Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 102 in total

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  1. Motshakeri M, Ebrahimi M, Goh YM, Matanjun P, Mohamed S
    J Sci Food Agric, 2013 May;93(7):1772-8.
    PMID: 23208488 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.5971
    Sargassum polycystum, a brown seaweed, contains various nutrients and bioactive compounds that have antioxidant and healing properties. The research hypothesises that antioxidants and pigments in dietary S. polycystum extracts can improve insulin sensitivity, blood sugar levels and blood lipid levels in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. The diabetes was induced by a high-sugar, high-fat diet for 16 weeks to enhance insulin resistance, followed by a low-dose intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg kg(-1) body weight). The doses of S. polycystum tested on diabetic rats were 150 and 300 mg kg(-1) body weight for the ethanolic extract or 150 and 300 mg kg(-1) for the water extract. Normal rats, untreated diabetic and metformin-treated diabetic rats (n = 6) were used as control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  2. Chun S, Choi Y, Chang Y, Cho J, Zhang Y, Rampal S, et al.
    Am. Heart J., 2016 07;177:17-24.
    PMID: 27297845 DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.03.018
    BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption has been linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and clinically manifest coronary heart disease, but its association with subclinical coronary heart disease remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in a large study of asymptomatic men and women.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 22,210 adult men and women who underwent a comprehensive health screening examination between 2011 and 2013 (median age 40 years). Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and CAC was measured by cardiac computed tomography. Multivariable-adjusted CAC score ratios and 95% CIs were estimated from robust Tobit regression models for the natural logarithm (CAC score +1).

    RESULTS: The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 11.7% (n = 2,604). After adjustment for age; sex; center; year of screening examination; education level; physical activity; smoking; alcohol intake; family history of cardiovascular disease; history of hypertension; history of hypercholesterolemia; and intake of total energy, fruits, vegetables, and red and processed meats, only the highest category of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was associated with an increased CAC score compared with the lowest consumption category. The multivariable-adjusted CAC ratio comparing participants who consumed ≥5 sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages per week with nondrinkers was 1.70 (95% CI, 1.03-2.81). This association did not differ by clinical subgroup, including participants at low cardiovascular risk.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that high levels of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption are associated with a higher prevalence and degree of CAC in asymptomatic adults without a history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  3. Balakumar P, Varatharajan R, Nyo YH, Renushia R, Raaginey D, Oh AN, et al.
    Pharmacol Res, 2014 Dec;90:36-47.
    PMID: 25263930 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2014.08.008
    Low-doses of fenofibrate and dipyridamole have pleiotropic renoprotective actions in diabetic rats. This study investigated their combined effect relative to their individual treatments and lisinopril in rats with diabetic nephropathy. Streptozotocin (55mg/kg, i.p., once)-administered diabetic rats were allowed for 10 weeks to develop nephropathy. Diabetic rats after 10 weeks developed nephropathy with discernible renal structural and functional changes as assessed in terms of increase in kidney weight to body weight ratio (KW/BW), and elevations of serum creatinine, urea and uric acid, which accompanied with elevated serum triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoproteins. Hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid Schiff and Masson trichrome staining confirmed renal pathological changes in diabetic rats that included glomerular capsular wall distortion, mesangial cell expansion, glomerular microvascular condensation, tubular damage and degeneration and fibrosis. Low-dose fenofibrate (30mg/kg, p.o., 4 weeks) and low-dose dipyridamole (20mg/kg, p.o., 4 weeks) treatment either alone or in combination considerably reduced renal structural and functional abnormalities in diabetic rats, but without affecting the elevated glucose level. Fenofibrate, but not dipyridamole, significantly prevented the lipid alteration and importantly the uric acid elevation in diabetic rats. Lisinopril (5mg/kg, p.o., 4 weeks, reference compound), prevented the hyperglycemia, lipid alteration and development of diabetic nephropathy. Lipid alteration and uric acid elevation, besides hyperglycemia, could play key roles in the development of nephropathy. Low-doses of fenofibrate and dipyridamole treatment either alone or in combination markedly prevented the diabetes-induced nephropathy. Their combination was as effective as to their individual treatment, but not superior in preventing the development of diabetic nephropathy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  4. Magosso E, Ansari MA, Gopalan Y, Shuaib IL, Wong JW, Khan NA, et al.
    Nutr J, 2013;12(1):166.
    PMID: 24373555 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-166
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the commonest liver disorders. Obesity, insulin resistance, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress have been identified amongst the possible hits leading to the onset and progression of this disease. Nutritional evaluation of NAFLD patients showed a lower-than-recommended intake of vitamin E. Vitamin E is a family of 8 isoforms, 4 tocopherols and 4 tocotrienols. Alpha-tocopherol has been widely investigated in liver diseases, whereas no previous clinical trial has investigated tocotrienols for NAFLD. Aim of the study was to determine the effects of mixed tocotrienols, in normalising the hepatic echogenic response in hypercholesterolaemic patients with ultrasound-proven NAFLD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  5. Nang EE, Salim A, Wu Y, Tai ES, Lee J, Van Dam RM
    PMID: 23718927 DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-10-70
    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence shows that sedentary behaviour may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and all-cause mortality. However, results are not consistent and different types of sedentary behaviour might have different effects on health. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between television screen time, computer/reading time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers in a multiethnic urban Asian population. We also sought to understand the potential mediators of this association.
    METHODS: The Singapore Prospective Study Program (2004-2007), was a cross-sectional population-based study in a multiethnic population in Singapore. We studied 3305 Singaporean adults of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity who did not have pre-existing diseases and conditions that could affect their physical activity. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of television screen time and computer/reading time with cardio-metabolic biomarkers [blood pressure, lipids, glucose, adiponectin, C reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]. Path analysis was used to examine the role of mediators of the observed association.
    RESULTS: Longer television screen time was significantly associated with higher systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C reactive protein, HOMA-IR, and lower adiponectin after adjustment for potential socio-demographic and lifestyle confounders. Dietary factors and body mass index, but not physical activity, were potential mediators that explained most of these associations between television screen time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers. The associations of television screen time with triglycerides and HOMA-IR were only partly explained by dietary factors and body mass index. No association was observed between computer/ reading time and worse levels of cardio-metabolic biomarkers.
    CONCLUSIONS: In this urban Asian population, television screen time was associated with worse levels of various cardio-metabolic risk factors. This may reflect detrimental effects of television screen time on dietary habits rather than replacement of physical activity.
    MESH: screen time
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  6. Chew BH, Ismail M, Lee PY, Taher SW, Haniff J, Mustapha FI, et al.
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2012 Jun;96(3):339-47.
    PMID: 22305940 DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2012.01.017
    Numerous studies with compelling evidence had shown a clear relationship between dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with diabetes mellitus. This was an observational study based on secondary data from the online registry database Adult Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM) looking into the determinants of uncontrolled dyslipidaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Independent predictors were identified using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 303 centres (289 health clinics, 14 hospitals) contributed a total of 70,889 patients (1972 or 2.8% patients were from hospital). About thirty eight percent were reported to have dyslipidaemia. There were 40.7% patients on lipid-lowering agents and of those above age 40 years old, only 38.1% of them were on a statin. Malay ethnicity and younger age groups (<50 years old) were two major determinants of uncontrolled LDL-C, TG and HDL-C. Female gender and uncontrolled blood pressure were determinants of uncontrolled LDL-C, and poor glycaemic control was related independently to high TG. This study has highlighted the suboptimal management of diabetic dyslipidaemia in Malaysia. Pharmacological treatment of dyslipidaemia could be more effective. Healthcare stakeholders in this country, especially in the primary care, have to recognize these shortfalls and take immediate remedial measures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood*
  7. Karupaiah T, Tan CH, Chinna K, Sundram K
    J Am Coll Nutr, 2011 Dec;30(6):511-21.
    PMID: 22331686
    OBJECTIVE: Saturated fats increase total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and are linked to coronary artery disease risk. The effect of variance in chain length of saturated fatty acids (SFA) on coronary artery disease in human postprandial lipemia is not well elucidated.

    METHODS: A total of 20 healthy volunteers were challenged with 3 test meals, similar in fat content (~31% en) but varying in saturated SFA content and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratios (P/S). The 3 meals were lauric + myristic acid-rich (LM), P/S 0.19; palmitic acid-rich (POL), P/S 0.31; and stearic acid-rich (STE), P/S 0.22. Blood was sampled at fasted baseline and 2, 4, 5, 6, and 8 hours. Plasma lipids (triacylglycerol [TAG]) and lipoproteins (TC, LDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C]) were evaluated.

    RESULTS: Varying SFA in the test meal significantly impacted postprandial TAG response (p < 0.05). Plasma TAG peaked at 5 hours for STE, 4 hours for POL, and 2 hours for LM test meals. Area-under-the-curve (AUC) for plasma TAG was increased significantly after STE treatment (STE > LM by 32.2%, p = 0.003; STE > POL by 27.9%, p = 0.023) but was not significantly different between POL and LM (POL > LM by 6.0%, p > 0.05). At 2 hours, plasma HDL-C increased significantly after the LM and POL test meals compared with STE (p < 0.05). In comparison to the STE test meal, HDL-C AUC was elevated 14.0% (p = 0.005) and 7.6% (p = 0.023) by the LM and POL test meals, respectively. The TC response was also increased significantly by LM compared with both POL and STE test meals (p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Chain length of saturates clearly mediated postmeal plasma TAG and HDL-C changes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  8. Tan AKG, Dunn RA, Yen ST
    Metab Syndr Relat Disord, 2011 Dec;9(6):441-51.
    PMID: 21815810 DOI: 10.1089/met.2011.0031
    BACKGROUND: This study investigates ethnic disparities in metabolic syndrome in Malaysia.
    METHODS: Data were obtained from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 (2005/2006). Logistic regressions of metabolic syndrome health risks on sociodemographic and health-lifestyle factors were conducted using a multiracial (Malay, Chinese, and Indian and other ethnic groups) sample of 2,366 individuals.
    RESULTS: Among both males and females, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome amongst Indians was larger compared to both Malays and Chinese because Indians are more likely to exhibit central obesity, elevated fasting blood glucose, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We also found that Indians tend to engage in less physical activity and consume fewer fruits and vegetables than Malays and Chinese. Although education and family history of chronic disease are associated with metabolic syndrome status, differences in socioeconomic attributes do not explain ethnic disparities in metabolic syndrome incidence. The difference in metabolic syndrome prevalence between Chinese and Malays was not statistically significant. Whereas both groups exhibited similar obesity rates, ethnic Chinese were less likely to suffer from high fasting blood glucose.
    CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic syndrome disproportionately affects Indians in Malaysia. Additionally, fasting blood glucose rates differ dramatically amongst ethnic groups. Attempts to decrease health disparities among ethnic groups in Malaysia will require greater attention to improving the metabolic health of Malays, especially Indians, by encouraging healthful lifestyle changes.
    Study name: Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 (MyNCDS-1) survey
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  9. Ruzaidi A, Amin I, Nawalyah AG, Hamid M, Faizul HA
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2005 Apr 8;98(1-2):55-60.
    PMID: 15763363
    The present study aims to investigate the effect of cocoa extract on serum glucose levels and lipid profiles in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Cocoa extract (contained 285.6 mg total polyphenol per gram extract) was prepared from fermented and roasted (140 degrees C, 20 min) beans by extracting using 80% ethanol in the ratio of 1-10. The extract of three dosages (1, 2, and 3%) was fed to normal and diabetic rats for a period of 4 weeks. In hyperglycaemic group, cocoa extract (1 and 3%) diets were found to significantly lower (p<0.05) the serum glucose levels compared to the control. Furthermore, supplementation of 1 and 3% cocoa extract had significantly reduced (p<0.05) the level of total cholesterol in diabetic rats. In addition, 1, 2, and 3% cocoa extract diets had significantly lowered (p<0.05) the total triglycerides. Interestingly, this study found that serum HDL-cholesterol had increased significantly (p<0.05) in diabetic rats fed with 2% cocoa extract, while the LDL-cholesterol had decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the 1% treated group. These results indicate that cocoa extract may possess potential hypoglycaemic and hypocholestrolemic effects on serum glucose levels and lipid profiles, respectively. The results also found that the effect of cocoa extract was dose-dependent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  10. Khalil MI, Tanvir EM, Afroz R, Sulaiman SA, Gan SH
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:286051.
    PMID: 26064893 DOI: 10.1155/2015/286051
    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40) were pretreated orally with Tualang honey (3 g/kg/day) for 45 days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate transaminase (AST)), cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. In addition, ISO-induced myocardial injury was confirmed by a significant increase in heart lipid peroxidation (LPO) products (TBARS) and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx, and GST). Pretreatment of ischemic rats with Tualang honey conferred significant protective effects on all of the investigated biochemical parameters. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examination in both Tualang-honey-pretreated and ISO-treated hearts. The present study demonstrates that Tualang honey confers cardioprotective effects on ISO-induced oxidative stress by contributing to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  11. Ellulu MS, Rahmat A, Patimah I, Khaza'ai H, Abed Y
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:3405-12.
    PMID: 26170625 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S83144
    Obesity is well associated as being an interfering factor in metabolic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes by increasing the secretion of proinflammatory markers from adipose tissue. Having healthy effects, vitamin C could work as an anti-inflammatory agent through its antioxidant capacity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  12. Ismail IS, Nazaimoon W, Mohamad W, Letchuman R, Singaraveloo M, Hew FL, et al.
    Diabet Med, 2001 Jun;18(6):501-8.
    PMID: 11472471
    AIMS: To define the prevalence of dyslipidaemia in young diabetic patients in Peninsular Malaysia and the contributory factors of dyslipidaemia in these subjects.

    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 848 young diabetic patients from seven different centres, with representation from the three main ethnic groups. Clinical history and physical examination was done and blood taken for HbA1c, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides.

    RESULTS: The overall lipids were suboptimal, worse in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients compared with Type 1 DM patients. Of the Type 2 patients, 73.2% had total cholesterol > 5.20 mmol/l, 90.9% had LDL-cholesterol > 2.60 mmol/l, 52.6% had HDL-cholesterol < 1.15 mmol/l and 27.3% had serum triglycerides > 2.30 mmol/l. There were ethnic differences in the lipid levels with the Malays having the highest total cholesterol (mean 6.19 mmol/l), and the highest LDL-cholesterol (mean 4.16 mmol/l), while the Chinese had the highest HDL-cholesterol (geometric mean 1.24 mmol/l). Ethnicity was an important determinant of total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol in Type 2 DM, and LDL- and HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in Type 1 DM. Glycaemic control was an important determinant of total, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in both Type 1 and Type 2 DM. Waist-hip ratio (WHR) was an important determinant of HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in both types of DM. Gender was an important determinant of HDL-cholesterol in Type 2 DM, but not in Type 1 DM. Socioeconomic factors and diabetes care facilities did not have any effect on the dyslipidaemia.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dyslipidaemia was high especially in Type 2 DM patients. Ethnicity, glycaemic control, WHR, and gender were important determinants of dyslipidaemia in young diabetic patients. Diabet. Med. 18, 501-508 (2001)

    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  13. Islam N, Kazmi F, Chusney GD, Mattock MB, Zaini A, Pickup JC
    Diabetes Care, 1998 Mar;21(3):385-8.
    PMID: 9540020
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether microalbuminuria is associated with markers of the acute-phase response in NIDDM and whether there are ethnic differences in this association among the three main racial groups in Malaysia.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: NIDDM patients of Chinese, Indian, and Malay origin attending a diabetic clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were matched for age, sex, diabetes duration, and glycemic control (n = 34 in each group). Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was measured in an early morning urine sample. Biochemical measurements included markers of the acute-phase response: serum sialic acid, triglyceride, and (lowered) HDL cholesterol.

    RESULTS: The frequency of microalbuminuria did not differ among the Chinese, Indian, and Malay patients (44, 41, and 47%, respectively). In Chinese patients, those with microalbuminuria had evidence of an augmented acute-phase response, with higher serum sialic acid and triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol levels; and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was correlated with serum sialic acid and triglyceride. The acute-phase response markers were not different in Indians, with microalbuminuria being high in even the normoalbuminuric Indians; only the mean arterial blood pressure was correlated with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio in the Indians. Malay NIDDM subjects had an association of microalbuminuria with acute-phase markers, but this was weaker than in the Chinese subjects.

    CONCLUSIONS: Microalbuminuria is associated with an acute-phase response in Chinese NIDDM patients in Malaysia, as previously found in Caucasian NIDDM subjects. Elevated urinary albumin excretion has different correlates in other racial groups, such as those originating from the Indian subcontinent. The acute-phase response may have an etiological role in microalbuminuria.

    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  14. Che HL, Kanthimathi MS, Loganathan R, Yuen KH, Tan AT, Selvaduray KR, et al.
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2017 01;71(1):107-114.
    PMID: 27759074 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.200
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence shows that tocotrienols potentially reverse various chronic disease progressions caused by the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of a single-dose supplementation of gamma and delta tocotrienols (γδ-T3, 1:4 ratio) compared with those in placebo on the insulinemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombogenic responses in metabolic syndrome subjects.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty metabolic syndrome subjects (15 men and 15 women) were recruited to a randomized, double-blinded and crossover study. The subjects were administered a single dose of 200 mg or 400 mg γδ-T3 emulsions or placebo incorporated into a glass of strawberry-flavored milkshake, consumed together with a high-fat muffin. Blood samples were collected at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min after meal intake.

    RESULTS: Plasma vitamin E levels reflected the absorption of γδ-T3 after treatments. Postprandial changes in serum C-peptide, serum insulin, plasma glucose, triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acid and adiponectin did not differ between treatments, with women displaying delayed increase in the aforementioned markers. No significant difference between treatments was observed for plasma cytokines (interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha) and thrombogenic markers (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and D-dimer).

    CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of a single dose of γδ-T3 did not change the insulinemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombogenic responses in metabolic syndrome subjects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  15. Rahman T, Hamzan NS, Mokhsin A, Rahmat R, Ibrahim ZO, Razali R, et al.
    Lipids Health Dis, 2017 Apr 24;16(1):81.
    PMID: 28438163 DOI: 10.1186/s12944-017-0470-1
    BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) leads to premature coronary artery diseases (CAD) which pathophysiologically can be measured by inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress status. However, the status of these biomarkers among related unaffected relatives of FH cases and whether FH is an independent predictor of these biomarkers have not been well established. Thus, this study aims to (1) compare the biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress between patients with FH, their related unaffected relatives (RUC) and normolipaemic subjects (NC) (2)determine whether FH is an independent predictor of these biomarkers.

    METHODS: One hundred thirty-one FH patients, 68 RUC and 214 matched NC were recruited. Fasting lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation (hsCRP), endothelial activation (sICAM-1 and E-selectin) and oxidative stress [oxidized LDL (oxLDL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and F2-isoprostanes (ISP)] were analyzed and independent predictor was determined using binary logistic regression analysis.

    RESULTS: hsCRP was higher in FH and RUC compared to NC (mean ± SD = 1.53 ± 1.24 mg/L and mean ± SD = 2.54 ± 2.30 vs 1.10 ± 0.89 mg/L, p  0.05). FH was an independent predictor for sICAM-1 (p = 0.007), ox-LDL (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  16. Al Zarzour RH, Ahmad M, Asmawi MZ, Kaur G, Saeed MAA, Al-Mansoub MA, et al.
    Nutrients, 2017 Jul 18;9(7).
    PMID: 28718838 DOI: 10.3390/nu9070766
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major global health issues, strongly correlated with insulin resistance, obesity and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to evaluate anti-NAFLD effects of three different extracts of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri). NAFLD was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats using a special high-fat diet (HFD). A 50% methanolic extract (50% ME) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect against NAFLD progression. It significantly reduced hepatomegaly (16%) and visceral fat weight (22%), decreased NAFLD score, prevented fibrosis, and reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) (48%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (65%), free fatty acids (FFAs) (25%), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (45%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (38%), insulin concentration (67%), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (73%), serum atherogenic ratios TC/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (29%), LDL/HDL (66%) and (TC-HDL)/HDL (64%), hepatic content of cholesterol (43%), triglyceride (29%) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (40%) compared to a non-treated HFD group. In vitro, 50% ME of P. niruri inhibited α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase enzymes and cholesterol micellization. It also had higher total phenolic and total flavonoid contents compared to other extracts. Ellagic acid and phyllanthin were identified as major compounds. These results suggest that P. niruri could be further developed as a novel natural hepatoprotective agent against NAFLD and atherosclerosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  17. Dehghan F, Soori R, Gholami K, Abolmaesoomi M, Yusof A, Muniandy S, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 12 05;6:37819.
    PMID: 27917862 DOI: 10.1038/srep37819
    The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of atherosclerosis plaque biomarkers to purslane seed consumption and aerobic training in women with T2D. 196 women with T2D were assigned into; (1) placebo (PL), (2) aerobic training+placebo (AT + PL), 3) purslane seeds (PS), aerobic training+purslane seeds (AT + PS). The training program and purslane seeds consumption (2.5 g lunch and 5 g dinner) were carried out for 16 weeks. The components of purslane seed were identified and quantified by GC-MS. Blood samples were withdrawn via venipuncture to examine blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), creatinine, urea, uric acid, NF-κB, GLP1, GLP1R, TIMP-1, MMP2, MMP9, CRP, CST3, and CTSS expressions. Blood glucose, LDL, cholesterol, TG, creatinine, urea, and uric acid levels in the (P), (AT), and (AT + PS) groups were significantly decreased compared to the pre-experimental levels or the placebo group, while HDL, significantly increased. Furthermore, the protein and mRNA levels of NF-κB, TIMP-1, MMP2 &9, CRP, CST3, and CTSS in the (P), (AT), (AT + PS) significantly decreased compared to pre-experimental or the placebo group, while level of GLP1 and GLP1-R increased drastically. Findings suggest that purslane seed consumption alongside exercising could improve atherosclerosis plaque biomarkers through synergistically mechanisms in T2D.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  18. Teng KT, Chang LF, Vethakkan SR, Nesaretnam K, Sanders TAB
    Clin Nutr, 2017 10;36(5):1250-1258.
    PMID: 27642057 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2016.08.026
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Modification of the amount and type of dietary fat has diverse effects on cardiovascular risk.

    METHODS: We recruited 54 abdominally obese subjects to participate in a prospective cross-over design, single-blind trial comparing isocaloric 2000 kcal MUFA or carbohydrate-enriched diet with SFA-enriched diet (control). The control diet consisted of 15E% protein, 53E% carbohydrate and 32E% fat (12E% SFA, 13E% MUFA). A total of ∼7E% of MUFA or refined carbohydrate was exchanged with SFA in the MUFA-rich and carbohydrate-rich diets respectively for 6-weeks. Blood samples were collected at fasting upon trial commencement and at week-5 and 6 of each dietary-intervention phase to measure levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β), C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombogenic markers (E-selectin, PAI-1, D-dimer) and lipid subfractions. Radial pulse wave analysis and a 6-h postprandial mixed meal challenge were carried out at week-6 of each dietary intervention. Blood samples were collected at fasting, 15 and 30 min and hourly intervals thereafter till 6 h after a mixed meal challenge (muffin and milkshake) with SFA or MUFA (872.5 kcal, 50 g fat, 88 g carbohydrates) or CARB (881.3 kcal, 20 g fat, 158 g carbohydrates)- enrichment corresponding to the background diets.

    RESULTS: No significant differences in fasting inflammatory and thrombogenic factors were noted between diets (P > 0.05). CARB meal was found to increase plasma IL-6 whereas MUFA meal elevated plasma D-dimer postprandially compared with SAFA meal (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  19. Al-Zuaidy MH, Mumtaz MW, Hamid AA, Ismail A, Mohamed S, Razis AFA
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Jul 10;17(1):359.
    PMID: 28693595 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1849-2
    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by continuous hyperglycemia associated with insulin resistance and /or reduced insulin secretion. There is an emerging trend regarding the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Melicope lunu-ankenda (ML) is one of the Melicope species belonging to the family Rutaceae. In traditional medicines, its leaves and flowers are known to exhibit prodigious health benefits. The present study aimed at investigating anti-diabetic effect of Melicope lunu-ankenda (ML) leaves extract.

    METHODS: In this study, anti-diabetic effect of ML extract is investigated in vivo to evaluate the biochemical changes, potential serum biomarkers and alterations in metabolic pathways pertaining to the treatment of HFD/STZ induced diabetic rats with ML extract using (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach. Type 2 diabetic rats were treated with different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg BW) of Melicope lunu-ankenda leaf extract for 8 weeks, and serum samples were examined for clinical biochemistry. The metabolomics study of serum was also carried out using (1)H NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis to explore differentiating serum metabolites and altered metabolic pathways.

    RESULTS: The ML leaf extract (400 mg/kg BW) treatment significantly increased insulin level and insulin sensitivity of obese diabetic rats, with concomitant decrease in glucose level and insulin resistance. Significant reduction in total triglyceride, cholesterol and low density lipoprotein was also observed after treatment. Interestingly, there was a significant increase in high density lipoprotein of the treated rats. A decrease in renal injury markers and activities of liver enzymes was also observed. Moreover, metabolomics studies clearly demonstrated that, ML extract significantly ameliorated the disturbance in glucose metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism.

    CONCLUSION: ML leaf extract exhibits potent antidiabetic properties, hence could be a useful and affordable alternative option for the management of T2DM.

    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
  20. Taheri Rouhi SZ, Sarker MM, Rahmat A, Alkahtani SA, Othman F
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Mar 14;17(1):156.
    PMID: 28288617 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1667-6
    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with hyperglycemia, inflammatory disorders and abnormal lipid profiles. Several functional foods have therapeutic potential to treat chronic diseases including diabetes. The therapeutic potential of pomegranate has been stated by multitudinous scientists. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of pomegranate juice and seed powder on the levels of plasma glucose and insulin, inflammatory biomarkers, lipid profiles, and health of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans in streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide (NAD) induced T2DM Sprague Dawley (SD) rats.

    METHODS: Forty healthy male SD rats were induced to diabetes with a single dose intra-peritoneal administration of STZ (60 mg/kg b.w.) - NAD (120 mg/kg b.w.). Diabetic rats were orally administered with 1 mL of pomegranate fresh juice (PJ) or 100 mg pomegranate seed powder in 1 mL distilled water (PS), or 5 mg/kg b.w. of glibenclamide every day for 21 days. Rats in all groups were sacrificed on day 22. The obtained data was analyzed by SPSS software (v: 22) using One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).

    RESULTS: The results showed that PJ and PS treatment had slight but non-significant reduction of plasma glucose concentration, and no impact on plasma insulin compared to diabetic control (DC) group. PJ lowered the plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) significantly, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) non-significantly compared to DC group. In contrast, PS treatment significantly raised plasma TC, LDL, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) levels compared to the DC rats. Moreover, the administration of PJ and PS significantly reduced the levels of plasma inflammatory biomarkers, which were actively raised in diabetic rats. Only PJ treated group showed significant repairment and restoration signs in islets of Langerhans. Besides, PJ possessed preventative impact against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals almost 2.5 folds more than PS.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that active constituents with high antioxidant properties present in PJ are responsible for its anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects, likewise the restoration effect on the damaged islets of Langerhans in experimental rats. Hence, the pharmacological, biochemical, and histopathological profiles of PJ treated rats obviously indicated its helpful effects in amelioration of diabetes-associated complications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Triglycerides/blood
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