Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 170 in total

  1. Eshraghi A, Abu Osman NA, Gholizadeh H, Ali S, Abas WA
    Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 2015 Jan;94(1):1-10.
    PMID: 24919079 DOI: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000134
    This study aimed to compare the effects of different suspension methods on the interface stress inside the prosthetic sockets of transtibial amputees when negotiating ramps and stairs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical*
  2. Baharuddin MY, Salleh ShH, Zulkifly AH, Lee MH, Noor AM, A Harris AR, et al.
    PMID: 24484753 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-15-30
    Minimal available information concerning hip morphology is the motivation for several researchers to study the difference between Asian and Western populations. Current use of a universal hip stem of variable size is not the best option for all femur types. This present study proposed a new design process of the cementless femoral stem using a three dimensional model which provided more information and accurate analysis compared to conventional methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  3. Ng TP, R Koloor SS, Djuansjah JRP, Abdul Kadir MR
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2017 02;66:1-11.
    PMID: 27825047 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.10.014
    The main failure factors of cortical bone are aging or osteoporosis, accident and high energy trauma or physiological activities. However, the mechanism of damage evolution coupled with yield criterion is considered as one of the unclear subjects in failure analysis of cortical bone materials. Therefore, this study attempts to assess the structural response and progressive failure process of cortical bone using a brittle damaged plasticity model. For this reason, several compressive tests are performed on cortical bone specimens made of bovine femur, in order to obtain the structural response and mechanical properties of the material. Complementary finite element (FE) model of the sample and test is prepared to simulate the elastic-to-damage behavior of the cortical bone using the brittle damaged plasticity model. The FE model is validated in a comparative method using the predicted and measured structural response as load-compressive displacement through simulation and experiment. FE results indicated that the compressive damage initiated and propagated at central region where maximum equivalent plastic strain is computed, which coincided with the degradation of structural compressive stiffness followed by a vast amount of strain energy dissipation. The parameter of compressive damage rate, which is a function dependent on damage parameter and the plastic strain is examined for different rates. Results show that considering a similar rate to the initial slope of the damage parameter in the experiment would give a better sense for prediction of compressive failure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical*
  4. Ramlee MH, Beng GK, Bajuri N, Abdul Kadir MR
    Med Biol Eng Comput, 2018 Jul;56(7):1161-1171.
    PMID: 29209961 DOI: 10.1007/s11517-017-1762-3
    The provision of the most suitable rehabilitation treatment for stroke patient remains an ongoing challenge for clinicians. Fully understanding the pathomechanics of the upper limb will allow doctors to assist patients with physiotherapy treatment that will aid in full arm recovery. A biomechanical study was therefore conducted using the finite element (FE) method. A three-dimensional (3D) model of the human wrist was reconstructed using computed tomography (CT)-scanned images. A stroke model was constructed based on pathological problems, i.e. bone density reductions, cartilage wane, and spasticity. The cartilages were reconstructed as per the articulation shapes in the joint, while the ligaments were modelled using linear links. The hand grip condition was mimicked, and the resulting biomechanical characteristics of the stroke and healthy models were compared. Due to the lower thickness of the cartilages, the stroke model reported a higher contact pressure (305 MPa), specifically at the MC1-trapezium. Contrarily, a healthy model reported a contact pressure of 228 MPa. In the context of wrist extension and displacement, the stroke model (0.68° and 5.54 mm, respectively) reported a lower magnitude than the healthy model (0.98° and 9.43 mm, respectively), which agrees with previously reported works. It was therefore concluded that clinicians should take extra care in rehabilitation treatment of wrist movement in order to prevent the occurrence of other complications. Graphical abstract ᅟ.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  5. Baharuddin MY, Salleh ShH, Suhasril AA, Zulkifly AH, Lee MH, Omar MA, et al.
    Artif Organs, 2014 Jul;38(7):603-8.
    PMID: 24404766 DOI: 10.1111/aor.12222
    Total hip arthroplasty is a flourishing orthopedic surgery, generating billions of dollars of revenue. The cost associated with the fabrication of implants has been increasing year by year, and this phenomenon has burdened the patient with extra charges. Consequently, this study will focus on designing an accurate implant via implementing the reverse engineering of three-dimensional morphological study based on a particular population. By using finite element analysis, this study will assist to predict the outcome and could become a useful tool for preclinical testing of newly designed implants. A prototype is then fabricated using 316L stainless steel by applying investment casting techniques that reduce manufacturing cost without jeopardizing implant quality. The finite element analysis showed that the maximum von Mises stress was 66.88 MPa proximally with a safety factor of 2.39 against endosteal fracture, and micromotion was 4.73 μm, which promotes osseointegration. This method offers a fabrication process of cementless femoral stems with lower cost, subsequently helping patients, particularly those from nondeveloped countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  6. Roychoudhury PK, Gomes J, Bhattacharyay SK, Abdulah N
    Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol, 1999 Sep-Nov;27(5-6):399-402.
    PMID: 10595439
    Studies were carried out in T-flasks and bioreactor to produce urokinase enzyme using HT 1080 human kidney cell line. While growing the cell line it has been observed that the lag phase is reduced considerably in the bioreactor as compared to T-flask culture. The HT 1080 cell adhesion rate and urokinase production were observed to be the function of serum concentration in the medium. The maximum urokinase activity of 3.1 x 10(-4) unit ml(-1) was achieved in the bioreactor at around 65 h of batch culture. Since HT 1080 is an anchorage dependent cell line, therefore, the hydrodynamic effects on the cell line were investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  7. Omar FN, Hanipah SH, Xiang LY, Mohammed MAP, Baharuddin AS, Abdullah J
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2016 09;62:106-118.
    PMID: 27183430 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.04.043
    Experimental and numerical investigation was conducted to study the micromechanics of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres containing silica bodies. The finite viscoelastic-plastic material model called Parallel Rheological Network model was proposed, that fitted well with cyclic and stress relaxation tensile tests of the fibres. Representative volume element and microstructure models were developed using finite element method, where the models information was obtained from microscopy and X-ray micro-tomography analyses. Simulation results showed that difference of the fibres model with silica bodies and those without ones is larger under shear than compression and tension. However, in comparison to geometrical effect (i.e. silica bodies), it is suggested that ultrastructure components of the fibres (modelled using finite viscoelastic-plastic model) is responsible for the complex mechanical behaviour of oil palm fibres. This can be due to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin components and the interface behaviour, as reported on other lignocellulosic materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  8. Saidin S, Abdul Kadir MR, Sulaiman E, Abu Kasim NH
    J Dent, 2012 Jun;40(6):467-74.
    PMID: 22366313 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2012.02.009
    The aim of this study was to analyse micromotion and stress distribution at the connections of implants and four types of abutments: internal hexagonal, internal octagonal, internal conical and trilobe.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  9. Madfa AA, Kadir MR, Kashani J, Saidin S, Sulaiman E, Marhazlinda J, et al.
    Med Eng Phys, 2014 Jul;36(7):962-7.
    PMID: 24834856 DOI: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2014.03.018
    Different dental post designs and materials affect the stability of restoration of a tooth. This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two shapes of dental posts (parallel-sided and tapered) made of five different materials (titanium, zirconia, carbon fibre and glass fibre) by investigating their stress transfer through the finite element (FE) method. Ten three-dimensional (3D) FE models of a maxillary central incisor restored with two different designs and five different materials were constructed. An oblique loading of 100 N was applied to each 3D model. Analyses along the centre of the post, the crown-cement/core and the post-cement/dentine interfaces were computed, and the means were calculated. One-way ANOVAs followed by post hoc tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the post materials and designs (p=0.05). For post designs, the tapered posts introduced significantly higher stress compared with the parallel-sided post (p<0.05), especially along the centre of the post. Of the materials, the highest level of stress was found for stainless steel, followed by zirconia, titanium, glass fibre and carbon fibre posts (p<0.05). The carbon and glass fibre posts reduced the stress distribution at the middle and apical part of the posts compared with the stainless steel, zirconia and titanium posts. The opposite results were observed at the crown-cement/core interface.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  10. Oshkour AA, Talebi H, Shirazi SF, Bayat M, Yau YH, Tarlochan F, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:807621.
    PMID: 25302331 DOI: 10.1155/2014/807621
    This study is focused on finite element analysis of a model comprising femur into which a femoral component of a total hip replacement was implanted. The considered prosthesis is fabricated from a functionally graded material (FGM) comprising a layer of a titanium alloy bonded to a layer of hydroxyapatite. The elastic modulus of the FGM was adjusted in the radial, longitudinal, and longitudinal-radial directions by altering the volume fraction gradient exponent. Four cases were studied, involving two different methods of anchoring the prosthesis to the spongy bone and two cases of applied loading. The results revealed that the FG prostheses provoked more SED to the bone. The FG prostheses carried less stress, while more stress was induced to the bone and cement. Meanwhile, less shear interface stress was stimulated to the prosthesis-bone interface in the noncemented FG prostheses. The cement-bone interface carried more stress compared to the prosthesis-cement interface. Stair climbing induced more harmful effects to the implanted femur components compared to the normal walking by causing more stress. Therefore, stress shielding, developed stresses, and interface stresses in the THR components could be adjusted through the controlling stiffness of the FG prosthesis by managing volume fraction gradient exponent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  11. Oshkour AA, Talebi H, Seyed Shirazi SF, Yau YH, Tarlochan F, Abu Osman NA
    Artif Organs, 2015 Feb;39(2):156-64.
    PMID: 24841371 DOI: 10.1111/aor.12315
    This study aimed to assess the performance of different longitudinal functionally graded femoral prostheses. This study was also designed to develop an appropriate prosthetic geometric design for longitudinal functionally graded materials. Three-dimensional models of the femur and prostheses were developed and analyzed. The elastic modulus of these prostheses in the sagittal plane was adjusted along a gradient direction from the distal end to the proximal end. Furthermore, these prostheses were composed of titanium alloy and hydroxyapatite. Results revealed that strain energy, interface stress, and developed stress in the femoral prosthesis and the bone were influenced by prosthetic geometry and gradient index. In all of the prostheses with different geometries, strain energy increased as gradient index increased. Interface stress and developed stress decreased. The minimum principal stress and the maximum principal stress of the bone slightly increased as gradient index increased. Hence, the combination of the femoral prosthetic geometry and functionally graded materials can be employed to decrease stress shielding. Such a combination can also be utilized to achieve equilibrium in terms of the stress applied on the implanted femur constituents; thus, the lifespan of total hip replacement can be prolonged.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  12. Asadi-Eydivand M, Solati-Hashjin M, Shafiei SS, Mohammadi S, Hafezi M, Abu Osman NA
    PLoS One, 2016;11(3):e0151216.
    PMID: 26999789 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151216
    The ability of inkjet-based 3D printing (3DP) to fabricate biocompatible ceramics has made it one of the most favorable techniques to generate bone tissue engineering (BTE) scaffolds. Calcium sulfates exhibit various beneficial characteristics, and they can be used as a promising biomaterial in BTE. However, low mechanical performance caused by the brittle character of ceramic materials is the main weakness of 3DP calcium sulfate scaffolds. Moreover, the presence of certain organic matters in the starting powder and binder solution causes products to have high toxicity levels. A post-processing treatment is usually employed to improve the physical, chemical, and biological behaviors of the printed scaffolds. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on the structural, mechanical, and physical characteristics of 3DP calcium sulfate prototypes were investigated. Different microscopy and spectroscopy methods were employed to characterize the printed prototypes. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the specimens was also evaluated before and after heat treatment. Results showed that the as-printed scaffolds and specimens heat treated at 300°C exhibited severe toxicity in vitro but had almost adequate strength. By contrast, the specimens heat treated in the 500°C-1000°C temperature range, although non-toxic, had insufficient mechanical strength, which was mainly attributed to the exit of the organic binder before 500°C and the absence of sufficient densification below 1000°C. The sintering process was accelerated at temperatures higher than 1000°C, resulting in higher compressive strength and less cytotoxicity. An anhydrous form of calcium sulfate was the only crystalline phase existing in the samples heated at 500°C-1150°C. The formation of calcium oxide caused by partial decomposition of calcium sulfate was observed in the specimens heat treated at temperatures higher than 1200°C. Although considerable improvements in cell viability of heat-treated scaffolds were observed in this study, the mechanical properties were not significantly improved, requiring further investigations. However, the findings of this study give a better insight into the complex nature of the problem in the fabrication of synthetic bone grafts and scaffolds via post-fabrication treatment of 3DP calcium sulfate prototypes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  13. Al-Makramani BM, Razak AA, Abu-Hassan MI
    J Appl Oral Sci, 2010 Dec;18(6):607-12.
    PMID: 21308292
    Advances in all-ceramic systems have established predictable means of providing metal-free aesthetic and biocompatible materials. These materials must have sufficient strength to be a practical treatment alternative for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the biaxial flexural strength of three core ceramic materials.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three groups of 10 disc-shaped specimens (16 mm diameter x 1.2 mm thickness - in accordance with ISO-6872, 1995) were made from the following ceramic materials: Turkom-Cera Fused Alumina [(Turkom-Ceramic (M) Sdn Bhd, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia)], In-Ceram (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany) and Vitadur-N (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany), which were sintered according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The specimens were subjected to biaxial flexural strength test in an universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The definitive fracture load was recorded for each specimen and the biaxial flexural strength was calculated from an equation in accordance with ISO-6872.

    RESULTS: The mean biaxial flexural strength values were: Turkom-Cera: 506.8 ± 87.01 MPa, In-Ceram: 347.4 ± 28.83 MPa and Vitadur-N: 128.7 ± 12.72 MPa. The results were analyzed by the Levene's test and Dunnett's T3 post-hoc test (SPSS software V11.5.0 for Windows, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA ) at a preset significance level of 5% because of unequal group variances (P<0.001). There was statistically significant difference between the three core ceramics (P<0.05). Turkom-Cera showed the highest biaxial flexural strength, followed by In-Ceram and Vitadur-N.

    CONCLUSIONS: Turkom-Cera core had significantly higher flexural strength than In-Ceram and Vitadur-N ceramic core materials.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  14. AL-Makramani BM, Razak AA, Abu-Hassan MI
    J Prosthodont, 2009 Aug;18(6):484-8.
    PMID: 19694015
    PURPOSE: This study investigated the occlusal fracture resistance of Turkom-Cerafused alumina compared to Procera AllCeram and In-Ceram all-ceramic restorations.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixmaster dies were duplicated from the prepared maxillary first premolar tooth using nonprecious metal alloy (Wiron 99). Ten copings of 0.6 mm thickness were fabricated from each type of ceramic, for a total of thirty copings. Two master dies were used for each group, and each of them was used to lute five copings. All groups were cemented with resin luting cement Panavia F according to manufacturer's instructions and received a static load of 5 kg during cementation. After 24 hours of distilled water storage at 37 degrees C, the copings were vertically compressed using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min.

    RESULTS: The results of the present study showed the following mean loads at fracture: Turkom-Cera (2184 +/- 164 N), In-Ceram (2042 +/- 200 N), and Procera AllCeram (1954 +/- 211 N). ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test showed that the mean load at fracture of Turkom-Cera was significantly different from Procera AllCeram (p < 0.05). Scheffe's post hoc test showed no significant difference between the mean load at fracture of Turkom-Cera and In-Ceram or between the mean load at fracture of In-Ceram and Procera AllCeram.

    CONCLUSION: Because Turkom-Cera demonstrated equal to or higher loads at fracture than currently accepted all-ceramic materials, it would seem to be acceptable for fabrication of anterior and posterior ceramic crowns.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  15. Al-Makramani BMA, Razak AAA, Abu-Hassan MI
    J Prosthodont, 2008 Feb;17(2):120-124.
    PMID: 18047490 DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-849X.2007.00270.x
    PURPOSE: The current study investigated the effect of different luting agents on the fracture resistance of Procera AllCeram copings.

    METHODS: Six master dies were duplicated from the prepared maxillary first premolar tooth using nonprecious metal alloy (Wiron 99). Thirty copings (Procera AllCeram) of 0.6-mm thickness were manufactured. Three types of luting media were used: zinc phosphate cement (Elite), glass ionomer cement (Fuji I), and dual-cured composite resin cement (Panavia F). Ten copings were cemented with each type. Two master dies were used for each group, and each of them was used to lute five copings. All groups were cemented according to manufacturer's instructions and received a static load of 5 kg during cementation. After 24 hours of distilled water storage at 37 degrees C, the copings were vertically compressed using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min.

    RESULTS: ANOVA revealed significant differences in the load at fracture among the three groups (p < 0.001). The fracture strength results showed that the mean fracture strength of zinc phosphate cement (Elite), glass ionomer cement (Fuji I), and resin luting cement (Panavia F) were 1091.9 N, 784.8 N, and 1953.5 N, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Different luting agents have an influence on the fracture resistance of Procera AllCeram copings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  16. Khari M, Kassim KA, Adnan A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:734292.
    PMID: 24453900 DOI: 10.1155/2013/734292
    Grouped and single pile behavior differs owing to the impacts of the pile-to-pile interaction. Ultimate lateral resistance and lateral subgrade modulus within a pile group are known as the key parameters in the soil-pile interaction phenomenon. In this study, a series of experimental investigation was carried out on single and group pile subjected to monotonic lateral loadings. Experimental investigations were conducted on twelve model pile groups of configurations 1 × 2, 1 × 3, 2 × 2, 3 × 3, and 3 × 2 for embedded length-to-diameter ratio l/d = 32 into loose and dense sand, spacing from 3 to 6 pile diameter, in parallel and series arrangement. The tests were performed in dry sand from Johor Bahru, Malaysia. To reconstruct the sand samples, the new designed apparatus, Mobile Pluviator, was adopted. The ultimate lateral load is increased 53% in increasing of s/d from 3 to 6 owing to effects of sand relative density. An increasing of the number of piles in-group decreases the group efficiency owing to the increasing of overlapped stress zones and active wedges. A ratio of s/d more than 6d is large enough to eliminate the pile-to-pile interaction and the group effects. It may be more in the loose sand.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  17. Lim KS, Yang HZ, Chong WY, Cheong YK, Lim CH, Ali NM, et al.
    Opt Express, 2013 Feb 11;21(3):2551-62.
    PMID: 23481713 DOI: 10.1364/OE.21.002551
    When an optical fiber is dipped in an etching solution, the internal stress profile in the fiber varies with the fiber diameter. We observed a physical contraction as much as 0.2% in the fiber axial dimension when the fiber was reduced from its original diameter to ~6 µm through analysis using high resolution microscope images of the grating period of an etched FBG at different fiber diameters. This axial contraction is related to the varying axial stress profile in the fiber when the fiber diameter is reduced. On top of that, the refractive index of fiber core increases with reducing fiber diameter due to stress-optic effect. The calculated index increment is as much as 1.8 × 10(-3) at the center of fiber core after the diameter is reduced down to ~6 µm. In comparison with the conventional model that assumes constant grating period and neglects the variation in stress-induced index change in fiber core, our proposed model indicates a discrepancy as much as 3nm in Bragg wavelength at a fiber diameter of ~6 µm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  18. Honjo M, Yamagishi R, Igarashi N, Ku CY, Kurano M, Yatomi Y, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 01 12;11(1):747.
    PMID: 33436915 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-80736-w
    To evaluate the effect of postoperative corticosteroids on surgical outcome and autotaxin (ATX) levels after microhook ab interno trabeculotomy combined with cataract surgery (μLOT-CS), prospective, consecutive non-randomized case series comparing outcomes of 30 eyes with primary open angle glaucoma was performed. The aqueous ATX, intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma medications were monitored for 3 months postoperatively. An in-vivo mouse μLOT model was generated. In vitro, ATX and fibrotic changes induced by dexamethasone (Dex) treatment following scratch (S) in cultured human trabecular meshwork (hTM) cells were assessed by immunofluorescence, immunoenzymatic assay, and RT-qPCR. Postoperative ATX at 1 week and the number of antiglaucoma medications at 3 months were significantly lower in non-steroid group, and steroid use was the only variable significantly associated with postoperative medications at 3 months in multiregression analyses. In vitro, ATX activity was significantly upregulated in the Dex + S group, and αSMA was significantly upregulated in the Dex and Dex + S groups. Fibronectin and COL1A1 were significantly upregulated in the S group. μLOT-CS decreased IOP and medications in the overall cohort, and non-use of postoperative steroids resulted in a smaller number of postoperative medications. Limiting postoperative steroids in μLOT may minimize IOP elevation and postoperative fibrosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  19. Ali A, Sharma RK, Ganesan P, Akib S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:412136.
    PMID: 25136666 DOI: 10.1155/2014/412136
    A numerical investigation of incompressible and transient flow around circular pipe has been carried out at different five gap phases. Flow equations such as Navier-Stokes and continuity equations have been solved using finite volume method. Unsteady horizontal velocity and kinetic energy square root profiles are plotted using different turbulence models and their sensitivity is checked against published experimental results. Flow parameters such as horizontal velocity under pipe, pressure coefficient, wall shear stress, drag coefficient, and lift coefficient are studied and presented graphically to investigate the flow behavior around an immovable pipe and scoured bed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  20. Asiri A, Saidin S, Sani MH, Al-Ashwal RH
    Sci Rep, 2021 Mar 11;11(1):5634.
    PMID: 33707606 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-85149-x
    In this study, single, mix, multilayer Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) electrospun nanofibers with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) were fabricated and characterized as a biological wound dressing scaffolds. The biological activities of the synthesized scaffolds have been verified by in vitro and in vivo studies. The chemical composition finding showed that the identified functional units within the produced nanofibers (O-H and N-H bonds) are attributed to both growth factors (GFs) in the PVA nanofiber membranes. Electrospun nanofibers' morphological features showed long protrusion and smooth morphology without beads and sprayed with an average range of 198-286 nm fiber diameter. The fiber diameters decrement and the improvement in wettability and surface roughness were recorded after GFs incorporated within the PVA Nanofibers, which indicated potential good adoption as biological dressing scaffolds due to the identified mechanical properties (Young's modulus) in between 18 and 20 MPa. The MTT assay indicated that the growth factor release from the PVA nanofibers has stimulated cell proliferation and promoted cell viability. In the cell attachment study, the GFs incorporated PVA nanofibers stimulated cell proliferation and adhered better than the PVA control sample and presented no cytotoxic effect. The in vivo studies showed that compared to the control and single PVA-GFs nanofiber, the mix and multilayer scaffolds gave a much more wound reduction at day 7 with better wound repair at day 14-21, which indicated to enhancing tissue regeneration, thus, could be a projected as a suitable burn wound dressing scaffold.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
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