Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 170 in total

  1. Singh VA, Nagalingam J, Saad M, Pailoor J
    Biomed Eng Online, 2010;9:48.
    PMID: 20831801 DOI: 10.1186/1475-925X-9-48
    Sterilization and re-usage of tumour bone for reconstruction after tumour resection is now gaining popularity in the East. This recycle tumour bone needs to be sterilized in order to eradicate the tumour cells before re-implantation for limb salvage procedures. The effect of some of these treatments on the integrity and sterility of the bone after treatment has been published but there has yet been a direct comparison between the various methods of sterilization to determine the one method that gives the best tumour kill without compromising the bone's structural integrity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  2. Shuid AN, Mehat Z, Mohamed N, Muhammad N, Soelaiman IN
    J. Bone Miner. Metab., 2010 Mar;28(2):149-56.
    PMID: 19779668 DOI: 10.1007/s00774-009-0122-2
    Recently, vitamin E has been found to promote the bone structure of nicotine-treated rats well above their baseline values, thus suggesting that vitamin E may have some anabolic action. A bone anabolic agent acts by improving the bone structure leading to stronger bone. To assess the possible anabolic action vitamin E on bone, we supplemented alpha-tocopherol (ATF) or gamma-tocotrienol (GTT) at 60 mg/kg or vehicle [normal control (NC) group] for 4 months to normal male rats and measured their bone structure and biomechanical properties. Histomorphometric analysis revealed that vitamin E-supplemented rats have better trabecular volume, thickness, number, and separation than rats receiving vehicle only. For the first time we reported that GTT improves all the parameters of bone biomechanical strength, while ATF only improved some of the parameters compared to the NC group. Vitamin E supplementation, especially with the gamma isomer, improves bone structure, which contributed to stronger bone. Therefore, vitamin E has the potential to be used as an anabolic agent to treat osteoporosis or as bone supplements for young adults to prevent osteoporosis in later years.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  3. Athani A, Ghazali NNN, Anjum Badruddin I, Kamangar S, Salman Ahmed NJ, Honnutagi A
    Biomed Mater Eng, 2023;34(1):13-35.
    PMID: 36278331 DOI: 10.3233/BME-211333
    BACKGROUND: Coronary arteries disease has been reported as one of the principal roots of deaths worldwide.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the multiphase pulsatile blood flow in the left coronary artery tree with stenosis.

    METHODS: The 3D left coronary artery model was reconstructed using 2D computerized tomography (CT) scan images. The Red Blood Cell (RBC) and varying hemodynamic parameters for single and multiphase blood flow conditions were analyzed.

    RESULTS: Results asserted that the multiphase blood flow modeling has a maximum velocity of 1.017 m/s and1.339 m/s at the stenosed region during the systolic and diastolic phases respectively. The increase in Wall Shear Stress (WSS) observed at the stenosed region during the diastole phase as compared during the systolic phase. It was also observed that the highest Oscillatory Shear Index (OSI) regions are found in the downstream area of stenosis and across the bifurcations. The increase in RBCs velocity from 0.45 m/s to 0.6 m/s across the stenosis was also noticed.

    CONCLUSION: The computational multiphase blood flow analysis improves the understanding and accuracy of the complex flow conditions of blood elements (RBC and Plasma) and provides the progression of the disease development in the coronary arteries. This study helps to enhance the diagnosis of the blocked (stenosed) arteries more precisely compared to the single-phase blood flow modeling.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  4. Pingguan-Murphy B, Nawi I
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2012 Aug;67(8):939-44.
    PMID: 22948463
    OBJECTIVES: The promotion of extracellular matrix synthesis by chondrocytes is a requisite part of an effective cartilage tissue engineering strategy. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of bi-axial cyclic mechanical loading on cell proliferation and the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by chondrocytes in three-dimensional cultures.

    METHOD: A strain comprising 10% direct compression and 1% compressive shear was applied to bovine chondrocytes seeded in an agarose gel during two 12-hour conditioning periods separated by a 12-hour resting period.

    RESULTS: The bi-axial-loaded chondrocytes demonstrated a significant increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis compared with samples exposed to uni-axial or no loading over the same period (p<0.05). The use of a free-swelling recovery period prior to the loading regime resulted in additional glycosaminoglycan production and a significant increase in DNA content (p<0.05), indicating cell proliferation.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the use of a bi-axial loading regime results in increased matrix production compared with uni-axial loading.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  5. May Z, Alam MK, Mahmud MS, Rahman NAA
    PLoS One, 2020;15(11):e0242022.
    PMID: 33186372 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0242022
    Damage assessment is a key element in structural health monitoring of various industrial applications to understand well and predict the response of the material. The big uncertainty in carbon fiber composite materials response is because of variability in the initiation and propagation of damage. Developing advanced tools to design with composite materials, methods for characterizing several damage modes during operation are required. While there is a significant amount of work on the analysis of acoustic emission (AE) from different composite materials and many loading cases, this research focuses on applying an unsupervised clustering method for separating AE data into several groups with distinct evolution. In this paper, we develop an adaptive sampling and unsupervised bivariate data clustering techniques to characterize the several damage initiations of a composite structure in different lay-ups. An adaptive sampling technique pre-processes the AE features and eliminates redundant AE data samples. The reduction of unnecessary AE data depends on the requirements of the proposed bivariate data clustering technique. The bivariate data clustering technique groups the AE data (dependent variable) with respect to the mechanical data (independent variable) to assess the damage of the composite structure. Tensile experiments on carbon fiber reinforced composite laminates (CFRP) in different orientations are carried out to collect mechanical and AE data and demonstrate the damage modes. Based on the mechanical stress-strain data, the results show the dominant damage regions in different lay-ups of specimens and the definition of the different states of damage. In addition, the states of the damage are observed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. Based on the AE data, the results show that the strong linear correlation between AE and mechanical energy, and the classification of various modes of damage in all lay-ups of specimens forming clusters of AE energy with respect to the mechanical energy. Furthermore, the validation of the cluster-based characterization and improvement of the sensitivity of the damage modes classification are observed by the combined knowledge of AE and mechanical energy and time-frequency spectrum analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  6. Ali A, Sharma RK, Ganesan P, Akib S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:412136.
    PMID: 25136666 DOI: 10.1155/2014/412136
    A numerical investigation of incompressible and transient flow around circular pipe has been carried out at different five gap phases. Flow equations such as Navier-Stokes and continuity equations have been solved using finite volume method. Unsteady horizontal velocity and kinetic energy square root profiles are plotted using different turbulence models and their sensitivity is checked against published experimental results. Flow parameters such as horizontal velocity under pipe, pressure coefficient, wall shear stress, drag coefficient, and lift coefficient are studied and presented graphically to investigate the flow behavior around an immovable pipe and scoured bed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  7. Yazariah M. Yatim, Brian R. Duffy, Stephen K. Wilson
    Sains Malaysiana, 2013;42:975-980.
    We investigate unsteady flow of a thin film of Newtonian fluid around a symmetric slender dry patch moving with constant velocity on an inclined planar substrate, the flow being driven by a prescribed constant shear stress at the free surface of the film (which would be of uniform thickness in the absence of the dry patch). We obtain a novel unsteady travelling-wave similarity solution which predicts that the dry patch has a parabolic shape and that the film thickness increases monotonically away from the dry patch.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  8. Gholizadeh H, Abu Osman NA, Eshraghi A, Ali S, Sævarsson SK, Wan Abas WA, et al.
    J Rehabil Res Dev, 2012;49(9):1321-30.
    PMID: 23408214
    Poor suspension increases slippage of the residual limb inside the socket during ambulation. The main purpose of this article is to evaluate the pistoning at the prosthetic liner-socket interface during gait and assess patients' satisfaction with two different liners. Two prostheses with seal-in and locking liners were fabricated for each of the 10 subjects with transtibial amputation. The Vicon motion system was used to measure the pistoning during gait. The subjects were also asked to complete a Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire. The results revealed higher pistoning inside the socket during gait with the locking liner than with the seal-in liner (p < 0.05). The overall satisfaction with the locking liner was higher (p < 0.05) because of the relative ease with which the patients could don and doff the device. As such, pistoning may not be the main factor that determines patients' overall satisfaction with the prosthesis and other factors may also contribute to comfort and satisfaction with prostheses. The article also verifies the feasibility of the Vicon motion system for measuring pistoning during gait.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  9. Gholizadeh H, Osman NA, Kamyab M, Eshraghi A, Abas WA, Azam MN
    Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon), 2012 Jan;27(1):34-9.
    PMID: 21794965 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2011.07.004
    The method of attachment of prosthesis to the residual limb (suspension) and socket fitting is a critical issue in the process of providing an amputee with prosthesis. Different suspension methods try to minimize the pistoning movement inside the socket. The Seal-In(®) X5 and Dermo(®) Liner by Ossur are new suspension liners that intend to reduce pistoning between the socket and liner. Since the effects of these new liners on suspension are unclear, the objective of this study was to compare the pistoning effect of Seal-In(®) X5 and Dermo(®) Liner by using Vicon Motion System.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  10. Hashmi MB, Lemma TA, Ahsan S, Rahman S
    Entropy (Basel), 2021 Feb 22;23(2).
    PMID: 33671488 DOI: 10.3390/e23020250
    Generally, industrial gas turbines (IGT) face transient behavior during start-up, load change, shutdown and variations in ambient conditions. These transient conditions shift engine thermal equilibrium from one steady state to another steady state. In turn, various aero-thermal and mechanical stresses are developed that are adverse for engine's reliability, availability, and overall health. The transient behavior needs to be accurately predicted since it is highly related to low cycle fatigue and early failures, especially in the hot regions of the gas turbine. In the present paper, several critical aspects related to transient behavior and its modeling are reviewed and studied from the point of view of identifying potential research gaps within the context of fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) under dynamic conditions. Among the considered topics are, (i) general transient regimes and pertinent model formulation techniques, (ii) control mechanism for part-load operation, (iii) developing a database of variable geometry inlet guide vanes (VIGVs) and variable bleed valves (VBVs) schedules along with selection framework, and (iv) data compilation of shaft's polar moment of inertia for different types of engine's configurations. This comprehensive literature document, considering all the aspects of transient behavior and its associated modeling techniques will serve as an anchor point for the future researchers, gas turbine operators and design engineers for effective prognostics, FDD and predictive condition monitoring for variable geometry IGT.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  11. Mohd Effendy N, Abdullah S, Yunoh MF, Shuid AN
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2015 Mar 12;15:58.
    PMID: 25887391 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0567-x
    BACKGROUND: Post-menopausal osteoporosis has long been treated and prevented by estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Despite its effectiveness, ERT is associated with serious adverse effects. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP) is a herb with potential as an alternative agent to ERT due to its phytoestrogenic, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on bone. This study aimed to determine the effects of LP supplementation on bone biomechanical strength of postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model.

    METHODS: Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats aged 4 to 5 months old were randomly divided into six groups; six rats in the baseline group (BL) and eighteen rats in each group of; Sham- operated (Sham), ovariectomised control (OVXC) and ovariectomised with daily oral gavages of Premarin at 64.5 μg/kg (ERT), LP at 20 mg/kg (LP20) and LP at 100 mg/kg (LP100) respectively. These groups were subdivided into three, six and nine weeks of treatment periods. Rats in BL group were euthanized before the start of the study, while other rats were euthanized after completion of their treatments. Femora were dissected out for biomechanical strength analysis using Instron Universal Model 5848 Micro Tester.

    RESULTS: OVXC group showed deterioration in the bone biomechanical strength with time. Both ERT and LP supplemented rats showed improvements in bone strength parameters such as maximum load, displacement, stiffness, stress, and Young Modulus. The most improved bone strength was seen in rats given LP at the dose of 100 mg/kg for nine weeks.

    CONCLUSION: LP supplementation at 100 mg/kg was more effective than ERT in reversing ovariectomy-induced bone biomechanical changes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  12. Bayat M, Alarifi IM, Khalili AA, El-Bagory TMAA, Nguyen HM, Asadi A
    Sci Rep, 2019 Oct 25;9(1):15317.
    PMID: 31653877 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-51450-z
    A thermo-elastic contact problem of functionally graded materials (FGMs) rotating brake disk with different pure brake pad areas under temperature dependent material properties is solved by Finite Element Method (FEM). The properties of brake disk change gradually from metal to ceramic by power-law distribution along the radial direction from the inner to the outer surface. Areas of the pure pad are changing while the vertical force is constant. The ratio of brake pad thickness to FGMs brake disk thickness is assumed 0.66. Two sources of thermal loads are considered: (1) Heat generation between the pad and brake disk due to contact friction, and (2) External thermal load due to a constant temperature at inner and outer surfaces. Mechanical responses of FGMs disk are compared with several pad contact areas. The results for temperature-dependent and temperature-independent material properties are investigated and presented. The results show that the absolute value of the shear stress in temperature-dependent material can be greater than that for temperature-independent material. The radial stress for some specific grading index (n = 1.5) is compressive near the inner surface for double contact while it is tensile for a single contact. It is concluded that the radial strain for some specific value of grading index (n = 1) is lower than other FGMs and pure double side contact brake disks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  13. Zahmatkesh F, Osman MH, Talebi E
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:323206.
    PMID: 24587720 DOI: 10.1155/2014/323206
    Research on the steel structures with confining of axial expansion in fixed beams has been quite intensive in the past decade. It is well established that the thermal behaviour has a key influence on steel structural behaviours. This paper describes mechanical behaviour of beams with bolted slant end-plate connection with nonsymmetric gravity load, subjected to temperature increase. Furthermore, the performance of slant connections of beams in steel moment frame structures in the elastic field is investigated. The proposed model proved that this flexible connection system could successfully decrease the extra thermal induced axial force by both of the friction force dissipation among two faces of slant connection and a small upward movement on the slant plane. The applicability of primary assumption is illustrated. The results from the proposed model are examined within various slant angles, thermal and friction factors. It can be concluded that higher thermal conditions are tolerable when slanting connection is used.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical*
  14. Talebi E, Tahir MM, Zahmatkesh F, Yasreen A, Mirza J
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:672629.
    PMID: 24526915 DOI: 10.1155/2014/672629
    The primary focus of this investigation was to analyze sequentially coupled nonlinear thermal stress, using a three-dimensional model. It was meant to shed light on the behavior of Buckling Restraint Brace (BRB) elements with circular cross section, at elevated temperature. Such bracing systems were comprised of a cylindrical steel core encased in a strong concrete-filled steel hollow casing. A debonding agent was rubbed on the core's surface to avoid shear stress transition to the restraining system. The numerical model was verified by the analytical solutions developed by the other researchers. Performance of BRB system under seismic loading at ambient temperature has been well documented. However, its performance in case of fire has yet to be explored. This study showed that the failure of brace may be attributed to material strength reduction and high compressive forces, both due to temperature rise. Furthermore, limiting temperatures in the linear behavior of steel casing and concrete in BRB element for both numerical and analytical simulations were about 196°C and 225°C, respectively. Finally it is concluded that the performance of BRB at elevated temperatures was the same as that seen at room temperature; that is, the steel core yields prior to the restraining system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical*
  15. Ibrahim WM, McCabe JF
    J Nihon Univ Sch Dent, 1993 Dec;35(4):225-9.
    PMID: 8158281
    The mean strength that has traditionally been taken as a measurement of the strength of a material does not reflect the true strength, and therefore it cannot be used as a design parameter. This explains why many brittle materials fail at unpredictable stress, either below or above the mean strength. By using Weibull statistics, the prediction and assessment of strength can be made more sensibly. The performance of a material can be predicted by considering a stress at a lower level of failure probability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  16. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S
    Front Pharmacol, 2018;9:946.
    PMID: 30186176 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00946
    Osteoarthritis is a debilitating disease of the joint involving cartilage degeneration and chondrocytes apoptosis. Oxidative stress is one of the many proposed mechanisms underpinning joint degeneration in osteoarthritis. The current pharmacotherapies emphasize pain and symptomatic management of the patients but do not alter the biological processes underlying the cartilage degeneration. Vitamin E is a potential agent to prevent or treat osteoarthritis due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This review aims to summarize the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin E and osteoarthritis derived from preclinical and human studies. Cellular studies showed that vitamin E mitigated oxidative stress in cartilage explants or chondrocyte culture invoked by mechanical stress or free radicals. Animal studies suggested that vitamin E treatment prevented cartilage degeneration and improve oxidative status in animal models of osteoarthritis. Low circulating or synovial vitamin E was observed in human osteoarthritic patients compared to healthy controls. Observational studies also demonstrated that vitamin E was related to induction or progression of osteoarthritis in the general population. Vitamin E supplementation might improve the outcomes in patients with osteoarthritis, but negative results were also reported. Different isomers of vitamin E might possess distinct anti-osteoarthritic effects. As a conclusion, vitamin E may retard the progression of osteoarthritis by ameliorating oxidative stress and inflammation of the joint. Further studies are warranted to develop vitamin E as an anti-osteoarthritis agent to reduce the global burden of this disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  17. Leong CN, Dokos S, Andriyana A, Liew YM, Chan BT, Abdul Aziz YF, et al.
    Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng, 2020 01;36(1):e3291.
    PMID: 31799767 DOI: 10.1002/cnm.3291
    Myocardial infarct extension, a process involving the enlargement of infarct and border zone, leads to progressive degeneration of left ventricular (LV) function and eventually gives rise to heart failure. Despite carrying a high risk, the causation of infarct extension is still a subject of much speculation. In this study, patient-specific LV models were developed to investigate the correlation between infarct extension and impaired regional mechanics. Subsequently, sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the causal factors responsible for the impaired regional mechanics observed in regions surrounding the infarct and border zone. From our simulations, fibre strain, fibre stress and fibre stress-strain loop (FSSL) were the key biomechanical variables affected in these regions. Among these variables, only FSSL was correlated with infarct extension, as reflected in its work density dissipation (WDD) index value, with high WDD indices recorded at regions with infarct extension. Impaired FSSL is caused by inadequate contraction force generation during the isovolumic contraction and ejection phases. Our further analysis revealed that the inadequacy in contraction force generation is not necessarily due to impaired myocardial intrinsic contractility, but at least in part, due to inadequate muscle fibre stretch at end-diastole, which depresses the ability of myocardium to generate adequate contraction force in the subsequent systole (according to the Frank-Starling law). Moreover, an excessively stiff infarct may cause its neighbouring myocardium to be understretched at end-diastole, subsequently depressing the systolic contractile force of the neighbouring myocardium, which was found to be correlated with infarct extension.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  18. Moo EK, Amrein M, Epstein M, Duvall M, Abu Osman NA, Pingguan-Murphy B, et al.
    Biophys. J., 2013 Oct 1;105(7):1590-600.
    PMID: 24094400 DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2013.08.035
    Impact loading of articular cartilage causes extensive chondrocyte death. Cell membranes have a limited elastic range of 3-4% strain but are protected from direct stretch during physiological loading by their membrane reservoir, an intricate pattern of membrane folds. Using a finite-element model, we suggested previously that access to the membrane reservoir is strain-rate-dependent and that during impact loading, the accessible membrane reservoir is drastically decreased, so that strains applied to chondrocytes are directly transferred to cell membranes, which fail when strains exceed 3-4%. However, experimental support for this proposal is lacking. The purpose of this study was to measure the accessible membrane reservoir size for different membrane strain rates using membrane tethering techniques with atomic force microscopy. We conducted atomic force spectroscopy on isolated chondrocytes (n = 87). A micron-sized cantilever was used to extract membrane tethers from cell surfaces at constant pulling rates. Membrane tethers could be identified as force plateaus in the resulting force-displacement curves. Six pulling rates were tested (1, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μm/s). The size of the membrane reservoir, represented by the membrane tether surface areas, decreased exponentially with increasing pulling rates. The current results support our theoretical findings that chondrocytes exposed to impact loading die because of membrane ruptures caused by high tensile membrane strain rates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical*
  19. Feng Z, Wagatsuma Y, Kikuchi M, Kosawada T, Nakamura T, Sato D, et al.
    Biomaterials, 2014 Sep;35(28):8078-91.
    PMID: 24976242 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.05.072
    Fibroblast-mediated compaction of collagen gels attracts extensive attention in studies of wound healing, cellular fate processes, and regenerative medicine. However, the underlying mechanism and the cellular mechanical niche still remain obscure. This study examines the mechanical behaviour of collagen fibrils during the process of compaction from an alternative perspective on the primary mechanical interaction, providing a new viewpoint on the behaviour of populated fibroblasts. We classify the collagen fibrils into three types - bent, stretched, and adherent - and deduce the respective equations governing the mechanical behaviour of each type; in particular, from a putative principle based on the stationary state of the instantaneous Hamiltonian of the mechanotransduction system, we originally quantify the stretching force exerted on each stretched fibrils. Via careful verification of a structural elementary model based on this classification, we demonstrate a clear physical picture of the compaction process, quantitatively elucidate the panorama of the micro mechanical niche and reveal an intrinsic biphasic relationship between cellular traction force and matrix elasticity. Our results also infer the underlying mechanism of tensional homoeostasis and stress shielding of fibroblasts. With this study, and sequel investigations on the putative principle proposed herein, we anticipate a refocus of the research on cellular mechanobiology, in vitro and in vivo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  20. Mustafa AA, Matinlinna JP, Saidin S, Kadir MR
    J Prosthet Dent, 2014 Dec;112(6):1498-506.
    PMID: 24993375 DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2014.05.011
    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The inconsistency of dentin bonding affects retention and microleakage.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this laboratory and finite element analysis study was to investigate the effects on the formation of a hybrid layer of an experimental silane coupling agent containing primer solutions composed of different percentages of hydroxyethyl methacrylate.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 125 sound human premolars were restored in vitro. Simple class I cavities were formed on each tooth, followed by the application of different compositions of experimental silane primers (0%, 5%, 25%, and 50% of hydroxyethyl methacrylate), bonding agents, and dental composite resins. Bond strength tests and scanning electron microscopy analyses were performed. The laboratory experimental results were validated with finite element analysis to determine the pattern of stress distribution. Simulations were conducted by placing the restorative composite resin in a premolar tooth by imitating simple class I cavities. The laboratory and finite element analysis data were significantly different from each other, as determined by 1-way ANOVA. A post hoc analysis was conducted on the bond strength data to further clarify the effects of silane primers.

    RESULTS: The strongest bond of hybrid layer (16.96 MPa) was found in the primer with 25% hydroxyethyl methacrylate, suggesting a barely visible hybrid layer barrier. The control specimens without the application of the primer and the primer specimens with no hydroxyethyl methacrylate exhibited the lowest strength values (8.30 MPa and 11.78 MPa) with intermittent and low visibility of the hybrid layer. These results were supported by finite element analysis that suggested an evenly distributed stress on the model with 25% hydroxyethyl methacrylate.

    CONCLUSIONS: Different compositions of experimental silane primers affected the formation of the hybrid layer and its resulting bond strength.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
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