The development of effluent removal prediction is crucial in providing a planning tool necessary for the future development and the construction of a septic sludge treatment plant (SSTP), especially in the developing countries. In order to investigate the expected functionality of the required standard, the prediction of the effluent quality, namely biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solid of an SSTP was modelled using an artificial intelligence approach. In this paper, we adopt the clonal selection algorithm (CSA) to set up a prediction model, with a well-established method - namely the least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM) as a baseline model. The test results of the case study showed that the prediction of the CSA-based SSTP model worked well and provided model performance as satisfactory as the LS-SVM model. The CSA approach shows that fewer control and training parameters are required for model simulation as compared with the LS-SVM approach. The ability of a CSA approach in resolving limited data samples, non-linear sample function and multidimensional pattern recognition makes it a powerful tool in modelling the prediction of effluent removals in an SSTP.
A two-staged engineered wetland-based system was designed and constructed to treat raw domestic septage. Hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) of 8.75 and 17.5 cm/d were studied with four and eight daily dosings at the second stage of the system to investigate the influence of the regimes on septage treatment. Removal of organic matter (OM) was found to be HLR dependent, where the results indicated that the increase of HLR from 8.75 to 17.5 cm/d impaired the overall level of treatment in the wetland units. Effluent of wetland fed at HLR 17.5 cm/d presented significantly lower oxygen reduction potential and dissolved oxygen values than wetland fed at 8.75 cm/d, indicative of the occurrence of less aerobic and reductive conditions in the bed. The reoxygenation capability of the wetland units was found to be heavily affected by the dosing frequency especially under high hydraulic load (17.5 cm/d). NH3-N degradation was found to decrease with statistical importance when the wetland was flushed two times more frequently with smaller batches of influent. The number of hydraulic load fractionings did not seem to affect the level of treatments of OM and ammonia for both the wetlands fed under the lower HLR of 8.75 cm/d. Prediction of hydraulic limits and management of the feeding strategies are important in the vertical type of engineered wetlands to guarantee the treatment performance and minimize the chances of filter clogging.
Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) has been applied to treat a broad range of industrial and municipal wastewater. AGS can be developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with alternating anaerobic-aerobic conditions. To provide anaerobic conditions, the mixed liquor is allowed to circulate in the reactor without air supply. The circulation flow rate of mixed liquor in anaerobic condition is the most important parameter of operation in the anaerobic-AGS processes. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of circulation rate on the performance of the SBR with AGS. Two identical reactors namely R1 and R2 were operated using fermented soy sauce wastewater at circulation rate of 14.4 and 36.0 l/h, respectively. During the anaerobic conditions, the wastewater was pumped out from the upper part of the reactor and circulated back into the bottom of the reactor for 230 min. A compact and dense AGS was observed in both reactors with a similar diameter of 2.0 mm in average, although different circulation rates were adopted. The best reactor performance was achieved in R2 with chemical oxygen demand removal rate of 89%, 90% total phosphorus removal, 79% ammonia removal, 10.1 g/l of mixed liquor suspended solids and a sludge volume index of 25 ml/g.
Landfill leachate is one of the most recalcitrant wastes for biotreatment and can be considered a potential source of contamination to surface and groundwater ecosystems. In the present study, Fenton oxidation was employed for degradation of stabilized landfill leachate. Response surface methodology was applied to analyze, model and optimize the process parameters, i.e. pH and reaction time as well as the initial concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ion. Analysis of variance showed that good coefficients of determination were obtained (R2 > 0.99), thus ensuring satisfactory agreement of the second-order regression model with the experimental data. The results indicated that, pH and its quadratic effects were the main factors influencing Fenton oxidation. Furthermore, antagonistic effects between pH and other variables were observed. The optimum H2O2 concentration, Fe(II) concentration, pH and reaction time were 0.033 mol/L, 0.011 mol/L, 3 and 145 min, respectively, with 58.3% COD, 79.0% color and 82.1% iron removals.
A study has been carried out to define the effect of drastic temperature changes on the performance of lab-scale hollow-fibre MBR in treating municipal wastewater at a flux of 10 L m(-2) h(-1) (LMH). The objectives of the study were to estimate the activated sludge properties, the removal efficiencies of COD and NH(3)-N and the membrane fouling tendency under critical conditions of drastic temperature changes (23, 33, 42 & 33 °C) and MLSS concentration ranged between 6,382 and 8,680 mg/L. The study exhibited that the biomass reduction, the low sludge settleability and the supernatant turbidity were results of temperature increase. The temperature increase led to increase in SMP carbohydrate and protein, and to decrease in EPS carbohydrate and protein. The BRE of COD dropped from 80% at 23 °C to 47% at 42 °C, while the FRE was relatively constant at about 90%. Both removal efficiencies of NH(3)-N trended from about 100% at 33 °C to less than 50% at 42 °C. TMP and BWP ascended critically with temperature increase up to 336 and 304 mbar respectively by the end of the experiment. The values of suspended solids (SS) and the turbidity in the final effluent were negligible. The DO in the mixed liquor was varying with temperature change, while the pH was within the range of 6.7-8.3.
Biofouling is a crucial factor in membrane bioreactor (MBR) applications, particularly for high organic loading operations. This paper reports a study on biofouling in an MBR to establish a relationship between critical flux, Jc, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) (ranging from 5 to 20 g L-1) and volumetric loading rate (6.3 kg COD m-3 h-1) of palm oil mill effluent (POME). A lab-scale 100 L hybrid MBR consisting of anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic reactors was used with flat sheet microfiltration (MF) submerged in the aerobic compartment. The food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratio was maintained at 0.18 kg COD kg-1 MLSSd-1. The biofouling tendency of the membrane was obtained based on the flux against the transmembrane pressure (TMP) behaviour. The critical flux is sensitive to the MLSS. At the MLSS 20 g L-1 the critical flux is about four times lower than that for the MLSS concentration of 5 g L-1. The results showed high removal efficiency of denitrification and nitrification up to 97% at the MLSS concentration 20 g L-1. The results show that the operation has to compromise between a high and a low MLSS concentration. The former will favour a higher removal rate, while the latter will favour a higher critical flux.
This paper examines the storm runoff quality from a commercial area in south Johor, Malaysia. Six storm events with a total of 68 storm runoff samples were analyzed. Event Mean Concentration (EMC) for all constituents analysed showed large inter-event variation. Site mean concentrations (SMC) for total suspended solids (TSS), oil and grease (O&G), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO(2)-N), ammonia-nitrogen (NH(3)-N), total phosphorus (Total P) and Soluble P are 261, 4.31, 74, 192, 1.5, 0.006, 1.9, 1.12 and 0.38 mg/L, respectively. The SMCs at the studied site are higher than those reported in many urban catchments. The mean baseflow concentrations were higher than the EMCs for COD, Soluble P, NH(3)-N, NO(3)-N, Total P and NO(2)-N. However, the reverse was observed for TSS and O&G. All pollutants showed the occurrence of first flush phenomenon with the highest strength was observed for TSS, COD and NH(3)-N.
The biodegradation characteristics of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and the related microbial community were studied in both actual sequential anaerobic ponds in Malaysia and enrichment cultures. The significant degradation of the POME was observed in the second pond, in which the temperature was 35-37 °C. In this pond, biodegradation of major long chain fatty acids (LCFA), such as palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1), was also confirmed. The enrichment culture experiment was conducted with different feeding substrates, i.e. POME, C16:0 and C18:1, at 35 °C. Good recovery of methane indicated biodegradation of feeds in the POME and C16:0 enrichments. The methane production rate of the C18:1 enrichment was slower than other substrates and inhibition of methanogenesis was frequently observed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses indicated the existence of LCFA-degrading bacteria, such as the genus Syntrophus and Syntorophomonas, in all enrichment cultures operated at 35 °C. Anaerobic degradation of the POME under mesophilic conditions was stably processed as compared with thermophilic conditions.
A high concentration of phosphorus in wastewater may lead to excessive algae growth and deoxygenation of the water. In this work, nanofiltration (NF) of phosphorus-rich solutions is studied in order to investigate its potential in removing and recycling phosphorus. Wastewater samples from a pulp and paper plant were first analyzed. Commercial membranes (DK5, MPF34, NF90, NF270, NF200) were characterized and tested in permeability and phosphorus removal experiments. NF90 membranes offer the highest rejection of phosphorus; a rejection of more than 70% phosphorus was achieved for a feed containing 2.5 g/L of phosphorus at a pH <2. Additionally, NF90, NF200 and NF270 membranes show higher permeability than DK5 and MPF34 membranes. The separation performance of NF90 is slightly affected by phosphorus concentration and pressure, which may be due to concentration polarization and fouling. By adjusting the pH to 2 or adding sulfuric acid, the separation performance of NF90 was improved in removing phosphorus. However, the presence of acetic acid significantly impairs the rejection of phosphorus.
Conventional aerobic and low-rate anaerobic processes such as pond and open-tank systems have been widely used in wastewater treatment. In order to improve treatment efficacy and to avoid greenhouse gas emissions, conventional treatment can be upgraded to a high performance anaerobic granular-sludge system. The anaerobic granular-sludge systems are designed to capture the biogas produced, rendering a potential for claims of carbon credits under the Kyoto Protocol for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) would be issued, which can be exchanged between businesses or bought and sold in international markets at the prevailing market prices. As the advanced anaerobic granular systems are capable of handling high organic loadings concomitant with high strength wastewater and short hydraulic retention time, they render more carbon credits than other conventional anaerobic systems. In addition to efficient waste degradation, the carbon credits can be used to generate revenue and to finance the project. This paper presents a scenario on emission avoidance based on a methane recovery and utilization project. An example analysis on emission reduction and an overview of the global emission market are also outlined.
The research conducted a study on decomposition and biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater using a combination of electron beam irradiation and activated sludge process. The purposes of this research are to remove pollutant through decomposition and to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater. The wastewater is treated using electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment before undergo an activated sludge process. As a result, for non-irradiated wastewater, the COD removal was achieved to be between 70% and 79% after activated sludge process. The improvement of COD removal efficiency increased to 94% after irradiation of treated effluent at the dose of 50 kGy. Meanwhile, the BOD(5) removal efficiencies of non-irradiated and irradiated textile wastewater were reported to be between 80 and 87%, and 82 and 99.2%, respectively. The maximum BOD(5) removal efficiency was achieved at day 1 (HRT 5 days) of the process of an irradiated textile wastewater which is 99.2%. The biodegradability ratio of non-irradiated wastewater was reported to be between 0.34 and 0.61, while the value of biodegradability ratio of an irradiated wastewater increased to be between 0.87 and 0.96. The biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater is increased with increasing the doses. Therefore, an electron beam radiation holds a greatest application of removing pollutants and also on enhancing the biodegradability of textile wastewater.
Rock filters are an established technology for polishing waste stabilization pond effluents. However, they rapidly become anoxic and consequently do not remove ammonium-nitrogen. Horizontal-flow aerated rock filters (HFARF), developed to permit nitrification and hence ammonium-N removal, were compared with a novel vertical-flow aerated rock filter (VFARF). There were no differences in the removals of BOD5, TSS and TKN, but the VFARF consistently produced effluents with lower ammonium-N concentrations (<0.3 mg N/L) than the HFARF (0.8-1.5 mg N/L) and higher nitrate-N concentrations (24-29 mg N/L vs. 17-24 mg N/L).
Landfill leachate is one of the major contamination sources. In this study, the ability of synthetic ion exchange resins which carry different mobile ion for removing color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and ammonia nitrogen (NH(3)-N) from stabilized leachate was investigated. The synthetic resin INDION 225 Na as a cationic exchanger and INDION FFIP MB as an anionic exchanger were used in this study. INDION 225 Na was used in hydrogen form (H(+)) and in sodium form (Na(+)), while INDION FFIP MB resin was used in hydroxide form (OH(-)) and in calcium form (Cl(-)) form. The results indicated better removal of color, COD and NH(3)-N by using INDION 225 Na in H(+) as compared with Na(+) form, while no performance differences were observed by using INDION FFIP MB in OH(-) or Cl(-) form. Applying cationic resin followed by anionic resin achieved 97, 88 and 94, percent removal of color, COD and NH(3)-N. The residual amounts were 160 Pt-Co, 290 mg/L and 110 mg/L of color, COD and NH(3)-N respectively.
Textile wastewater, one of the most polluted industrial effluents, generally contains substantial amount of dyes and chemicals that will cause increase in the COD, colour and toxicity of receiving water bodies if not properly treated. Current treatment methods include chemical and biological processes; the efficiency of the biological treatment method however, remains uncertain since the discharged effluent is still highly coloured. In this study, granules consisting mixed culture of decolourising bacteria were developed and the physical and morphological characteristics were determined. After the sixth week of development, the granules were 3-10 mm in diameter, having good settling property with settling velocity of 70 m/h, sludge volume index (SVI) of 90 to 130 mL/g, integrity coefficient of 3.7, and density of 66 g/l. Their abilities to treat sterilised raw textile wastewater were evaluated based on the removal efficiencies of COD (initial ranging from 200 to 3,000 mg/L), colour (initial ranging from 450 to 2000 ADMI) of sterilised raw textile wastewater with pH from 6.8 to 9.4. Using a sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment cycle with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h, maximum removal of colour and COD achieved was 90% and 80%, respectively.
In the present study, Electrochemical Oxidation was used to remove COD and color from semi-aerobic landfill leachate collected from Pulau Burung Landfill Site (PBLS), Penang, Malaysia. Experiments were conducted in a batch laboratory-scale system in the presence of NaCl as electrolyte and aluminum electrodes. Central composite design (CCD) under Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the electrochemical oxidation process conditions using chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removals as responses, and the electrolyte concentrations, current density and reaction time as control factors. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed good coefficient of determination (R(2)) values of >0.98, thus ensuring satisfactory fitting of the second-order regression model with the experimental data. In un-optimized condition, maximum removals for COD (48.77%) and color (58.21%) were achieved at current density 80 mA/cm(2), electrolyte concentration 3,000 mg/L and reaction time 240 min. While after optimization at current density 75 mA/cm(2), electrolyte concentration 2,000 mg/L and reaction time 218 min a maximum of 49.33 and 59.24% removals were observed for COD and color respectively.
A comparative study to explore the characteristics of partially and fully packed biological aerated filters (BAFs) in the removal of carbon pollutant, reveals that the partial-bed reactor can perform comparably well with the full-bed reactor. The organic removal rate was 5.34 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) at Organic Loading Rates (OLR) 5.80+/-0.31 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) for the full-bed, and 5.22 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) at OLR 5.79+/-0.29 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) for the partial-bed. In the partial-bed system, where the masses of biomass were only 41-51% of those of the full-bed, the maximum carbon removal limit was still between 5 to 6 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). At organic loadings above 5.0 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), the carbon removal capacity in both systems was limited by the mass and activity of microorganisms. The SRT in the full and partial-bed reactors was primarily controlled by the biomass loss in the effluent and during backwash operation. The SRT was reduced from 20.08 days at OLR 4.18+/-0.20 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) to 7.62 days at OLR 5.80+/-0.31 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) in the full-bed, and from 7.17 days to 4.21 days in the partial-bed. After all, SRT values in the partial-bed were always lower than those in the full-bed.
A pilot scale membrane plant was constructed and monitored in Shah Alam, Malaysia for municipal wastewater reclamation for industrial application purposes. The aim of this study was to verify its suitability under the local conditions and environmental constraints for secondary wastewater reclamation. Immersed-type crossflow microfiltration (IMF) was selected as the pretreatment step before reverse osmosis filtration. Secondary wastewater after chlorine contact tank was selected as feed water. The results indicated that the membrane system is capable of producing a filtrate meeting the requirements of both WHO drinking water standards and Malaysian Effluent Standard A. With the application of an automatic backwash process, IMF performed well in hydraulic performance with low fouling rate being achieved. The investigations showed also that chemical cleaning is still needed because of some irreversible fouling by microorganisms always remains. RO treatment with IMF pretreatment process was significantly applicable for wastewater reuse purposes and promised good hydraulic performance.
The objective of this research is to investigate the performance of blend cellulose acetate (CA)-polyethersulphone (PES) membranes prepared using microwave heating (MWH) techniques and then compare it with blend CA-PES membranes prepared using conventional heating (CH) methods using bovine serum albumin solution. The superior membranes were then used in the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). Various blends of CA-PES have been blended with PES in the range of 1-5 wt%. This distinctive series of dope formulations of blend CA/PES and pure CA was prepared using N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent. The dope solution was prepared by MW heating for 5 min at a high pulse and the membranes were prepared by phase inversion method. The performances of these membranes were evaluated in terms of pure water and permeate flux, percentage removal of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The results indicate that blend membranes prepared using the microwave technique is far more superior compared to that prepared using CH. Blend membranes with 19% CA, 1-3% PES and 80% of DMF solvent were found to be the best membrane formulation.
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are the focus of current environmental issues, as they can cause adverse health effects to animals and human, subsequent to endocrine function. The objective of this study was to remove a specific compound of EDCs (i.e. pentachlorophenol, C(6)OCL(5)Na, molecular weight of 288 g/mol) using low pressure reverse osmosis membrane (LPROM). A cross flow module of LPROM was used to observe the effects of operating parameters, i.e. pH, operating pressure and temperature. The design of the experiment was based on MINITAB(TM) software, and the analysis of results was conducted by factorial analysis. It was found that the rejection of pentachlorophenol was higher than 80% at a recovery rate of 60 to 70%. The rejection was subjected to increase with the increase of pH. The flux was observed to be increased with the increase of operating pressure and temperature. This study also investigated the interaction effects between operating parameters involved.
Biochemical products have been widely used for treatment of various types of wastewater. The treatment processes with the addition of biochemical products are quite attractive because of their simplicity, minimal use of equipment, they are environmentally friendly and are suitable for the removal of organic pollutants. The purpose of these products is to enhance the activities of beneficial microbes in order to improve treatment performance. This study was carried out to determine the potential of applying biochemical products in assisting and improving the performance of sewage treatment plants. In this study, four biochemical products, namely: Zeolite, Bio-C, Eco-B and Was-D, were applied to the sewage treatment plant. Analyses were carried out on several water quality parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), oil & grease (O&G), phosphorus (P), ammoniacal nitrogen (AN) and sludge thickness (ST). From the results obtained, it can be seen that the overall performance of the treatment plant improved with most of the parameters studied were found to fulfill the DOE Standard B requirements. The performance of Bio-C was found to give better results than other products.