Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 170 in total

  1. Zin, M.H., Abdan, K., Norizan, M.N., Mazlan, N.
    The main focus of this study was to obtain the optimum alkaline treatment for banana fibre and the its effect on the mechanical and chemical properties of banana fibre, its surface topography, its heat resistivity, as well as its interfacial bonding with epoxy matrix. Banana fibre was treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) under various treatment conditions. The treated fibres were characterised using FTIR spectroscopy. The morphology of a single fibre observed under a Digital Image Analyser indicated slight reduction in fibre diameter with increasing NaOH concentration. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) results showed the deteriorating effect of alkali, which can be seen from the removal of impurities and increment in surface roughness. The mechanical analysis indicates that 6% NaOH treatment with a two-hour immersion time gave the highest tensile strength. The adhesion between single fibre and epoxy resin was analysed through the micro-droplet test. It was found that 6% NaOH treatment with a two-hour immersion yielded the highest interfacial shear stress of 3.96 MPa. The TGA analysis implies that alkaline treatment improved the thermal and heat resistivity of the fibre.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  2. Zhong J, Guazzato M, Chen J, Zhang Z, Sun G, Huo X, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2020 02;102:103490.
    PMID: 31877512 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.103490
    Mechanical failure of zirconia-based full-arch implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (FAFDPs) remains a critical issue in prosthetic dentistry. The option of full-arch implant treatment and the biomechanical behaviour within a sophisticated screw-retained prosthetic structure have stimulated considerable interest in fundamental and clinical research. This study aimed to analyse the biomechanical responses of zirconia-based FAFDPs with different implant configurations (numbers and distributions), thereby predicting the possible failure sites and the optimum configuration from biomechanical aspect by using finite element method (FEM). Five 3D finite element (FE) models were constructed with patient-specific heterogeneous material properties of mandibular bone. The results were reported using volume-averaged von-Mises stresses (σVMVA) to eliminate numerical singularities. It was found that wider placement of multi-unit copings was preferred as it reduces the cantilever effect on denture. Within the limited areas of implant insertion, the adoption of angled multi-unit abutments allowed the insertion of oblique implants in the bone and wider distribution of the multi-unit copings in the prosthesis, leading to lower stress concentration on both mandibular bone and prosthetic components. Increasing the number of supporting implants in a FAFDPs reduced loading on each implant, although it may not necessarily reduce the stress concentration in the most posterior locations significantly. Overall, the 6-implant configuration was a preferable configuration as it provided the most balanced mechanical performance in this patient-specific case.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  3. Zakaria NM, Yusoff NI, Hardwiyono S, Nayan KA, El-Shafie A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:594797.
    PMID: 25276854 DOI: 10.1155/2014/594797
    Enhanced resonance search (ERS) is a nondestructive testing method that has been created to evaluate the quality of a pavement by means of a special instrument called the pavement integrity scanner (PiScanner). This technique can be used to assess the thickness of the road pavement structure and the profile of shear wave velocity by using the principle of surface wave and body wave propagation. In this study, the ERS technique was used to determine the actual thickness of the asphaltic pavement surface layer, while the shear wave velocities obtained were used to determine its dynamic elastic modulus. A total of fifteen locations were identified and the results were then compared with the specifications of the Malaysian PWD, MDD UKM, and IKRAM. It was found that the value of the elastic modulus of materials is between 3929 MPa and 17726 MPa. A comparison of the average thickness of the samples with the design thickness of MDD UKM showed a difference of 20 to 60%. Thickness of the asphalt surface layer followed the specifications of Malaysian PWD and MDD UKM, while some of the values of stiffness obtained are higher than the standard.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  4. Zain NM, Ismail Z
    PLoS One, 2023;18(2):e0276576.
    PMID: 36780455 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0276576
    This paper presents a numerical analysis of blood flow in a diseased vessel within the presence of an external magnetic field. The blood flow was considered to be incompressible and fully developed, in that the non-Newtonian nature of the fluid was characterised as a generalised power law model for shear-thinning, Newtonian, and shear-thickening fluids. The impact of a transverse directed external magnetic field on blood flow through a stenosed bifurcated artery was investigated. The arterial geometry was considered as a bifurcated channel with overlapping shaped stenosis. The problem was treated mathematically using the Galerkin Least-Squares (GLS) method. The implementation of this numerical method managed to overcome the numerical instability faced by the classical Galerkin technique when adopted to a highly viscous flow. The benefit of GLS in circumventing the Ladyzhenskaya-Babuška-Brezzi (LBB) condition was utilized by evaluating both the velocity and pressure components at corner nodes of a unstructured triangular element. The non-linearity that emerged from the convective terms was then treated using the Newton-Raphson method, while the numerical integrals were computed using a Gaussian quadrature rule with six quadrature points. The findings obtained from this study were then compared with available results from the literature as well as Comsol multiphysics software to verify the accuracy and validity of the numerical algorithms. It was found that the application of magnetic field was able to overcome flow reversal by 39% for a shear-thinning fluid, 26% for a Newtonian fluid, and 27% for a shear-thickening fluid. The negative pressure and steep wall shear stress which occurs at the extremities of an overlapping stenosis throat were diminished by rise in magnetic intensity. This prevented thrombosis occurrence and produced a uniform calm flow.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  5. Zahmatkesh F, Osman MH, Talebi E
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:323206.
    PMID: 24587720 DOI: 10.1155/2014/323206
    Research on the steel structures with confining of axial expansion in fixed beams has been quite intensive in the past decade. It is well established that the thermal behaviour has a key influence on steel structural behaviours. This paper describes mechanical behaviour of beams with bolted slant end-plate connection with nonsymmetric gravity load, subjected to temperature increase. Furthermore, the performance of slant connections of beams in steel moment frame structures in the elastic field is investigated. The proposed model proved that this flexible connection system could successfully decrease the extra thermal induced axial force by both of the friction force dissipation among two faces of slant connection and a small upward movement on the slant plane. The applicability of primary assumption is illustrated. The results from the proposed model are examined within various slant angles, thermal and friction factors. It can be concluded that higher thermal conditions are tolerable when slanting connection is used.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical*
  6. Yusoff N, Abu Osman NA, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Med Eng Phys, 2011 Jul;33(6):782-8.
    PMID: 21356602 DOI: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2011.01.013
    A mechanical-conditioning bioreactor has been developed to provide bi-axial loading to three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs within a highly controlled environment. The computer-controlled bioreactor is capable of applying axial compressive and shear deformations, individually or simultaneously at various regimes of strain and frequency. The reliability and reproducibility of the system were verified through validation of the spatial and temporal accuracy of platen movement, which was maintained over the operating length of the system. In the presence of actual specimens, the system was verified to be able to deliver precise bi-axial load to the specimens, in which the deformation of every specimen was observed to be relatively homogeneous. The primary use of the bioreactor is in the culture of chondrocytes seeded within an agarose hydrogel while subjected to physiological compressive and shear deformation. The system has been designed specifically to permit the repeatable quantification and characterisation of the biosynthetic activity of cells in response to a wide range of short and long term multi-dimensional loading regimes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  7. Yong KW, Li Y, Huang G, Lu TJ, Safwani WK, Pingguan-Murphy B, et al.
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 2015 Aug 15;309(4):H532-42.
    PMID: 26092987 DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00299.2015
    Cardiac myofibroblast differentiation, as one of the most important cellular responses to heart injury, plays a critical role in cardiac remodeling and failure. While biochemical cues for this have been extensively investigated, the role of mechanical cues, e.g., extracellular matrix stiffness and mechanical strain, has also been found to mediate cardiac myofibroblast differentiation. Cardiac fibroblasts in vivo are typically subjected to a specific spatiotemporally changed mechanical microenvironment. When exposed to abnormal mechanical conditions (e.g., increased extracellular matrix stiffness or strain), cardiac fibroblasts can undergo myofibroblast differentiation. To date, the impact of mechanical cues on cardiac myofibroblast differentiation has been studied both in vitro and in vivo. Most of the related in vitro research into this has been mainly undertaken in two-dimensional cell culture systems, although a few three-dimensional studies that exist revealed an important role of dimensionality. However, despite remarkable advances, the comprehensive mechanisms for mechanoregulation of cardiac myofibroblast differentiation remain elusive. In this review, we introduce important parameters for evaluating cardiac myofibroblast differentiation and then discuss the development of both in vitro (two and three dimensional) and in vivo studies on mechanoregulation of cardiac myofibroblast differentiation. An understanding of the development of cardiac myofibroblast differentiation in response to changing mechanical microenvironment will underlie potential targets for future therapy of cardiac fibrosis and failure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical*
  8. Yazariah M. Yatim, Brian R. Duffy, Stephen K. Wilson
    Sains Malaysiana, 2013;42:975-980.
    We investigate unsteady flow of a thin film of Newtonian fluid around a symmetric slender dry patch moving with constant velocity on an inclined planar substrate, the flow being driven by a prescribed constant shear stress at the free surface of the film (which would be of uniform thickness in the absence of the dry patch). We obtain a novel unsteady travelling-wave similarity solution which predicts that the dry patch has a parabolic shape and that the film thickness increases monotonically away from the dry patch.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  9. Yang Harmony TC, Yusof N, Ramalingam S, Baharin R, Syahrom A, Mansor A
    Clin Orthop Relat Res, 2022 Feb 01;480(2):407-418.
    PMID: 34491235 DOI: 10.1097/CORR.0000000000001968
    BACKGROUND: Gamma irradiation, which minimizes the risk of infectious disease transmission when human bone allograft is used, has been found to negatively affect its biomechanical properties. However, in those studies, the deep-freezing temperature during irradiation was not necessarily maintained during transportation and sterilization, which may have affected the findings. Prior reports have also suggested that controlled deep freezing may mitigate the detrimental effects of irradiation on the mechanical properties of bone allograft.

    QUESTION/PURPOSE: Does a controlled deep-freezing temperature during irradiation help preserve the compressive mechanical properties of human femoral cortical bone allografts?

    METHODS: Cortical bone cube samples, each measuring 64 mm3, were cut from the mid-diaphyseal midshaft of five fresh-frozen cadaver femurs (four male donors, mean [range] age at procurement 42 years [42 to 43]) and were allocated via block randomization into one of three experimental groups (with equal numbers of samples from each donor allocated into each group). Each experimental group consisted of 20 bone cube samples. Samples irradiated in dry ice were subjected to irradiation doses ranging from 26.7 kGy to 27.1 kGy (mean 26.9 kGy) at a deep-freezing temperature below -40°C (the recommended long-term storage temperature for allografts). Samples irradiated in gel ice underwent irradiation doses ranging from 26.2 kGy and 26.4 kGy (mean 26.3 kGy) in a freezing temperature range between -40°C and 0°C. Acting as controls, samples in a third group were not subjected to gamma irradiation. The mechanical properties (0.2% offset yield stress, ultimate compression stress, toughness, and the Young modulus) of samples from each group were subsequently evaluated via axial compression loading to failure along the long axis of the bone. The investigators were blinded to sample group during compression testing.

    RESULTS: The mean ultimate compression stress (84 ± 27 MPa versus 119 ± 31 MPa, mean difference 35 [95% CI 9 to 60]; p = 0.005) and toughness (3622 ± 1720 kJ/m3 versus 5854 ± 2900 kJ/m3, mean difference 2232 [95% CI 70 to 4394]; p = 0.009) of samples irradiated at a higher temperature range (-40°C to 0°C) were lower than in those irradiated at deep-freezing temperatures (below -40°C). The mean 0.2% offset yield stress (73 ± 28 MPa versus 109 ± 38 MPa, mean difference 36 [95% CI 11 to 60]; p = 0.002) and ultimate compression stress (84 ± 27 MPa versus 128 ± 40 MPa, mean difference 44 [95% CI 17 to 69]; p < 0.001) of samples irradiated at a higher temperature range (-40°C to 0°C) were lower than the nonirradiated control group samples. The mean 0.2% offset yield stress (73 ± 28 MPa versus 101 ± 28 MPa, mean difference 28 [95% CI 3 to 52]; p = 0.02; effect size = 1.0 [95% CI 0.8 to 1.2]) of samples irradiated at higher temperature range (-40°C to 0°C) were no different with the numbers available to those irradiated at deep-freezing temperature. The mean toughness (3622 ± 1720 kJ/m3 versus 6231 ± 3410 kJ/m3, mean difference 2609 [95% CI 447 to 4771]; p = 0.02; effect size = 1.0 [95% CI 0.8 to 1.2]) of samples irradiated at higher temperature range (-40°C to 0°C) were no different with the numbers available to the non-irradiated control group samples. The mean 0.2% offset yield stress, ultimate compression stress, and toughness of samples irradiated in deep-freezing temperatures (below -40°C) were not different with the numbers available to the non-irradiated control group samples. The Young modulus was not different with the numbers available among the three groups.

    CONCLUSION: In this study, maintenance of a deep-freezing temperature below -40°C, using dry ice as a cooling agent, consistently mitigated the adverse effects of irradiation on the monotonic-compression mechanical properties of human cortical bone tissue. Preserving the mechanical properties of a cortical allograft, when irradiated in a deep-freezing temperature, may have resulted from attenuation of the deleterious, indirect effects of gamma radiation on its collagen architecture in a frozen state. Immobilization of water molecules in this state prevents radiolysis and the subsequent generation of free radicals. This hypothesis was supported by an apparent loss of the protective effect when a range of higher freezing temperatures was used during irradiation.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Deep-freezing temperatures below -40°C during gamma irradiation may be a promising approach to better retain the native mechanical properties of cortical bone allografts. A further study of the effect of deep-freezing during gamma radiation sterilization on sterility and other important biomechanical properties of cortical bone (such as, tensile strength, fracture toughness, and fatigue) is needed to confirm these findings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  10. Yahaya SA, Ripin ZM, Ridzwan MIZ
    Osteoporos Int, 2020 Jan;31(1):43-58.
    PMID: 31446442 DOI: 10.1007/s00198-019-05128-x
    Various mechanical and biomechanical test systems to evaluate the effectiveness of hip protectors designed to prevent hip fracture as a result of falls were examined in this review. The articles considered were selected systematically. The effect of differences in design criteria was demonstrated, and it was observed that the impact energy employed during testing dramatically affects the performance of the hip protector. Over the past three decades, researchers have continuously experimented with various systems to determine the efficacy of various hip protectors. The primary aim has been to make informed decisions in optimizing hip protector design. This article provides a systematic review of various test systems employed in the determination of the biomechanical efficacy of hip protectors. A systematic literature search was carried out, and 28 relevant articles were included to demonstrate the effect of test systems in the evaluation of the biomechanical effectiveness of hip protectors. Methodological studies illustrated the appropriate use of impact testing systems for the simulation of hip anatomy and fall dynamics in evaluating the effectiveness of hip protectors in preventing a hip fracture. This systematic review has demonstrated the effect of the variability of test systems on the evaluation of impact attenuation by various hip protectors. The lack of standardized test systems accounts for the inconsistencies in the test results of the efficacy of hip protectors. This has been a major challenge in the efforts of researchers to optimize the interventions. The standardization of test systems may require needed improvements immediately as opposed to the development of new interventions in order to ensure that only hip protectors with adequately proven efficacies are deployed for clinical trials or for the protection of the hips of vulnerable individuals from sideways impact.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  11. Wan Hassan WN, Stephenson PA, Waddington RJ, Sloan AJ
    J Dent, 2012 May;40(5):406-15.
    PMID: 22342686 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2012.02.002
    Root resorption is a ubiquitous although undesirable sequela to orthodontic treatment. Current methods to investigate the pathophysiology have certain limitations. In pursuit to understand and develop treatment modalities for orthodontically induced root resorption, the ability to manipulate cells within their natural extracellular matrix in a three dimensional organotypic model is invaluable. The study aimed to develop a laboratory-based organotypic model to investigate the effect of orthodontic forces on the periodontium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  12. Wan Abas WA
    Biomed Mater Eng, 1995;5(2):59-63.
    PMID: 7655319
    The response of human skin to "stress relaxation" tests at low loads in vitro was investigated. A number of behaviours, other than those already well established and documented, were observed. The significant behaviours are pure recovery and relaxation-recovery. Other behaviours observed are temporary stress recovery during the relaxation process, and momentary sudden non-linear drop in stress value followed by a second relaxation. The pure recovery and relaxation-recovery responses are repeatable. The latter represents the transitional response between the well-known behaviour of stress relaxation and the behaviour of stress recovery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  13. Wan Abas WA
    Biomed Mater Eng, 1994;4(7):473-86.
    PMID: 7881331
    The response of human skin to biaxial stretch tests in vivo was investigated and compared to the response to uniaxial tension. The results obtained illustrate the nonlinear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic (time-dependent) properties of skin under biaxial stretch. Preconditioning in the load-extension response was found not to be prominent. The results also suggest that the response of skin to a biaxial stretch in vivo is qualitatively similar to that in vitro. Values of the terminal stiffness and limit strain of skin under a biaxial stretch are found.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  14. Wan Abas WA, Asseli MR
    Biomed Mater Eng, 1994;4(7):463-71.
    PMID: 7881330
    Local strains acting across an area of skin loaded uniaxially in vivo are converted to stresses using the standard elastic formulae. The stress values are compared to those obtained using the classical Bossinesq and Michell stress functions. The results indicate that these functions are capable of describing the response of the skin, both in the low load and the high load regions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  15. Wahab AHA, Saad APM, Syahrom A, Kadir MRA
    Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin, 2020 Apr;23(5):182-190.
    PMID: 31910663 DOI: 10.1080/10255842.2019.1709828
    Glenoid perforation is not the intended consequence of the surgery and must be avoided. The analysis on biomechanical aspect of glenoid vault perforation remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of glenoid perforation towards stress distribution and micromotion at the interfaces. Eight glenoid implant models had been constructed with various size, number and type of fixation. A load of 750 N was applied to centre, superior-anterior and superior-posterior area. Implant perforation had minimal impact on stress distribution and micromotion at the interfaces. However, cement survival rate for implant without perforation was the highest with a difference of up to 37% compared to other perforated models. Besides that, implant fixation and high stresses at the implant had more of an impact on implant instability than implant perforation. As a conclusion, glenoid perforation did not influence the stress distribution and micromotion, but, it reduced cement survival rate and increase the stress critical volume.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical*
  16. Wahab AH, Kadir MR, Harun MN, Kamarul T, Syahrom A
    Med Biol Eng Comput, 2017 Mar;55(3):439-447.
    PMID: 27255451 DOI: 10.1007/s11517-016-1525-6
    The present study was conducted to compare the stability of four commercially available implants by investigating the focal stress distributions and relative micromotion using finite element analysis. Variations in the numbers of pegs between the implant designs were tested. A load of 750 N was applied at three different glenoid positions (SA: superior-anterior; SP: superior-posterior; C: central) to mimic off-center and central loadings during activities of daily living. Focal stress distributions and relative micromotion were measured using Marc Mentat software. The results demonstrated that by increasing the number of pegs from two to five, the total focal stress volumes exceeding 5 MPa, reflecting the stress critical volume (SCV) as the threshold for occurrence of cement microfractures, decreased from 8.41 to 5.21 % in the SA position and from 9.59 to 6.69 % in the SP position. However, in the C position, this change in peg number increased the SCV from 1.37 to 5.86 %. Meanwhile, micromotion appeared to remain within 19-25 µm irrespective of the number of pegs used. In conclusion, four-peg glenoid implants provide the best configuration because they had lower SCV values compared with lesser-peg implants, preserved more bone stock, and reduced PMMA cement usage compared with five-peg implants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical*
  17. Venugopal A, Mohammad R, Koslan MFS, Sayd Bakar SR, Ali A
    Materials (Basel), 2021 May 06;14(9).
    PMID: 34066461 DOI: 10.3390/ma14092414
    The environmental condition in which the Royal Malaysian Airforce is currently operating its aircraft is prone to corrosion. This is due to the high relative humidity and temperature. With most of its aircraft being in the legacy aircraft era, the aircraft's main construction consists of the aluminium 2024 material. However, this material is prone to corrosion, thus reducing fatigue life and leading to fatigue failure. Using the concept of either Safe Life or Damage Tolerance as its fatigue design philosophy, the RMAF adopts the Aircraft Structure Integrity Program (ASIP) to monitor its structural integrity. With the current problem of not having the structural limitation on corrosion-damaged structure, the RMAF has embarked on its fatigue testing method. Finite Element (FE) studies and flight tests were conducted, and the outcome is summarized. The conclusion is that the longeron tested on the aircraft can withstand the operational load, and its yield strength is below the ultimate yield strength of the material. These research outcomes will also enhance the ASIP for other aircraft platforms in the RMAF fleet for its structure life assessment or service life extension program.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  18. Tilwani RK, Vessillier S, Pingguan-Murphy B, Lee DA, Bader DL, Chowdhury TT
    Inflamm Res, 2017 Jan;66(1):49-58.
    PMID: 27658702 DOI: 10.1007/s00011-016-0991-5
    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Oxygen tension and biomechanical signals are factors that regulate inflammatory mechanisms in chondrocytes. We examined whether low oxygen tension influenced the cells response to TNFα and dynamic compression.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chondrocyte/agarose constructs were treated with varying concentrations of TNFα (0.1-100 ng/ml) and cultured at 5 and 21 % oxygen tension for 48 h. In separate experiments, constructs were subjected to dynamic compression (15 %) and treated with TNFα (10 ng/ml) and/or L-NIO (1 mM) at 5 and 21 % oxygen tension using an ex vivo bioreactor for 48 h. Markers for catabolic activity (NO, PGE2) and tissue remodelling (GAG, MMPs) were quantified by biochemical assay. ADAMTS-5 and MMP-13 expression were examined by real-time qPCR. 2-way ANOVA and a post hoc Bonferroni-corrected t test were used to analyse data.

    RESULTS: TNFα dose-dependently increased NO, PGE2 and MMP activity (all p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  19. Teo YX, Chan YS, Gouwanda D, Gopalai AA, Nurzaman SG, Thannirmalai S
    Sci Rep, 2021 07 22;11(1):15020.
    PMID: 34294775 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-94268-4
    Although global demand for palm oil has been increasing, most activities in the oil palm plantations still rely heavily on manual labour, which includes fresh fruit bunch (FFB) harvesting and loose fruit (LF) collection. As a result, harvesters and/or collectors face ergonomic risks resulting in musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) due to awkward, extreme and repetitive posture during their daily work routines. Traditionally, indirect approaches were adopted to assess these risks using a survey or manual visual observations. In this study, a direct measurement approach was performed using Inertial Measurement Units, and surface Electromyography sensors. The instruments were attached to different body parts of the plantation workers to quantify their muscle activities and assess the ergonomics risks during FFB harvesting and LF collection. The results revealed that the workers generally displayed poor and discomfort posture in both activities. Biceps, multifidus and longissimus muscles were found to be heavily used during FFB harvesting. Longissimus, iliocostalis, and multifidus muscles were the most used muscles during LF collection. These findings can be beneficial in the design of various assistive tools which could improve workers' posture, reduce the risk of injury and MSD, and potentially improve their overall productivity and quality of life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  20. Teasdale JE, Hazell GG, Peachey AM, Sala-Newby GB, Hindmarch CC, McKay TR, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 01 06;7:39945.
    PMID: 28059114 DOI: 10.1038/srep39945
    Endothelial dysfunction caused by the combined action of disturbed flow, inflammatory mediators and oxidants derived from cigarette smoke is known to promote coronary atherosclerosis and increase the likelihood of myocardial infarctions and strokes. Conversely, laminar flow protects against endothelial dysfunction, at least in the initial phases of atherogenesis. We studied the effects of TNFα and cigarette smoke extract on human coronary artery endothelial cells under oscillatory, normal laminar and elevated laminar shear stress for a period of 72 hours. We found, firstly, that laminar flow fails to overcome the inflammatory effects of TNFα under these conditions but that cigarette smoke induces an anti-oxidant response that appears to reduce endothelial inflammation. Elevated laminar flow, TNFα and cigarette smoke extract synergise to induce expression of the transcriptional regulator activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), which we show by adenovirus driven overexpression, decreases inflammatory gene expression independently of activation of nuclear factor-κB. Our results illustrate the importance of studying endothelial dysfunction in vitro over prolonged periods. They also identify ATF3 as an important protective factor against endothelial dysfunction. Modulation of ATF3 expression may represent a novel approach to modulate proinflammatory gene expression and open new therapeutic avenues to treat proinflammatory diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
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