Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 170 in total

  1. AL-Makramani BM, Razak AA, Abu-Hassan MI
    J Prosthodont, 2009 Aug;18(6):484-8.
    PMID: 19694015
    PURPOSE: This study investigated the occlusal fracture resistance of Turkom-Cerafused alumina compared to Procera AllCeram and In-Ceram all-ceramic restorations.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixmaster dies were duplicated from the prepared maxillary first premolar tooth using nonprecious metal alloy (Wiron 99). Ten copings of 0.6 mm thickness were fabricated from each type of ceramic, for a total of thirty copings. Two master dies were used for each group, and each of them was used to lute five copings. All groups were cemented with resin luting cement Panavia F according to manufacturer's instructions and received a static load of 5 kg during cementation. After 24 hours of distilled water storage at 37 degrees C, the copings were vertically compressed using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min.

    RESULTS: The results of the present study showed the following mean loads at fracture: Turkom-Cera (2184 +/- 164 N), In-Ceram (2042 +/- 200 N), and Procera AllCeram (1954 +/- 211 N). ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test showed that the mean load at fracture of Turkom-Cera was significantly different from Procera AllCeram (p < 0.05). Scheffe's post hoc test showed no significant difference between the mean load at fracture of Turkom-Cera and In-Ceram or between the mean load at fracture of In-Ceram and Procera AllCeram.

    CONCLUSION: Because Turkom-Cera demonstrated equal to or higher loads at fracture than currently accepted all-ceramic materials, it would seem to be acceptable for fabrication of anterior and posterior ceramic crowns.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  2. Abas A, Mokhtar NH, Ishak MH, Abdullah MZ, Ho Tian A
    Comput Math Methods Med, 2016;2016:6143126.
    PMID: 27239221 DOI: 10.1155/2016/6143126
    This paper simulates and predicts the laminar flow inside the 3D aneurysm geometry, since the hemodynamic situation in the blood vessels is difficult to determine and visualize using standard imaging techniques, for example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different types of Lattice Boltzmann (LB) models are computed, namely, single relaxation time (SRT), multiple relaxation time (MRT), and regularized BGK models. The results obtained using these different versions of the LB-based code will then be validated with ANSYS FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume- (FV-) based CFD solver. The simulated flow profiles that include velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS) are then compared between the two solvers. The predicted outcomes show that all the LB models are comparable and in good agreement with the FVM solver for complex blood flow simulation. The findings also show minor differences in their WSS profiles. The performance of the parallel implementation for each solver is also included and discussed in this paper. In terms of parallelization, it was shown that LBM-based code performed better in terms of the computation time required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  3. Abdul Wahab AH, Mohamad Azmi NA, Abdul Kadir MR, Md Saad AP
    Int J Artif Organs, 2022 Feb;45(2):200-206.
    PMID: 33645338 DOI: 10.1177/0391398821999391
    Glenoid conformity is one of the important aspects that could contribute to implant stability. However, the optimal conformity is still being debated among the researchers. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the stress distribution of the implant and cement in three types of conformity (conform, non-conform, and hybrid) in three load conditions (central, anterior, and posterior). Glenoid implant and cement were reconstructed using Solidwork software and a 3D model of scapula bone was done using MIMICS software. Constant load, 750 N, was applied at the central, anterior, and posterior region of the glenoid implant which represents average load for daily living activities for elder people, including, walking with a stick and standing up from a chair. The results showed that, during center load, an implant with dual conformity (hybrid) showed the best (Max Stress-3.93 MPa) and well-distributed stress as compared to other conformity (Non-conform-7.21 MPa, Conform-9.38 MPa). While, during eccentric load (anterior and posterior), high stress was located at the anterior and posterior region with respect to the load applied. Cement stress for non-conform and hybrid implant recorded less than 5 MPa, which indicates it had a very low risk to have cement microcracks, whilst, conform implant was exposed to microcrack of the cement. In conclusion, hybrid conformity showed a promising result that could compromise between conform and non-conform implant. However, further enhancement is required for hybrid implants when dealing with eccentric load (anterior and posterior).
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  4. Abdulkader YC, Kamaruddin AF, Mydin RBSMN
    Saudi Dent J, 2020 Sep;32(6):306-313.
    PMID: 32874071 DOI: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2019.09.010
    Objectives: This study compared the effects of normal salivary pH, and acidic pH found in patients with poor oral hygiene, on the durability of aesthetic archwire coated with epoxy resin and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).

    Methods: The posterior parts of the archwires were sectioned into 20 mm segments (N = 102) and divided among six groups. Four groups were treated with different pH levels and two served as controls. The specimens were immersed in individual test tubes containing 10 ml of artificial saliva adjusted to a pH of 6.75 or 3.5. The tubes were sealed and stored in a 37 °C water bath for 28 days. After 28 days, the specimens were ligated to brackets embedded in an acrylic block and subjected to mechanical stress using an electronic toothbrush for 210 s. The specimens were photographed, and images were measured for coating loss using AutoCAD® software. Surface morphology was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

    Results: Significant coating loss (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  5. Abdullah AM, Mohamad D, Rahim TNAT, Akil HM, Rajion ZA
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Jun;99:719-725.
    PMID: 30889745 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.02.007
    This study reports the influence of ZrO2/β-TCP hybridization on the thermal, mechanical, and physical properties of polyamide 12 composites to be suited for bone replacement. Amount of 15 wt% of nano-ZrO2 along with 5,10,15,20 and 25 wt% of micro-β-TCP was compounded with polyamide 12 via a twin-screw extruder. The hybrid ZrO2/β-TCP filled polyamide 12 exhibited higher thermal, mechanical and physical properties in comparison to unfilled polyamide 12 at certain filler loading; which is attributed to the homogenous dispersion of ZrO2/β-TCP fillers particle in polyamide 12 matrix. The hybrid ZrO2/β-TCP filled PA 12 demonstrated an increment of tensile strength by up to 1%, tensile modulus of 38%, flexural strength of 15%, flexural modulus of 45%, and surface roughness value of 93%, as compared to unfilled PA 12. With enhanced thermal, mechanical and physical properties, the newly developed hybrid ZrO2/β-TCP filled PA 12 could be potentially utilized for bone replacement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  6. Abu Osman NA, Gholizadeh H, Eshraghi A, Wan Abas WAB
    Prosthet Orthot Int, 2017 Oct;41(5):476-483.
    PMID: 28946824 DOI: 10.1177/0309364616670396
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate and compare a newly designed suspension system with a common suspension in the market.

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study.

    METHODS: Looped liners with hook fastener and Iceross Dermo Liner with pin/lock system were mechanically tested using a tensile testing machine in terms of system safety. A total of 10 transtibial amputees participated in this study and were asked to use these two different suspension systems. The pistoning was measured between the liner and socket through a photographic method. Three static axial loading conditions were implemented, namely, 30, 60, and 90 N. Furthermore, subjective feedback was obtained.

    RESULTS: Tensile test results showed that both systems could safely tolerate the load applied to the prosthesis during ambulation. Clinical evaluation confirmed extremely low pistoning in both systems (i.e. less than 0.4 cm after adding 90 N traction load to the prosthesis). Subjective feedback also showed satisfaction with both systems. However, less traction at the end of the residual limb was reported while looped liner was used.

    CONCLUSION: The looped liner with hook fastener is safe and a good alternative for individuals with transtibial amputation as this system could solve some problems with the current systems. Clinical relevance The looped liner and hook fastener were shown to be good alternative suspension for people with lower limb amputation especially those who have difficulty to use and align the pin/lock systems. This system could safely tolerate centrifugal forces applied to the prosthesis during normal and fast walking.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  7. Adi Azriff Basri, S.M Abdul Khader, Cherian Johny, Raghuvir Pai B, Mohammed Zuber, Zainuldin Ahmad, et al.
    Introduction: In this study, Renal artery (RA) stenosis of Single Stenosed (SS) and Double Stenosed (DS) with the condition of Normal Blood Pressure (NBP) and High Blood Pressure (HBP) were investigated using the aid of Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) approach. Methods: Numerical analysis of 3D model patient’s specific abdominal aorta with RA stenosis was conducted using FSI solver in software ANSYS 18. Results: The results of velocity profile, pres- sure drop, time average wall shear stress (TAWSS), Oscillatory shear index (OSI) and total deformation of SS and DS with the condition of NBP and HBP were compared in terms of blood flow and structural wall tissue behaviour. The results concluded SS-NBP produced the highest value of velocity profile, TAWSS and OSI parameter compared to the others. Meanwhile, SS-HBP indicates the highest value pressure drop. On the other hand, SS-HBP and DS-HBP have a higher distribution of deformation contour and also maximum VMS compared to SS-NBP and DS-HBP. Conclusion: With the aid of FSI approach, this studied has proven that the existence of SS at RA location has a higher impact on the velocity magnitude, higher pressure drop, higher TAWSS and OSI value compared to the DS case. This is due to a high concentration of pressure acting at the narrow blood vessel of SS compared to DS cases which most of the blood flow will pass to the lower part of abdominal aorta.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  8. Ahamad NA, Kamangar S, Badruddin IA
    Biomed Mater Eng, 2018;29(3):319-332.
    PMID: 29578467 DOI: 10.3233/BME-181734
    The current study investigates the curvature effect due to various angles of curvature on the blood flow in human artery. The stenosis is considered to have three sizes 70%, 80% and 90% blockage before the curve section of artery. Numerical study of four different angle of curvature was considered to understand the flow behavior of artery having various curvatures, on the hemodynamics factors that includes drop in arterial pressure, flow velocity as well as wall shear stress. It was found that, the augmentation of the flow resistance due to the curvature increases in presence of stenosis. It was also noted that the wall shear is higher at the outer wall as compared to the inside wall in four models considered. Results showed that both the curvature of artery and size of the stenosis have significant impact. These two factors should be considered by cardiologist to assess the complexity of stenosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  9. Ahmad NH, Ahmed J, Hashim DM, Manap YA, Mustafa S
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 May;52(5):2902-9.
    PMID: 25892789 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-014-1330-x
    Oscillatory and steady shear rheology of gellan (G) and dextran (D) solution individually, and in blends (G/D ratio 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 w/v) with a total hydrocolloid concentration of 3 % (w/v) were studied at 25 °C. Individually, 1.5 % dextran and 1.5 % gellan in solution exhibited Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior, respectively. A blend of equal proportion of dextran and gellan (G/D = 1:1) exhibits a distinct gel point (G' = G″), and further addition of dextran in the blend (G/D = 1:2 and 1:3) resulted predominating liquid-like (G″ > G') behavior. A plot of G' vs G″ distinctly showed the gradual transition of the blend. Shear stress (τ)-shear rate ([Formula: see text]) data fitted well the Herschel-Bulkley model. The G/D blend exhibited shear thinning behavior with flow behavior index less than unity. The Cox-Merz rule did not fit well for the complex shear viscosity (η*) and apparent viscosity (η) of the blend.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  10. Ahmad T, Bustam MA, Irfan M, Moniruzzaman M, Asghar HMA, Bhattacharjee S
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2019 Jul;66(4):698-708.
    PMID: 31172593 DOI: 10.1002/bab.1787
    Phytosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has achieved an indispensable significance due to the diverse roles played by biomolecules in directing the physiochemical characteristics of biosynthesized nanoparticles. Therefore, the precise identification of key bioactive compounds involved in producing AuNPs is vital to control their tunable characteristics for potential applications. Herein, qualitative and quantitative determination of key biocompounds contributing to the formation of AuNPs using aqueous Elaeis guineensis leaves extract is reported. Moreover, roles of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in reduction of Au3+ and stabilization of AuNPs have been elucidated by establishing a reaction mechanism. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed shifting of O─H stretching vibrations toward longer wavenumbers and C═O toward shorter wavenumbers due to involvement of polyphenolic compounds in biosynthesis and oxidation of polyphenolic into carboxylic compounds, respectively, which cape nanoparticles to inhibit the aggregation. Congruently, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the major contribution of polyphenolic compounds in the synthesis of AuNPs, which was further endorsed by reduction of total phenolic and total flavonoids contents from 48.08 ± 1.98 to 9.59 ± 0.92 mg GAE/g and 32.02 ± 1.31 to 13.8 ± 0.97 mg CE/g within 60 Min, respectively. Based on experimental results, reaction mechanism explained the roles of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in producing spherical-shaped AuNPs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  11. Ahmad, Z., Rohana, H., Md Tahir, P.
    ASM Science Journal, 2013;7(1):37-58.
    This study investigated the thermal properties of three room temperature curing adhesives containing nano particles which were thixotropic and shear thinning which allowed injection into overhead holes when exposed to different environmental conditions. Viscosity and shear stress of the adhesives were measured as a function of shear rate. The thermal behaviour of the adhesives were measured using dynamic mechanical thermal anylisis following exposures to different temperatures and humidities which included temperatures of 20 degrees Celcius, 30 degrees Celcius and 50 degrees Celcius, relative humidities of 65% RH, 75% RH 95% RH soaked in water at 20 degrees Celcius and placed in the oven at 50 degrees Celcius. The dynamic thermal properties reported include storage and loss modulus, the loss tangent and the glass transition temperature ( Tg ). For nano- and micro-particles filled adhesives, the Tg increased with the temperature increase, even though the adhesives was subjected to high humidity and this was due to further cross-linking. The results showed that room temperature cured epoxies were only partially cured at room temperature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  12. Al-Fakih EA, Abu Osman NA, Mahmad Adikan FR
    Sensors (Basel), 2016 Jul 20;16(7).
    PMID: 27447646 DOI: 10.3390/s16071119
    The distribution of interface stresses between the residual limb and prosthetic socket of a transtibial amputee has been considered as a direct indicator of the socket quality fit and comfort. Therefore, researchers have been very interested in quantifying these interface stresses in order to evaluate the extent of any potential damage caused by the socket to the residual limb tissues. During the past 50 years a variety of measurement techniques have been employed in an effort to identify sites of excessive stresses which may lead to skin breakdown, compare stress distributions in various socket designs, and evaluate interface cushioning and suspension systems, among others. The outcomes of such measurement techniques have contributed to improving the design and fitting of transtibial sockets. This article aims to review the operating principles, advantages, and disadvantages of conventional and emerging techniques used for interface stress measurements inside transtibial sockets. It also reviews and discusses the evolution of different socket concepts and interface stress investigations conducted in the past five decades, providing valuable insights into the latest trends in socket designs and the crucial considerations for effective stress measurement tools that lead to a functional prosthetic socket.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  13. Al-Fasih MY, Kueh ABH, W Ibrahim MH
    PLoS One, 2020;15(2):e0227895.
    PMID: 32012168 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227895
    Skin crack defects can develop in sandwich honeycomb composite structures during service life due to static and impact loads. In this study, the fracture behavior of sandwich honeycomb composite (SHC) beams containing crack at the skin was investigated experimentally and numerically under four-point loading. Three different arrangements of unidirectional (UD) carbon fiber composite and the triaxially woven (TW) fabric were considered for the skins. The presence of a 10 mm crack at mid-span of the top skin, mid-span of the bottom skin, and mid-way between load and support of the top skin, respectively, were considered. Failure load equations of the load initiating the skin crack extension were analytically derived and then numerically developed using the J-integral approach. The crack extension failure mode dominated all cracked specimens except those with low-stiffness skin which were controlled by the compressive skin debonding and core shear failures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical*
  14. Al-Makramani BM, Razak AA, Abu-Hassan MI
    J Appl Oral Sci, 2010 Dec;18(6):607-12.
    PMID: 21308292
    Advances in all-ceramic systems have established predictable means of providing metal-free aesthetic and biocompatible materials. These materials must have sufficient strength to be a practical treatment alternative for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the biaxial flexural strength of three core ceramic materials.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three groups of 10 disc-shaped specimens (16 mm diameter x 1.2 mm thickness - in accordance with ISO-6872, 1995) were made from the following ceramic materials: Turkom-Cera Fused Alumina [(Turkom-Ceramic (M) Sdn Bhd, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia)], In-Ceram (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany) and Vitadur-N (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany), which were sintered according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The specimens were subjected to biaxial flexural strength test in an universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The definitive fracture load was recorded for each specimen and the biaxial flexural strength was calculated from an equation in accordance with ISO-6872.

    RESULTS: The mean biaxial flexural strength values were: Turkom-Cera: 506.8 ± 87.01 MPa, In-Ceram: 347.4 ± 28.83 MPa and Vitadur-N: 128.7 ± 12.72 MPa. The results were analyzed by the Levene's test and Dunnett's T3 post-hoc test (SPSS software V11.5.0 for Windows, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA ) at a preset significance level of 5% because of unequal group variances (P<0.001). There was statistically significant difference between the three core ceramics (P<0.05). Turkom-Cera showed the highest biaxial flexural strength, followed by In-Ceram and Vitadur-N.

    CONCLUSIONS: Turkom-Cera core had significantly higher flexural strength than In-Ceram and Vitadur-N ceramic core materials.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  15. Al-Makramani BMA, Razak AAA, Abu-Hassan MI
    J Prosthodont, 2008 Feb;17(2):120-124.
    PMID: 18047490 DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-849X.2007.00270.x
    PURPOSE: The current study investigated the effect of different luting agents on the fracture resistance of Procera AllCeram copings.

    METHODS: Six master dies were duplicated from the prepared maxillary first premolar tooth using nonprecious metal alloy (Wiron 99). Thirty copings (Procera AllCeram) of 0.6-mm thickness were manufactured. Three types of luting media were used: zinc phosphate cement (Elite), glass ionomer cement (Fuji I), and dual-cured composite resin cement (Panavia F). Ten copings were cemented with each type. Two master dies were used for each group, and each of them was used to lute five copings. All groups were cemented according to manufacturer's instructions and received a static load of 5 kg during cementation. After 24 hours of distilled water storage at 37 degrees C, the copings were vertically compressed using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min.

    RESULTS: ANOVA revealed significant differences in the load at fracture among the three groups (p < 0.001). The fracture strength results showed that the mean fracture strength of zinc phosphate cement (Elite), glass ionomer cement (Fuji I), and resin luting cement (Panavia F) were 1091.9 N, 784.8 N, and 1953.5 N, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Different luting agents have an influence on the fracture resistance of Procera AllCeram copings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  16. Alakbari FS, Mohyaldinn ME, Ayoub MA, Muhsan AS, Hussein IA
    PLoS One, 2021;16(4):e0250466.
    PMID: 33901240 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0250466
    Sand management is essential for enhancing the production in oil and gas reservoirs. The critical total drawdown (CTD) is used as a reliable indicator of the onset of sand production; hence, its accurate prediction is very important. There are many published CTD prediction correlations in literature. However, the accuracy of most of these models is questionable. Therefore, further improvement in CTD prediction is needed for more effective and successful sand control. This article presents a robust and accurate fuzzy logic (FL) model for predicting the CTD. Literature on 23 wells of the North Adriatic Sea was used to develop the model. The used data were split into 70% training sets and 30% testing sets. Trend analysis was conducted to verify that the developed model follows the correct physical behavior trends of the input parameters. Some statistical analyses were performed to check the model's reliability and accuracy as compared to the published correlations. The results demonstrated that the proposed FL model substantially outperforms the current published correlations and shows higher prediction accuracy. These results were verified using the highest correlation coefficient, the lowest average absolute percent relative error (AAPRE), the lowest maximum error (max. AAPRE), the lowest standard deviation (SD), and the lowest root mean square error (RMSE). Results showed that the lowest AAPRE is 8.6%, whereas the highest correlation coefficient is 0.9947. These values of AAPRE (<10%) indicate that the FL model could predicts the CTD more accurately than other published models (>20% AAPRE). Moreover, further analysis indicated the robustness of the FL model, because it follows the trends of all physical parameters affecting the CTD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  17. Alani AH, Toh CG
    Oper Dent, 1997 Jul-Aug;22(4):173-85.
    PMID: 9484158
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  18. Ali A, Sharma RK, Ganesan P, Akib S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:412136.
    PMID: 25136666 DOI: 10.1155/2014/412136
    A numerical investigation of incompressible and transient flow around circular pipe has been carried out at different five gap phases. Flow equations such as Navier-Stokes and continuity equations have been solved using finite volume method. Unsteady horizontal velocity and kinetic energy square root profiles are plotted using different turbulence models and their sensitivity is checked against published experimental results. Flow parameters such as horizontal velocity under pipe, pressure coefficient, wall shear stress, drag coefficient, and lift coefficient are studied and presented graphically to investigate the flow behavior around an immovable pipe and scoured bed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  19. Ali N, Halim NS, Jusoh A, Endut A
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Mar;101(5):1459-65.
    PMID: 19786347 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.08.070
    The focus of this research is to study the potential of nanofiltration membrane technology in removing ammonia-nitrogen from the aquaculture system. One of the major fabrication parameters that directly affect the separation performance is shear rate or casting rate during membrane fabrication. In this study, asymmetric polyethersulfone (PES) nanofiltration membranes were prepared at five different shear rates within the range of 67-400 s(-1). Membrane productivity and separation performance were assessed via pure water, salt and ammonia-nitrogen permeation experiments, and their structural properties were determined by employing the combination of the irreversible thermodynamic (IT) model, solution diffusion model, steric hindrance pore (SHP) model and Teorell-Meyers (TMS) model. The study reveals that the alteration of shear rate enormously affects the membrane morphology and structural parameters, hence subsequently significantly influencing the membrane performance. It was found that, membrane produced at the shear rate 200 s(-1) or equivalent to 10s of casting speed during membrane fabrications managed to remove about 68% of ammonia-nitrogen, in which its separation performance is the most favourable by means of highest flux and rejection ability towards unwanted solutes. Besides, from the research findings, nano-membrane technology is a potential candidate for the treatment of aquaculture wastewater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical*
  20. Alkhatib SE, Tarlochan F, Mehboob H, Singh R, Kadirgama K, Harun WSBW
    Artif Organs, 2019 Jul;43(7):E152-E164.
    PMID: 30805945 DOI: 10.1111/aor.13444
    The mismatch between stiffness of the femoral dense stem and host bone causes complications to patients, such as aseptic loosening and bone resorption. Three-dimensional finite-element models of homogeneous porous (HGP) and functionally graded porous (FGP) stems incorporating body-centered cubic (BCC) structures are proposed in this article as an alternative to the dense stems. The relationship between the porosity and strut thickness of the BCC structure was developed to construct the finite-element models. Three levels of porosities (20%, 50%, and 80%) were modeled in HGP and FGP stems. The porosity of the stems was decreased distally according to the sigmoid function (n = 0.1, n = 1 and n = 10) with 3 grading exponents. The results showed that FGP stems transferred 120%-170% higher stresses to the femur (Gruen zone 7) as compared to the solid stem. Conversely, the stresses in HGP and FGP stems were 12%-34% lower than the dense stem. The highest micromotions (105-147 µm) were observed for stems of 80% overall porosity, and the lowest (42-46 µm) was for stems of 20% overall porosity. Finally, FGP stems with a grading exponent of n = 10 resulted in an 11%-28% reduction in micromotions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
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