 19.5%, and 18.5% of the researchers included interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), respectively, in their studies as biomarkers for periodontal disease. Conclusion. IL-1β can be considered among the most common biomarkers that give precise results and can be used as an indicator of periodontal disease progression. Furthermore, paper strips are the most convenient and accurate method for gingival crevicular fluid collection, while enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay can be considered the most conventional method for the diagnosis of biofluids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  19. Katayon S, Noor MJ, Asma M, Ghani LA, Thamer AM, Azni I, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2006 Sep;97(13):1455-60.
    PMID: 16213137
    Moringa oleifera is a plant whose seeds have coagulation properties for treating water and wastewater. In this study the coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera kept in different storage conditions were studied. The Moringa oleifera seeds were stored at different conditions and durations; open container and closed container at room temperature (28 degrees C) and refrigerator (3 degrees C) for durations of 1, 3 and 5 months. Comparison between turbidity removal efficiency of Moringa oleifera kept in refrigerator and room temperature revealed that there was no significant difference between them. The Moringa oleifera kept in refrigerator and room temperature for one month showed higher turbidity removal efficiency, compared to those kept for 3 and 5 months, at both containers. The coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera was found to be dependent on initial turbidity of water samples. Highest turbidity removals were obtained for water with very high initial turbidity. In summary coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera was found independent of storage temperature and container, however coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera decreased as storage duration increased. In addition, Moringa oleifera can be used as a potential coagulant especially for very high turbidity water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
  20. Morgan K, Azzani M, Khaing SL, Wong YL, Su TT
    J Low Genit Tract Dis, 2019 Jul;23(3):193-199.
    PMID: 30933030 DOI: 10.1097/LGT.0000000000000476
    OBJECTIVES: Female self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing is an alternative screening method that can potentially increase cervical cancer screening coverage. This review addresses the acceptability of HPV DNA testing using self-sampling compared with conventional clinician-collected sampling. Barriers to and others factors associated with acceptability of either method were also examined.

    METHODS: The following electronic resources were searched: Medline @EBSCOHOST(Medline), Embase, PubMed, and CINAHL databases. Manual searches were also conducted. The main outcome of interest was the acceptability of HPV DNA testing by self-sampling in comparison with clinician-collected sampling.

    RESULTS: In total, 23 articles were included in this systematic review. The majority (19 studies) were quantitative intervention studies and 4 studies were qualitative observational studies. Eleven studies reported a preference for self-sampling by women compared with clinician-collected sampling (64.7%-93%). The remaining studies found that women preferred clinician-collected sampling because mainly of respondents' lack of confidence in their ability to complete self-sampling correctly. In most articles reviewed, the studied associated factors, such as demographic factors (age, marital status, and ethnicity), socioeconomic factors (income, education level), reproductive factors (condom use, number of children, current use of contraception, and number of partners), and habits (smoking status) were not found to be significantly associated with preference.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both methods of sampling were found to be acceptable to women. Self-sampling is cost-effective and could increase the screening coverage among underscreened populations. However, more information about the quality, reliability, and accuracy of self-sampling is needed to increase women's confidence about using to this method.

    Matched MeSH terms: Specimen Handling/methods*
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