The effects of initial concentration of lead, temperature, biomass loading and pH were investigated for an optimized condition of lead uptake from the aqueous solution. The optimization process was analyzed using Central Composite Face-Centered Experimental Design in Response Surface Methodology (RSM) by Design Expert Version 5.0.7 (StatEase, USA). The design was employed to derive a statistical model for the effect of parameters studied on the removal of lead ion from aqueous solution. The coefficient of determination, R2 was found to be 92.36%. The initial concentration of 50.0 mg/L, temperature of 60 degrees C, biomass loading of 0.2 g and pH of 5.0 had been found to be the optimum conditions for the maximum uptake of lead ions in 98.11% batch mode. Under the optimum conditions, the lead uptake was attained to be circa 8.60 mg/g.
Palm oil industry is the most important agro-industry in Malaysia, but its by-product-palm oil mill effluent (POME), posed a great threat to water environment. In the past decades, several treatment and disposal methods have been proposed and investigated to solve this problem. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed and constructed for POME treatment. Anaerobic digestion and aerobic biodegradation constituted the first biological stage, while ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane units were combined as the second membrane separation stage. In the anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, about 43% organic matter in POME was converted into biogas, and COD reduction efficiency reached 93% and 22% in EGSB and the following aerobic reactor, respectively. With the treatment in the first biological stage, suspended solids and oil also decreased to a low degree. All these alleviated the membrane fouling and prolonged the membrane life. In the membrane process unit, almost all the suspended solids were captured by UF membranes, while RO membrane excluded most of the dissolved solids or inorganic salts from RO permeate. After the whole treatment processes, organic matter in POME expressed by BOD and COD was removed almost thoroughly. Suspended solids and color were not detectable in RO permeate any more, and mineral elements only existed in trace amount (except for K and Na). The high-quality effluent was crystal clear and could be used as the boiler feed water.
Possible application of a locally isolated environmental isolate, Acinetobacter haemolyticus to remediate Cr(VI) contamination in water system was demonstrated. Cr(VI) reduction by A. haemolyticus seems to favour the lower concentrations (10-30 mg/L). However, incomplete Cr(VI) reduction occurred at 70-100 mg/L Cr(VI). Initial specific reduction rate increased with Cr(VI) concentrations. Cr(VI) reduction was not affected by 1 or 10 mM sodium azide (metabolic inhibitor), 10 mM of PO(4)3-, SO4(2-), SO(3)2-, NO3- or 30 mg/L of Pb(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) ions. However, heat treatment caused significant dropped in Cr(VI) reduction to less than 20% only. A. haemolyticus cells loses its shape and size after exposure to 10 and 50 mg Cr(VI)/L as revealed from TEM examination. The presence of electron-dense particles in the cytoplasmic region of the bacteria suggested deposition of chromium in the cells.
In the organosolv pulping of the oil palm fronds, the influence of the operational variables of the pulping reactor (viz. cooking temperature and time, ethanol and NaOH concentration) on the properties of the resulting pulp (yield and kappa number) and paper sheets (tensile index and tear index) was investigated using a wavelet neural network model. The experimental results with error less than 0.0965 (in terms of MSE) were produced, and were then compared with those obtained from the response surface methodology. Performance assessment indicated that the neural network model possessed superior predictive ability than the polynomial model, since a very close agreement between the experimental and the predicted values was obtained.
Mixed dye consists of six commercial dyes and textile effluents from cotton dyeing process were treated by electrochemical-assisted photodegradation under halogen lamp illumination. Two types of effluents were collected which are samples before and after undergone pre-treatment at the factory wastewater treatment plant. The photodegradation process was studied by evaluating the changes in concentration employing UV-vis spectrophotometer (UV-vis) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. The photoelectrochemical degradation of mixed dye was found to follow the Langmuir Hinshelwood pseudo-first order kinetic while pseudo-second order kinetic model for effluents by using TOC analyses. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values of mixed dye and raw effluents were reported. Photoelectrochemical characteristic of pollutants was studied using the cyclic voltammetry technique. Raw effluent was found to exhibit stronger reduction behaviour at cathodic bias potential but slightly less photoresponse at anodic bias than mixed dye.
Tubular nanofiltration membrane performance to treat water for reuse was carried out by choosing C.I. Acid Black 210 dye as a model dye. It has been shown that increasing pH causes reduction in irreversible fouling factor (IFF) and the dye removal is also affected by solution pH. The total organic carbon removal for pH 4, pH 7, pH 8 and pH 10 is 97.9, 92.3, 94.5 and 94.6%, respectively. The conductivity removal for pH 4, pH 7, pH 8 and pH 10 is 85.1, 88.3, 87.8 and 90.7% respectively. The increase in the initial dye concentration causes rapid increase in fouling until 100 mg/l. Then the fouling increases gradually as it reaches a maximum IFF around 13%. This study also shows that the colour of permeate changes from colourless to light greenish/yellowish (initial concentration of 2,000 and 4,000 mg/l) as the initial dye concentration increases. The conductivity removal was also reduced as the initial dye concentration increased due to screening of the Donnan effect with the presence of salt.
Nitrification of mature sanitary landfill leachate with high-strength of N-NH(4) + (1080-2350 mg L(-1)) was performed in a 10 L continuous nitrification activated sludge reactor. The nitrification system was acclimatized with synthetic leachate during feed batch operation to avoid substrate inhibition before being fed with actual mature leachate. Successful nitrification was achieved with an approximately complete ammonium removal (99%) and 96% of N-NH(4) + conversion to N-NO(-) (3) . The maximum volumetric and specific nitrification rates obtained were 2.56 kg N-NH(4) (+) m(-3) day(-1) and 0.23 g N-NH(4) ( +) g(-1) volatile suspended solid (VSS) day(-1), respectively, at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12.7 h and solid retention time of 50 days. Incomplete nitrification was encountered when operating at a higher nitrogen loading rate of 3.14 kg N-NH(4) (+) m(-3) day(-1). The substrate overloading and nitrifiers competition with heterotrophs were believed to trigger the incomplete nitrification. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results supported the syntrophic association between the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. FISH results also revealed the heterotrophs as the dominant and disintegration of some AOB cell aggregates into single cells which further supported the incomplete nitrification phenomenon.
The biodegradation characteristics of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and the related microbial community were studied in both actual sequential anaerobic ponds in Malaysia and enrichment cultures. The significant degradation of the POME was observed in the second pond, in which the temperature was 35-37 °C. In this pond, biodegradation of major long chain fatty acids (LCFA), such as palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1), was also confirmed. The enrichment culture experiment was conducted with different feeding substrates, i.e. POME, C16:0 and C18:1, at 35 °C. Good recovery of methane indicated biodegradation of feeds in the POME and C16:0 enrichments. The methane production rate of the C18:1 enrichment was slower than other substrates and inhibition of methanogenesis was frequently observed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses indicated the existence of LCFA-degrading bacteria, such as the genus Syntrophus and Syntorophomonas, in all enrichment cultures operated at 35 °C. Anaerobic degradation of the POME under mesophilic conditions was stably processed as compared with thermophilic conditions.
Production of Scenedesmus sp. biomass in chicken slaughterhouse wastewater (CSWW) is a promising alternative technique for commercial culture medium due to the high nutritional content of the generated biomass to be used as fish feeds. The current work deals with optimising of biomass production in CSWW using response surface methodology (RSM) as a function of two independent variables, namely temperature (10-30 °C) and photoperiod (6-24 h). The potential application of biomass yield as fish feeds was evaluated based on carbohydrate, protein and lipid contents. The results revealed that the best operating parameters for Scenedesmus sp. biomass production with high contents of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids were determined at 30 °C and after 24 h. The actual and predicted values were 2.47 vs. 3.09 g, 1.44 vs. 1.27 μg/mL, 29.9 vs. 31.60% and 25.75 vs. 28.44%, respectively. Moreover, the produced biomass has a high concentration of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) as follows: 35.91% of C15:1; 17.58% of C24:1 and 14.11% of C18:1N9T. The biomass yields have 7.98% of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5N3) which is more appropriate as fish feeds. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of biomass revealed that the main functional groups included hydroxyl (OH), aldehyde (=C-H), alkanes and acyl chain groups. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis (EDS) indicated that the surface morphology and element distribution in biomass produced in BBM and CSWW were varied. The findings have indicated that the biomass produced in CSWW has high potential as fish feeds.
Discharge of household greywater into water bodies can lead to an increase in contamination levels in terms of the reduction in dissolved oxygen resources and rapid bacterial growth. Therefore, the quality of greywater has to be improved before the disposal process. The present review aimed to present a hybrid treatment system for the greywater generated from households. The hybrid system comprised a primary stage (a natural filtration unit) with a bioreactor system as the secondary treatment combined with microalgae for greywater treatment, as well as the natural flocculation process. The review discussed the efficiency of each stage in the removal of elements and nutrients. The hybrid system reviewed here represented an effective solution for the remediation of household greywater.
Biological kinetic (bio-kinetic) study of the anaerobic stabilization pond treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was carried out in a laboratory anaerobic bench scale reactor (ABSR). The reactor was operated at different feed flow-rates of 0.63, 0.76, 0.95, 1.27, 1.9 and 3.8l of raw POME for a day. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) as influent substrates was selected for bio-kinetic study. The investigation showed that the growth yield (Y(G)), specific biomass decay (b), maximum specific biomass growth rate (mu(max)), saturation constant (K(s)) and critical retention time (Theta(c)) were in the range of 0.990 g VSS/g COD(removed) day, 0.024 day(-1), 0.524 day(-1), 203.433 g COD l(-1) and 1.908 day, respectively.
A study on the modification of rice husk by various carboxylic acids showed that tartaric acid modified rice husk (TARH) had the highest binding capacities for Cu and Pb. The carboxyl groups on the surface of the modified rice husk were primarily responsible for the sorption of metal ions. A series of batch experiments using TARH as the sorbent for the removal of Cu and Pb showed that the sorption process was pH dependent, rapid and exothermic. The sorption process conformed to the Langmuir isotherm with maximum sorption capacities of 29 and 108 mg/g at 27 +/- 2 degrees C for Cu and Pb, respectively. The uptake increased with agitation rate. Decrease in sorbent particle size led to an increase in the sorption of metal ions and this could be explained by an increase in surface area and hence binding sites. Metal uptake was reduced in the presence of competitive cations and chelators. The affinity of TARH for Pb is greater than Cu.
Titania nanotubes are gaining prominence in photocatalysis, owing to their excellent physical and chemical properties such as high surface area, excellent photocatalytic activity, and widespread availability. They are easily produced by a simple and effective hydrothermal method under mild temperature and pressure conditions. This paper reviews and analyzes the mechanism of titania nanotube formation by hydrothermal treatment. It further examines the parameters that affect the formation of titania nanotubes, such as starting material, sonication pretreatment, hydrothermal temperature, washing process, and calcination process. Finally, the effects of the presence of dopants on the formation of titania nanotubes are analyzed.
In the last 10 years, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been extensively studied worldwide to extract energy from wastewater via electricity generation. More recently, a merged technique of embedding MFC into a constructed wetland (CW) has been developed and appears to be increasingly investigated. The driving force to integrate these two technologies lies in the fact that CWs naturally possess a redox gradient (depending on flow direction and wetland depth), which is required by MFCs as anaerobic anode and aerobic cathode chambers. No doubt, the integration of MFC with a CW will upgrade the CW to allow it to be used for wastewater treatment and, simultaneously, electricity generation, making CWs more sustainable and environmentally friendly. Currently, published work shows that India, China, Ireland, Spain, Germany and Malaysia are involved in the development of this technology although it is in its infant stage and many technical issues are faced on system configuration, operation and maximisation of electricity production. This paper aims to provide an updated review and analysis of the CW-MFC development. Focuses are placed on the experience gained so far from different researchers in the literature and further research directions and proposals are discussed in great detail.
Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m(3) of biogas per m(3) of POME which was utilized for electricity generation.
Single-chamber sediment microbial fuel cells (SSMFCs) have received considerable attention nowadays because of their unique dual-functionality of power generation and enhancement of wastewater treatment performance. Thus, scaling up or upgrading SSMFCs for enhanced and efficient performance is a highly crucial task. Therefore, in order to achieve this goal, an innovative physical technique of using interface layers with four different pore sizes embedded in the middle of SSMFCs was utilized in this study. Experimental results showed that the performance of SSMFCs employing an interface layer was improved regardless of the pore size of the interface material, compared to those without such layers. The use of an interface layer resulted in a positive and significant effect on the performance of SSMFCs because of the effective prevention of oxygen diffusion from the cathode to the anode. Nevertheless, when a smaller pore size interface was utilized, better power performance and COD degradation were observed. A maximum power density of 0.032mW/m2 and COD degradation of 47.3% were obtained in the case of an interface pore size of 0.28μm. The findings in this study are of significance to promote the future practical application of SSMFCs in wastewater treatment plants.
A new method of Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR) process wastewater treatment was developed based on in situ hypochlorous acid generation. The hypochlorous acid was generated in an undivided electrolytic cell consisting of two sets of graphite as anode and stainless sheets as cathode. The generated hypochlorous acid served as an oxidizing agent to destroy the organic matter present in the SMR wastewater. For an influent COD concentration of 2960 mg/L at an initial pH 4.5+/-0.1, current density 74.5 mA/cm(2), sodium chloride content 3% and electrolysis period of 75 min, resulted in the following residual values pH 7.5, COD 87 mg/L, BOD(5) 60 mg/L, TOC 65 mg/L, total chlorine 146 mg/L, turbidity 7 NTU and temperature 48 degrees C, respectively. In the case of 2% sodium chloride as an electrolyte for the above said operating condition resulted in the following values namely: pH 7.2, COD 165 mg/L, BOD(5) 105 mg/L, TOC 120 mg/L, total chlorine 120 mg/L, turbidity 27 NTU and temperature 53 degrees C, respectively. The energy requirement were found to be 30 and 46 Wh/L, while treating 24 L of SMR wastewater at 2 and 3% sodium chloride concentration at a current density 74.5 mA/cm(2). The observed energy difference was due to the improved conductivity at high sodium chloride content.
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) such as Fenton, electro-Fenton and photo-Fenton have been applied effectively to remove refractory organics from landfill leachate. The Fenton reaction is based on the addition of hydrogen peroxide to the wastewater or leachate in the presence of ferrous salt as a catalyst. The use of this technique has proved to be one of the best compromises for landfill leachate treatment because of its environmental and economical advantages. Fenton process has been used successfully to mineralize wide range of organic constituents present in landfill leachate particularly those recalcitrant to biological degradation. The present study reviews the use of Fenton and related processes in terms of their increased application to landfill leachate. The effects of various operating parameters and their optimum ranges for maximum COD and color removal are reviewed with the conclusion that the Fenton and related processes are effective and competitive with other technologies for degradation of both raw and pre-treated landfill leachate.
A pilot scale membrane plant was constructed and monitored in Shah Alam, Malaysia for municipal wastewater reclamation for industrial application purposes. The aim of this study was to verify its suitability under the local conditions and environmental constraints for secondary wastewater reclamation. Immersed-type crossflow microfiltration (IMF) was selected as the pretreatment step before reverse osmosis filtration. Secondary wastewater after chlorine contact tank was selected as feed water. The results indicated that the membrane system is capable of producing a filtrate meeting the requirements of both WHO drinking water standards and Malaysian Effluent Standard A. With the application of an automatic backwash process, IMF performed well in hydraulic performance with low fouling rate being achieved. The investigations showed also that chemical cleaning is still needed because of some irreversible fouling by microorganisms always remains. RO treatment with IMF pretreatment process was significantly applicable for wastewater reuse purposes and promised good hydraulic performance.
Municipal leachate was treated in an experimental unit of constructed wetlands of subsurface flow type. The parameters studied were organics (BOD and COD), solids and heavy metals (Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Pb). Using two types of emergent plants of Scirpus globulosus and Eriocaulon sexangulare, more than 80% removal was achieved for all the parameters. E. sexangulare removed organics and heavy metals better than Scirpus globulosus. A higher concentration of heavy metals in the influent did not change the removal efficiency.