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  1. Pinkham K, Park DJ, Hashemiaghdam A, Kirov AB, Adam I, Rosiak K, et al.
    Stem Cell Reports, 2019 04 09;12(4):712-727.
    PMID: 30930246 DOI: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2019.02.012
    Inherent plasticity and various survival cues allow glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) to survive and proliferate under intrinsic and extrinsic stress conditions. Here, we report that GSCs depend on the adaptive activation of ER stress and subsequent activation of lipogenesis and particularly stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD1), which promotes ER homeostasis, cytoprotection, and tumor initiation. Pharmacological targeting of SCD1 is particularly toxic due to the accumulation of saturated fatty acids, which exacerbates ER stress, triggers apoptosis, impairs RAD51-mediated DNA repair, and achieves a remarkable therapeutic outcome with 25%-100% cure rate in xenograft mouse models. Mechanistically, divergent cell fates under varying levels of ER stress are primarily controlled by the ER sensor IRE1, which either promotes SCD1 transcriptional activation or converts to apoptotic signaling when SCD1 activity is impaired. Taken together, the dependence of GSCs on fatty acid desaturation presents an exploitable vulnerability to target glioblastoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase/genetics; Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase/metabolism*
  2. Garba L, Mohamad Ali MS, Oslan SN, Rahman RN
    PLoS One, 2016 Aug 5;11(8):e0160681.
    PMID: 27494717 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160681
    Fatty acid desaturase enzymes play an essential role in the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. Pseudomonas sp. A3 was found to produce a large amount of palmitoleic and oleic acids after incubation at low temperatures. Using polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), a novel Δ9- fatty acid desaturase gene was isolated, cloned, and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene was designated as PA3FAD9 and has an open reading frame of 1,185 bp which codes for 394 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 45 kDa. The activity of the gene product was confirmed via GCMS, which showed a functional putative Δ9-fatty acid desaturase capable of increasing the total amount of cellular unsaturated fatty acids of the E. coli cells expressing the gene. The results demonstrate that the cellular palmitoleic acids have increased two-fold upon expression at 15°C using only 0.1 mM IPTG. Therefore, PA3FAD9 from Pseudomonas sp.A3 codes for a Δ9-fatty acid desaturase-like protein which was actively expressed in E. coli.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase
  3. Lew LC, Hor YY, Jaafar MH, Lau AS, Lee BK, Chuah LO, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Aug 16;21(16).
    PMID: 32824277 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21165872
    In this study, we hypothesized that different strains of Lactobacillus can alleviate hyperlipidemia and liver steatosis via activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme that is involved in cellular energy homeostasis, in aged rats. Male rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) and injected with D-galactose daily over 12 weeks to induce aging. Treatments included (n = 6) (i) normal diet (ND), (ii) HFD, (iii) HFD-statin (lovastatin 2 mg/kg/day), (iv) HFD-Lactobacillus fermentum DR9 (10 log CFU/day), (v) HFD-Lactobacillus plantarum DR7 (10 log CFU/day), and (vi) HFD-Lactobacillus reuteri 8513d (10 log CFU/day). Rats administered with statin, DR9, and 8513d reduced serum total cholesterol levels after eight weeks (p < 0.05), while the administration of DR7 reduced serum triglycerides level after 12 weeks (p < 0.05) as compared to the HFD control. A more prominent effect was observed from the administration of DR7, where positive effects were observed, ranging from hepatic gene expressions to liver histology as compared to the control (p < 0.05); downregulation of hepatic lipid synthesis and β-oxidation gene stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), upregulation of hepatic sterol excretion genes of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 5 and 8 (ABCG5 and ABCG8), lesser degree of liver steatosis, and upregulation of hepatic energy metabolisms genes AMPKα1 and AMPKα2. Taken altogether, this study illustrated that the administration of selected Lactobacillus strains led to improved lipid profiles via activation of energy and lipid metabolisms, suggesting the potentials of Lactobacillus as a promising natural intervention for alleviation of cardiovascular and liver diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase/genetics; Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase/metabolism
  4. Garba L, Mohamad Yussoff MA, Abd Halim KB, Ishak SNH, Mohamad Ali MS, Oslan SN, et al.
    PeerJ, 2018;6:e4347.
    PMID: 29576935 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4347
    Membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases perform oxygenated desaturation reactions to insert double bonds within fatty acyl chains in regioselective and stereoselective manners. The Δ9-fatty acid desaturase strictly creates the first double bond between C9 and 10 positions of most saturated substrates. As the three-dimensional structures of the bacterial membrane fatty acid desaturases are not available, relevant information about the enzymes are derived from their amino acid sequences, site-directed mutagenesis and domain swapping in similar membrane-bound desaturases. The cold-tolerantPseudomonassp. AMS8 was found to produce high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids at low temperature. Subsequently, an active Δ9-fatty acid desaturase was isolated and functionally expressed inEscherichia coli. In this paper we report homology modeling and docking studies of a Δ9-fatty acid desaturase from a Cold-tolerantPseudomonassp. AMS8 for the first time to the best of our knowledge. Three dimensional structure of the enzyme was built using MODELLER version 9.18 using a suitable template. The protein model contained the three conserved-histidine residues typical for all membrane-bound desaturase catalytic activity. The structure was subjected to energy minimization and checked for correctness using Ramachandran plots and ERRAT, which showed a good quality model of 91.6 and 65.0%, respectively. The protein model was used to preform MD simulation and docking of palmitic acid using CHARMM36 force field in GROMACS Version 5 and Autodock tool Version 4.2, respectively. The docking simulation with the lowest binding energy, -6.8 kcal/mol had a number of residues in close contact with the docked palmitic acid namely, Ile26, Tyr95, Val179, Gly180, Pro64, Glu203, His34, His206, His71, Arg182, Thr85, Lys98 and His177. Interestingly, among the binding residues are His34, His71 and His206 from the first, second, and third conserved histidine motif, respectively, which constitute the active site of the enzyme. The results obtained are in compliance with thein vivoactivity of the Δ9-fatty acid desaturase on the membrane phospholipids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase
  5. Khatun J, Loh TC, Akit H, Foo HL, Mohamad R
    Anim Sci J, 2017 Sep;88(9):1406-1413.
    PMID: 28220633 DOI: 10.1111/asj.12775
    The present study assessed the effect of feeding palm oil (PO), sunflower oil (SO) and their combination on performance, fat deposition, fatty acid composition and lipogenic gene expression of broilers reared for 42 days. A total of 144 1-day-old broilers (Cobb500) were randomly allotted into four treatment diets with each having six replicates of six chicks in each replicate following a completely randomized design. Live weight gain and feed efficiency was significantly (P CoA carboxylase (ACC) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD). These findings suggest that the diet containing the combination of 2% PO and 4% SO may reduce hepatic lipogenesis, as well as lower abdominal fat content of broilers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase/genetics; Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase/metabolism
  6. Ebrahimi M, Rajion MA, Goh YM
    Nutrients, 2014 Sep;6(9):3913-28.
    PMID: 25255382 DOI: 10.3390/nu6093913
    Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST) muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05) the α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in α-linolenic acid (p < 0.05) decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase/genetics; Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase/metabolism
  7. Ebrahimi M, Rajion MA, Jafari S, Faseleh Jahromi M, Oskoueian E, Qurni Sazili A, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(8):e0188369.
    PMID: 30067750 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188369
    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of altering the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in the diet on meat quality, fatty acid composition of muscle, and expression of lipogenic genes in the muscle of Boer goats. A total of twenty-one Boer goats (5 months old; 31.66±1.07 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments with n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios of 2.27:1 (LR), 5.01:1 (MR) and 10.38:1 (HR), fed at 3.7% of body weight. After 100 days of feeding, all goats were slaughtered and the longissimus dorsi muscle was sampled for analysis of fatty acids and gene expression. The dietary treatments did not affect (P>0.05) the carcass traits, and meat quality of growing goats. The concentrations of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, trans vaccenic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratios linearly increased (P<0.01) with decreasing dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios, especially for LR in the longissimus dorsi muscle of goats. In contrast, the mRNA expression level of the PPARα and PPARγ was down-regulated and stearoyl-CoA desaturase up-regulated in the longissimus dorsi of growing goats with increasing dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios (P<0.01). In conclusion, the results obtained indicate that the optimal n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio of 2.27:1 exerted beneficial effects on meat fatty acid profiles, leading towards an enrichment in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in goat intramuscular fat.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase/genetics; Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase/metabolism
  8. Ebrahimi M, Rajion MA, Goh YM, Sazili AQ, Schonewille JT
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:194625.
    PMID: 23484090 DOI: 10.1155/2013/194625
    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding oil palm frond silage based diets with added linseed oil (LO) containing high α -linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), namely, high LO (HLO), low LO (LLO), and without LO as the control group (CON) on the fatty acid (FA) composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α , PPAR- γ , and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in Boer goats. The proportion of C18:3n-3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue was increased (P < 0.01) by increasing the LO in the diet, suggesting that the FA from HLO might have escaped ruminal biohydrogenation. Animals fed HLO diets had lower proportions of C18:1 trans-11, C18:2n-6, CLA cis-9 trans-11, and C20:4n-6 and higher proportions of C18:3n-3, C22:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 in the subcutaneous adipose tissue than animals fed the CON diets, resulting in a decreased n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio (FAR) in the tissue. In addition, feeding the HLO diet upregulated the expression of PPAR- γ (P < 0.05) but downregulated the expression of SCD (P < 0.05) in the adipose tissue. The results of the present study show that LO can be safely incorporated in the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with potential health beneficial FA (i.e., n-3 FA).
    Matched MeSH terms: Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase/biosynthesis
  9. Odhaib KJ, Adeyemi KD, Sazili AQ
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2018 Aug;31(8):1345-1357.
    PMID: 29103284 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.17.0468
    Objective: This study examined the influence of dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa seeds, Rosmarinus officinalis leaves and their combination on carcass attributes, fatty acid (FA) composition, gene expression, lipid oxidation and physicochemical properties of longissimus dorsi (LD), semitendinosus (ST), and supraspinatus (SS) muscles in Dorper lambs.

    METHODS: Twenty-four Dorper lambs (18.68±0.6 kg, 4 to 5 months old) were randomly assigned to a concentrate mixture containing either, no supplement (control, T1), 1% Rosmarinus officinalis leaves (T2), 1% Nigella sativa seeds (T3), or 1% Rosmarinus officinalis leaves+1% Nigella sativa seeds (T4) on a dry matter basis. The lambs were fed the treatments with urea-treated rice straw for 90 days, slaughtered and the muscles were subjected to a 7 d postmortem chill storage.

    RESULTS: The T2 lambs had greater (p<0.05) slaughter and cold carcass weights than the control lambs. Dietary supplements did not affect (p>0.05) chill loss, dressing percentage, carcass composition, intramuscular fat and muscle pH in Dorper lambs. Meat from supplemented lambs had lower (p<0.05) cooking and drip losses, shear force, lightness, and lipid oxidation and greater (p<0.05) redness compared with the control meat. The impact of dietary supplements on muscle FA varied with muscle type. Diet had no effect (p>0.05) on the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase and lipoprotein lipase genes in LD and ST muscles in Dorper lambs. The T2 and T3 diets up regulated the expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha 2 gene in LD and ST muscles and up regulated the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 in ST muscle in Dorper lambs.

    CONCLUSION: Dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa seeds and Rosmarinus officinalis leaves had beneficial effects on meat quality in Dorper lambs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase
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