Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 2923 in total

  1. von Tunzelmann EW
    Matched MeSH terms: Temperature
  2. de Verdal H, Vandeputte M, Mekkawy W, Chatain B, Benzie JAH
    BMC Genet, 2018 11 16;19(1):105.
    PMID: 30445908 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-018-0691-y
    BACKGROUND: Improving feed efficiency in fish is crucial at the economic, social and environmental levels with respect to developing a more sustainable aquaculture. The important contribution of genetic improvement to achieve this goal has been hampered by the lack of accurate basic information on the genetic parameters of feed efficiency in fish. We used video assessment of feed intake on individual fish reared in groups to estimate the genetic parameters of six growth traits, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake in 40 pedigreed families of the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Feed intake and growth were measured on juvenile fish (22.4 g mean body weight) during 13 consecutive meals, representing 7 days of measurements. We used these data to estimate the FCR response to different selection criteria to assess the potential of genetics as a means of increasing FCR in tilapia.

    RESULTS: Our results demonstrate genetic control for FCR in tilapia, with a heritability estimate of 0.32 ± 0.11. Response to selection estimates showed FCR could be efficiently improved by selective breeding. Due to low genetic correlations, selection for growth traits would not improve FCR. However, weight loss at fasting has a high genetic correlation with FCR (0.80 ± 0.25) and a moderate heritability (0.23), and could be an easy to measure and efficient criterion to improve FCR by selective breeding in tilapia.

    CONCLUSION: At this age, FCR is genetically determined in Nile tilapia. A selective breeding program could be possible and could help enabling the development of a more sustainable aquaculture production.

    Matched MeSH terms: Temperature
  3. de Toledo TA, da Costa RC, Al-Maqtari HM, Jamalis J, Pizani PS
    PMID: 28259100 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2017.02.051
    The heterocyclic chalcone containing thiophene ring 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2-thienyl)prop-2-en-1-one, C13H9ClOS was synthesized and investigated using experimental techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) at room temperature, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from room temperature to 500K and Raman scattering at the temperature range 10-413K in order to study its structure and vibrational properties as well as stability and possible phase transition. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to determine the vibrational spectrum viewing to improve the knowledge of the material properties. A reasonable agreement was observed between theoretical and experimental Raman spectrum taken at 10K since anharmonic effects of the molecular motion is reduced at low temperatures, leading to a more comprehensive assignment of the vibrational modes. Increasing the temperature up to 393K, was observed the typical phonon anharmonicity behavior associated to changes in the Raman line intensities, line-widths and red-shift, in special in the external mode region, whereas the internal modes region remains almost unchanged due its strong chemical bonds. Furthermore, C13H9ClOS goes to melting phase transition in the temperature range 393-403K and then sublimates in the temperature range 403-413K. This is denounced by the disappearance of the external modes and the absence of internal modes in the Raman spectra, in accordance with DSC curve. The enthalpy (ΔH) obtained from the integration of the endothermic peak in DSC curve centered at 397K is founded to be 121.5J/g.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cold Temperature; Temperature
  4. de Barjac H, Sebald M, Charles JF, Cheong WH, Lee HL
    C. R. Acad. Sci. III, Sci. Vie, 1990;310(9):383-7.
    PMID: 1972899
    A strain of Clostridium bifermentans individualized as serovar malaysia (C.b.m.) according to its specific H antigen is toxic to mosquito and blackfly larvae when given orally. The toxicity occurs in sporulated cells which contain, in addition to spores, proteinic parasporal inclusion bodies and feather-like appendages; the amino acid content of the inclusion bodies is similar to that of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (B.t.i.) and B. sphaericus crystals. The toxicity to Anopheles stephensi is as high as that of B.t.i. and the best strains of B. sphaericus. Culex pipiens is somewhat less susceptible, and Aedes aegypti much less. Pure parasporal inclusion bodies, isolated by ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradients, are highly toxic to mosquito larvae. The larvicidal power is destroyed by heating at 80 degrees C or by treatment with 50 mM NaOH. It is preserved by freeze-drying. The innocuity to mice of the sporulated cells is shown by different routes of administration: force-feeding, percutaneous, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or intravenous injections. The potential for the biological control of mosquito and blackfly larvae is suggested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Temperature
  5. Zzaman, W., Issara, U., Easa, A.M., Yang, T.A.
    Fat content and macroscopic properties of fat network formulation result in final products in chocolate industry. The knowledge of physical properties is required in regard to stability of final food products resulting to quality. The study was carried out to investigate the thermal behavior, solid fat content and hardness of Rambutan fat (RF), cocoa butter and mixtures between two fats. The results found that the mixtures can be compatibility; the cocoa butter indicated the higher of solid fat content at room temperature more than RF and other mixtures. The RF had the highest melting point in both non-stabilized and stabilized form among cocoa butter and their mixtures. The hardness behavior showed lower in the mixture 1 and RF. For the phase behavior of crystallization exhibited the similar for all samples whereas the time of crystallization and temperatures were different. Therefore, the RF might be possible source of cocoa butter substitute with suitable proportion in the manufacturing chocolate and confectionery products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Temperature
  6. Zzaman W, Bhat R, Yang TA, Easa AM
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Oct;97(13):4429-4437.
    PMID: 28251656 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8302
    BACKGROUND: Roasting is one of the important unit operations in the cocoa-based industries in order to develop unique flavour in products. Cocoa beans were subjected to roasting at different temperatures and times using superheated steam. The influence of roasting temperature (150-250°C) and time (10-50 min) on sugars, free amino acids and volatile flavouring compounds were investigated.

    RESULTS: The concentration of total reducing sugars was reduced by up to 64.61, 77.22 and 82.52% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. The hydrophobic amino acids were reduced up to 29.21, 36.41 and 48.87% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. A number of pyrazines, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, carboxyl acids and hydrocarbons were detected in all the samples at different concentration range. Formation of the most flavour active compounds, pyrazines, were the highest concentration (2.96 mg kg-1 ) at 200°C for 10 min.

    CONCLUSION: The superheated steam roasting method achieves the optimum roasting condition within a short duration Therefore, the quality of cocoa beans can be improved using superheated steam during the roasting process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Temperature
  7. Zwain HM, Nile BK, Faris AM, Vakili M, Dahlan I
    Sci Rep, 2020 12 17;10(1):22209.
    PMID: 33335267 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-79395-8
    Odors due to the emission of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have been a concern in the sewage treatment plants over the last decades. H2S fate and emissions from extended aeration activated sludge (EAAS) system in Muharram Aisha-sewage treatment plant (MA-STP) were studied using TOXCHEM model. Sensitivity analysis at different aeration flowrate, H2S loading rate, wastewater pH, wastewater temperature and wind speed were studied. The predicted data were validated against actual results, where all the data were validated within the limits, and the statistical evaluation of normalized mean square error (NMSE), geometric variance (VG), and correlation coefficient (R) were close to the ideal fit. The results showed that the major processes occurring in the system were degradation and emission. During summer (27 °C) and winter (12 °C), about 25 and 23%, 1 and 2%, 2 and 2%, and 72 and 73% were fated as emitted to air, discharged with effluent, sorbed to sludge, and biodegraded, respectively. At summer and winter, the total emitted concentrations of H2S were 6.403 and 5.614 ppm, respectively. The sensitivity results indicated that aeration flowrate, H2S loading rate and wastewater pH highly influenced the emission and degradation of H2S processes compared to wastewater temperature and wind speed. To conclude, TOXCHEM model successfully predicted the H2S fate and emissions in EAAS system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Temperature
  8. Zuther E, Lee YP, Erban A, Kopka J, Hincha DK
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2018 10 6;1081:81-98.
    PMID: 30288705 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-1244-1_5
    During low-temperature exposure, temperate plant species increase their freezing tolerance in a process termed cold acclimation. The molecular mechanisms involved in cold acclimation have been mostly investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. In addition, other Brassicaceae species related to A. thaliana have been employed in recent years to study plant stress responses on a phylogenetically broader basis and in some cases with extremophile species with a much higher stress tolerance. In this paper, we briefly summarize cold acclimation responses in A. thaliana and current knowledge about cold acclimation in A. thaliana relatives with special emphasis on Eutrema salsugineum and two closely related Thellungiella species. We then present a transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of cold acclimation in five A. thaliana and two E. salsugineum accessions that differ widely in their freezing tolerance. Differences in the cold responses of the two species are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cold Temperature; Temperature
  9. Zulperi D, Sijam K
    Plant Dis, 2014 Feb;98(2):275.
    PMID: 30708756 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-03-13-0321-PDN
    During March 2011 to June 2012, 50 banana plants of cultivar Musa × paradisiaca 'Horn' with Moko disease symptoms were randomly sampled in 12 different locations of 5 outbreak states in Peninsular Malaysia comprising Kedah, Selangor, Pahang, Negeri Sembilan, and Johor, with disease incidence exceeding 90% in some severely affected plantations. The disease symptoms observed in the infected plants included yellowing and wilting of the oldest leaves, which became necrotic, and eventually led to their dieback or collapse. The pulp of banana fruits also became discolored and exuded bacterial ooze. Vascular tissues in pseudostems were discolored. Fragments from symptomatic plant samples were excised and cultured on Kelman's-tetrazolium salt (TZC) medium. Twenty positive samples produced fluidal colonies that were either entirely white or white with pink centers after incubation for 24 to 48 h at 28°C on Kelman's-TZC medium and appeared as gram-negative rods after Gram staining. They were also positive for potassium hydroxide (KOH), Kovacs oxidase, and catalase tests, but negative for utilization of disaccharides and hexose alcohols, which are characteristics of biovar 1 Ralstonia solanacearum. For the pathogenicity test, 30 μl of 108 CFU/ml bacterial suspension of three selected virulent strains were injected into banana (Musa × paradisiaca 'Horn') leaves explants grown in plastic pots of 1,440 cm3 volume in a greenhouse, with temperature range from 26 to 35°C. Leaves that were infiltrated with sterile distilled water served as a negative control. Inoculations with all isolates were performed in three replications, as well as the uninoculated control leaves explants. The inoculated plants produced the same symptoms as observed on naturally diseased samples, whereas control plants remained asymptomatic. Strain cultures were re-isolated and possessed the morphological and biochemical characteristics as previously described. PCR amplification using race 2 R. solanacearum primers ISRso19-F (5'-TGGGAGAGGATGGCGGCTTT-3') and ISRso19-R (5'-TGACCCGCCTTTCGGTGTTT-3') (3) produced a 1,900-bp product from DNA of all bacterial strains. BLAST searches resulted that the sequences were 95 to 98% identical to published R. solanacearum strain race 2 insertion sequence ISRso19 (GenBank Accession No. AF450275). These genes were later deposited in GenBank (KC812051, KC812052, and KC812053). Phylotype-specific multiplex PCR (Pmx-PCR) and Musa-specific multiplex PCR (Mmx-PCR) were performed to identify the phylotype and sequevar of all isolates (4). Pmx-PCR showed that all isolates belonged to phylotype II, whereas Mmx-PCR showed that they belonged to phylotype II sequevar 4 displaying 351-bp amplicon. Although there were previously extensive studies on R. solanacearum associated with bacterial wilt disease of banana crops in Malaysia, none related to Moko disease has been reported (1,2). The result has a great importance to better understand and document R. solanacearum race 2 biovar 1, since banana has been identified as the second most important commercial fruit crop with a high economic value in Malaysia. References: (1) R. Khakvar et al. Plant Pathol. J. 7:162, 2008. (2) R. Khakvar et al. Am. J. Agri. Biol. Sci. 3:490, 2008. (3) Y. A. Lee and C. N. Khor. Plant Pathol. Bull. 12:57, 2003. (4) P. Prior et al. Pages 405-414 in: Bacterial Wilt Disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN, 2005.
    Matched MeSH terms: Temperature
  10. Zulkurnain M, Balasubramaniam VM, Maleky F
    Molecules, 2019 Aug 06;24(15).
    PMID: 31390764 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24152853
    Different fractions of fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO) in soybean oil (10-30% w/w) and the addition of 1% salt (sodium chloride) were used to investigate the effect of high-pressure treatments (HP) on the crystallization behaviors and physical properties of the binary mixtures. Sample microstructure, solid fat content (SFC), thermal and rheological properties were analyzed and compared against a control sample (crystallized under atmospheric condition). The crystallization temperature (Ts) of all model fats under isobaric conditions increased quadratically with pressure until reaching a pressure threshold. As a result of this change, the sample induction time of crystallization (tc) shifted from a range of 2.74-0.82 min to 0.72-0.43 min when sample crystallized above the pressure threshold under adiabatic conditions. At the high solid mass fraction, the addition of salt reduced the pressure threshold to induce crystallization during adiabatic compression. An increase in pressure significantly reduced mean cluster diameter in relation to the reduction of tc regardless of the solid mass fraction. In contrast, the sample macrostructural properties (SFC, storage modulus) were influenced more significantly by solid mass fractions rather than pressure levels. The creation of lipid gel was observed in the HP samples at 10% FHSBO. The changes in crystallization behaviors indicated that high-pressure treatments were more likely to influence crystallization mechanisms at low solid mass fraction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Temperature
  11. Zulkifly K, Cheng-Yong H, Yun-Ming L, Bayuaji R, Abdullah MMAB, Ahmad SB, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2021 Apr 15;14(8).
    PMID: 33920865 DOI: 10.3390/ma14081973
    Thermal performance, combustibility, and fire propagation of fly ash-metakaolin (FA-MK) blended geopolymer with the addition of aluminum triphosphate, ATP (Al(H2PO4)3), and monoaluminium phosphate, MAP (AlPO4) were evaluated in this paper. To prepare the geopolymer mix, fly ash and metakaolin with a ratio of 1:1 were added with ATP and MAP in a range of 0-3% by weight. The fire/heat resistance was evaluated by comparing the residual compressive strengths after the elevated temperature exposure. Besides, combustibility and fire propagation tests were conducted to examine the thermal performance and the applicability of the geopolymers as passive fire protection. Experimental results revealed that the blended geopolymers with 1 wt.% of ATP and MAP exhibited higher compressive strength and denser geopolymer matrix than control geopolymers. The effect of ATP and MAP addition was more obvious in unheated geopolymer and little improvement was observed for geopolymer subjected to elevated temperature. ATP and MAP at 3 wt.% did not help in enhancing the elevated-temperature performance of blended geopolymers. Even so, all blended geopolymers, regardless of the addition of ATP and MAP, were regarded as the noncombustible materials with negligible (0-0.1) fire propagation index.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature; Temperature
  12. Zulkifli, A.F., Tham, L.G., Perumal, N., Azzeme, A., Shukor, M.Y., Shaharuddin, N.A., et al.
    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is usually used as an inhibitive assay for insecticides. A lesser
    known property of AChE is its inhibition by heavy metals. In this work we evaluate an AChE
    from brains of striped snakehead (Channa striatus) wastes from aquaculture industry as an
    inhibitive assay for heavy metals. We discovered that the AChE was inhibited almost completely
    by Hg2+, Ag2+ and Cu2+ during an initial screening. When tested at various concentrations, the
    heavy metals exhibited exponential decay type inhibition curves. The calculated IC50 for the
    heavy metals Hg2+, Ag2+, Pb2+, Cu2+ and Cr6+ were 0.08432, 0.1008, 0.1255, 0.0871, and 0.1771,
    respectively. The IC50 for these heavy metals are comparable and some are lower than the IC50
    values from the cholinesterases from previously studied fish. The assay can be carried out in less
    than 30 minutes at ambient temperature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Temperature
  13. Zulkifli NNI, Abdullah MMAB, Przybył A, Pietrusiewicz P, Salleh MAAM, Aziz IH, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2021 Apr 26;14(9).
    PMID: 33925777 DOI: 10.3390/ma14092213
    This paper clarified the microstructural element distribution and electrical conductivity changes of kaolin, fly ash, and slag geopolymer at 900 °C. The surface microstructure analysis showed the development in surface densification within the geopolymer when in contact with sintering temperature. It was found that the electrical conductivity was majorly influenced by the existence of the crystalline phase within the geopolymer sample. The highest electrical conductivity (8.3 × 10-4 Ωm-1) was delivered by slag geopolymer due to the crystalline mineral of gehlenite (3Ca2Al2SiO7). Using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence, the high concentration Ca boundaries revealed the appearance of gehlenite crystallisation, which was believed to contribute to development of denser microstructure and electrical conductivity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Temperature
  14. Zulkifli I, Al-Aqil A, Omar AR, Sazili AQ, Rajion MA
    Poult Sci, 2009 Mar;88(3):471-6.
    PMID: 19211514 DOI: 10.3382/ps.2008-00287
    Two hundred thirty-five 1-d-old broiler chickens showing short or long tonic immobility responses were classified as low fear (LF) or high fear (HF) responders, respectively. On d 41, they were subjected to either crating or heat challenge (34 +/- 1 degrees C) for 3 h and its effect on plasma corticosterone concentration, heterophil/lymphocyte ratios, and heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression in brain tissue were determined. Crating and heat exposure elevated heterophil/lymphocyte ratios in both LF and HF birds. Circulating corticosterone, however, was greater in HF than LF birds after crating and heat challenge. Although differences between fear responder group for HSP 70 were negligible before heat challenge, after 3 h of heat exposure, the response was greater for the HF than the LF group. Both LF and HF showed similar increases in HSP 70 after crating.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature
  15. Zulkifli I, Che Norma MT, Israf DA, Omar AR
    Poult Sci, 2000 Oct;79(10):1401-7.
    PMID: 11055844
    This study was conducted to determine whether early age feed restriction improves heat tolerance in female broiler chickens. Chicks were brooded for 3 wk and then maintained at 24+/-1 C. On Day 0, chicks were assigned to one of four feeding regimens; each regimen was applied to four cages of chicks. The feeding regimens were 1) ad libitum feeding (ALF); 2) 40% feed restriction at 4, 5, and 6 d of age (F40); 3) 60% feed restriction at 4, 5, and 6 d of age (F60); and (4) 80% feed restriction at 4, 5, and 6 d of age (F80). From 35 to 41 d of age, all birds were exposed to 38+/-1 C for 2 h/d. Serum concentrations of glucose were elevated by the heat challenge, but were not affected by the feeding regimen. The heat treatment resulted in hypocholesteremia among ALF and F80 chicks, whereas the concentrations increased and remained constant in the F60 and F40 birds, respectively. Subjecting chicks to F60 improved growth and survivability and reduced heterophil to lymphocyte ratios (H/L) in response to the heat treatment as compared with the ALF and F80 regimens. The survivability rate and H/L of F40 chicks were similar to those attained by chicks on other regimens. Newcastle disease antibody titer of ALF birds declined with duration of heat treatment. It is concluded that the F60 regimen is beneficial for alleviating, at least in part, the detrimental effects of heat stress in female broiler chickens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature*
  16. Zulkifli I, Che Norma MT, Israf DA, Omar AR
    Br Poult Sci, 2002 Mar;43(1):141-5.
    PMID: 12003331
    1. This study was conducted to determine the effect of early-age food restriction on heat shock protein (hsp) 70 synthesis in the brains of female broiler chickens exposed to high ambient temperatures. 2. Chicks were brooded for 3 weeks and then maintained at 24+/-1 degrees C. 3. On d 0, chicks were assigned to one of 4 feeding regimens; each regimen was applied to 4 cages of chicks. The regimens were: (1) ad libitum feeding (AL); (2) 80% food restriction at 4, 5 and 6 d of age (F80); (3) 60% food restriction at 4, 5, and 6 d of age (F60); and (4) 40% food restriction at 4, 5 and 6 d of age (F40). From d 35 to d 41, all chicks were subjected to 38+/-1 degrees C for 2 h/d. 4. One day following food restriction (d 7), hsp 70 expression in the brain samples of F60 and F40 chicks was augmented but not those fed AL and F80. 5. Prior to the heat challenge (d 35), all chicks had similar hsp 70 response. Irrespective of feeding regimen, there was a marked increase in hsp 70 expression after 4 d of heat treatment (d 38). Following 7 d of heat exposure (d 41), except for the F60 chicks, the augmented hsp 70 expression in the brains of AL, F80 and F40 birds was not maintained. 6. Enhancement of hsp 70 expression was noted in birds subjected to F60, but not AL, F80 or F40, throughout the period of heat exposure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature/adverse effects
  17. Zulkali MM, Ahmad AL, Norulakmal NH
    Bioresour Technol, 2006 Jan;97(1):21-5.
    PMID: 15963716
    The effects of initial concentration of lead, temperature, biomass loading and pH were investigated for an optimized condition of lead uptake from the aqueous solution. The optimization process was analyzed using Central Composite Face-Centered Experimental Design in Response Surface Methodology (RSM) by Design Expert Version 5.0.7 (StatEase, USA). The design was employed to derive a statistical model for the effect of parameters studied on the removal of lead ion from aqueous solution. The coefficient of determination, R2 was found to be 92.36%. The initial concentration of 50.0 mg/L, temperature of 60 degrees C, biomass loading of 0.2 g and pH of 5.0 had been found to be the optimum conditions for the maximum uptake of lead ions in 98.11% batch mode. Under the optimum conditions, the lead uptake was attained to be circa 8.60 mg/g.
    Matched MeSH terms: Temperature
  18. Zulkafli Abdul Rashid, Mohammad Noor Azmai Amal
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1941-1951.
    This study assesses the influence of water quality on fish occurrences in Sungai Pahang, Maran District, Pahang, Malaysia. Water quality and fish samplings were conducted at seven sampling sites in the district for 13 consecutive months. We used canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) to determine the influence of water quality on monthly fish species occurrences. The ranges of water quality parameters were quite high considering the measurements were made during rainy and dry seasons throughout the year. A total of 2,075 individual fish was captured which comprised of 22 different families and 65 species. Family Cyprinidae recorded the highest number of fish species of the area (27 species; 41.5%), followed by Bagridae (five species; 7.69%) and Pangasiidae (five species; 7.69%). Three fish species categorized as endangered, including Balantiocheilos melanopterus, Probarbus jullieni and Pangasianodon hypophthalmus were also collected. The collected fish species were divided into three groups (A to C), which was clearly separated in the CCA ordination diagram. The most important water quality variables for the fish occurrences in this river were pH, followed by temperature, conductivity, alkalinity and phosphate. Data analysis indicates that the occurrence of fishes were influenced by a combination of water quality parameters, but not associated with sampling month. The results present a new data from a study of fish assemblage and their habitat condition which may be important in fisheries activity and fish conservation of the river in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Temperature
  19. Zuha RM, Omar B
    Parasitol Res, 2014 Jun;113(6):2285-94.
    PMID: 24728523 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-014-3883-z
    Cosmopolitan scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) is one of the commonest forensic species recorded colonizing human corpse indoors and in concealed environment. The occurrence of this species in such environments provides a higher evidential value to assist estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) compared to other forensically important dipterans. However, developmental and size data of M. scalaris are still lacking and they are derived from a limited range of thermal values. The objective of this study is to develop the growth model of M. scalaris by emphasizing the size range of larvae and puparia at different constant temperatures. This species was reared in six replicates at eight varying constant temperatures ranging from 23 to 36 °C and cow's liver was provided as food source. Larvae and puparia were sampled at set time intervals and measured by their length and weight. Because interpretation of forensic entomological evidence is subject to application of different techniques, development of M. scalaris is expressed herein by using developmental table, length/morphological stage diagrams and linear/nonlinear estimation methods. From the findings, it is very important to highlight that sexual dimorphism of M. scalaris during post feeding larva and pupa stage could be observed based on size and developmental periods. Mean length and weight ratios of male to female puparia are approximately 0.8 and 0.3-0.5, respectively, indicating sexual dimorphism of this species. Developmental period in female are 4.0-11.4 h (post feeding larval stage), 3.7-24.0 h (pupal stage), and 3.0-20.1 h (total developmental period) longer in male. Due to this dimorphism, PMI estimation using M. scalaris post feeding larva or puparium specimens must be carried out carefully by to avoid inaccuracy and misinterpretation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Temperature
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