SummaryThis study investigated the breeding parameters and embryogenic development of diploid and heat shock-induced triploid eggs of Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792). To this effect, broodstocks of A. testudineus were induced to spawn using the Ovaprim® hormone. After fertilization, the eggs were divided into two groups and one portion heat shocked at 41°C (for 3 min), at approximately 4 min after fertilization. Results of fertilization, hatchability, as well as the sequence and timing of embryogenic development were collated from three breeding trials. Fertilization percentages were similar in both treatments (≈90%) while hatchability was higher in the diploid eggs (79.56%) than the triploid induced eggs (50.04%). Both treatments had the same sequence of embryogenetic stages; however, the timing of development was significantly delayed in the triploids (i.e. beyond the 2-cell stages) as compared with the observations in the control group (diploid eggs). Consequently, hatching time was 5 h faster in the diploid eggs [i.e. 18 hours post fertilization (hpf)] compared with the triploid induced eggs (23 hpf). The most critical stage of embryonic development in which mass mortality occurred in the different treatments was the somite stage. The status of triploid hatchlings was affirmed using erythrocyte morphology in 2-month-old fingerlings.
The impacts of environmental stressors on polyploid organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated changes in morphometric, molecular, and biochemical parameters in full-sibling diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in response to chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposures. Juvenile fish were exposed to three concentrations of CPF (mean measured μg/L (SD): 9.71 (2.27), 15.7 (3.69), 31.21 (5.04)) under a static-renewal condition for 21days. Diploid control groups had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), plasma testosterone (T), and brain GnRH and cyp19a2 expression levels than triploids. In CPF-exposed groups, changes in HSI, total weight and length were different between the diploid and triploid fish. In contrast, condition factor did not alter in any of the treatments, while visceral-somatic index (VSI) changed only in diploids. In diploid fish, exposure to CPF did not change brain 11β-hsd2, ftz-f1, foxl2, GnRH or cyp19a2 mRNA levels, while reduced tph2 transcript levels compared to the control group. In contrast, 11β-hsd2 and foxl2 expression levels were changed in triploids following CPF exposures. In diploids, plasma T levels showed a linear dose-response reduction across CPF treatments correlating with liver weight and plasma total cholesterol concentrations. In contrast, no changes in plasma cholesterol and T concentrations were observed in triploids. Plasma cortisol and 17-β estradiol (E2) showed no response to CPF exposure in either ploidy. Results of this first comparison of biomarker responses to pesticide exposure in diploid and polyploid animals showed substantial differences between diploid and triploid C. gariepinus.
Crosses were made between four varieties ('Mahsuri', 'Setanjung", 'MR84" and 'MR103") of Oryza sativa L. (2n=24, AA) and one accession of O. minuta (2n= 8, BBCC). The seed set obtained ranged between 9.5% and 25.1% depending on the rice variety used. By rescuing 14-day-old embryos and culturing them on 25%-strength MS medium we obtained a total of 414 F1 hybrids. The F1s were vigorous, tillered profusely, were perennial and male-sterile. The hybrids were triploid (ABC) with 36 chromosomes and showed irregular meiosis. The average frequency and range of chromosome associations at metaphase I or early anaphase I pollen mother cells of F1 plants were 29.31(16-36) Is +3.32(0-10) IIs+0.016(0-1) IIIs+0.002(0-1) IVs. Upon backcrossing the original triploid hybrids and colchicine-treated hybrids to their respective recurrent parents, and further embryo rescue, 17 backcross-1 (BC1) plants were obtained. Of all the crosses using MR84, no BC1 plant was obtained even after pollinating 13 894 spikelets of the triploid hybrid. The BC1s were similar in appearence to the F1s and were male-sterile, their chromosome number ranged from 44 to 48. By backcrossing these BC1s and nurturing them through embryo rescue, we obtained 32 BC2 plants. Of these, however, only 18 plants grew vigorously. One of these plants has 24 chromosomes and the other 17 have chromosome numbers ranging between 30 and 37. The 24-chromosome plant was morphologically similar to the O. sativa parent and was partially fertile with a pollen and spikelet fertility of 58.8% and 12.5% respectively. All of the F1 and BC1 plants were found to be resistant to five Malaysian isolates (XO66, XO99, XO100, XO257 and XO319) of Xanthomonas campestris pv oryzae. Amongst the BC2s, the reaction varied from resistant to moderately susceptible. The 24-chromosome BC2 plant was resistant to the four isolates and moderately resistant to isolate XO100 to which the O. sativa parent was susceptible.
This study investigated the use of electric-shock in inducing triploidy in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. To achieve this, three voltages (9, 12, 21 V) were applied for different durations (3, 5, 10 min). The shock was initiated approximately three minutes after fertilization followed by incubation in ambient temperature. After incubation, hatchability and survival rates were determined while ploidy status of the treatment fishes was confirmed in one-month-old fingerlings using the exclusive triploid range of the erythrocyte major axis previously reported for the same species (11.9-14.9 μm) and by cytogenetic analysis of the chromosome. The results showed triploidy were achieved in 10 to 85% of the treatment groups. A consistent trend of decrease in hatchability and an increase in triploidy rate was observed with increased electroporation voltages and shock durations. The mean erythrocyte major axis length of triploid progenies (3n = 84) was observed to be between 11.3-14.6 μm and was higher than the range of 7.0-10.5 μm recorded for diploid progenies (2n = 56). It was concluded that electric shock can be used to induce triploidy in African catfish C. gariepinus.
Influence of waterborne butachlor (BUC), a commonly used pesticide, on morphometric, biochemical, and molecular biomarkers was evaluated in juvenile, full sibling, diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 21 days to one of three concentrations of BUC [mean measured µg/L: 22, 44 or 60]. Unexposed (control) triploids were heavier and longer and had higher visceral-somatic index (VSI) than diploids. Also, they had lighter liver weight (HSI) and showed lower transcript levels of brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), aromatase (cyp191b) and fushi tarazu-factor (ftz-f1), and plasma testosterone levels than diploids. Butachlor treatments had no effects, in either diploid or triploid fish, on VSI, HSI, weight or length changes, condition factor (CF), levels of plasma testosterone, 17-β estradiol (E2), cortisol, cholesterol, or mRNA levels of brain tryptophan hydroxylase (tph2), forkhead box L2 (foxl2), and 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-hsd2). Expressions of cyp191b and ftz-f1 in triploids were upregulated by the two highest concentrations of BUC. In diploid fish, however, exposures to all BUC concentrations decreased GnRH transcription and the medium BUC concentration decreased ftz-f1 transcription. Substantial differences between ploidies in basal biomarker responses are consistent with the reported impaired reproductive axis in triploid C. gariepinus. Furthermore, the present study showed the low impact of short term exposure to BUC on reproductive axis in C. gariepinus.
Skin is a major by-product of the fisheries and aquaculture industries and is a valuable source of gelatin. This study examined the effect of triploidization on gelatin yield and proximate composition of the skin of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). We further investigated the effects of two commonly used pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and butachlor (BUC), on the skin gelatin yield and amino acid composition in juvenile full-sibling diploid and triploid African catfish. In two separate experiments, diploid and triploid C. gariepinus were exposed for 21 days to graded CPF [mean measured: 10, 16, or 31 μg/L] or BUC concentrations [Mean measured: 22, 44, or 60 μg/L]. No differences in skin gelatin yield, amino acid or proximate compositions were observed between diploid and triploid control groups. None of the pesticide treatments affected the measured parameters in diploid fish. In triploids, however, gelatin yield was affected by CPF treatments while amino acid composition remained unchanged. Butachlor treatments did not alter any of the measured variables in triploid fish. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate changes in the skin gelatin yield and amino acid composition in any animal as a response to polyploidization and/or contaminant exposure.
Information on the biological responses of polyploid animals towards environmental contaminants is scarce. This study aimed to compare reproductive axis-related gene expressions in the brain, plasma biochemical responses, and the liver and gill histopathological alterations in diploid and triploid full-sibling juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 96 h to one of the two waterborne phenanthrene (Phe) concentrations [mean measured (SD): 6.2 (2.4) and 76 (4.2) μg/L]. In triploids, exposure to 76 μg/L Phe increased mRNA level of fushi tarazu-factor 1 (ftz-f1). Expression of tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2) was also elevated in both ploidies following the exposure to 76 μg/L Phe compared to the solvent control. In triploids, 76 μg/L Phe increased plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels compared to the other Phe-exposed group. It also elevated lactate and glucose contents relative to the other groups. In diploids, however, biochemical biomarkers did not change. Phenanthrene exposures elevated glycogen contents and the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the liver and gills of both ploidies. This study showed substantial differences between diploids and triploids on biochemical and molecular biomarker responses, but similar histopathological alterations following acute Phe exposures.