Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 204 in total

  1. Heng GC, Isa MH, Lim JW, Ho YC, Zinatizadeh AAL
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Dec;24(35):27113-27124.
    PMID: 28963706 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-0287-5
    Biological treatments, such as activated sludge process, are common methods to treat municipal and industrial wastewaters. However, they produce huge amounts of waste activated sludge (WAS). The excess sludge treatment and disposal are a challenge for wastewater treatment plants due to economic, environmental, and regulatory factors. In this study, photo-Fenton pretreatment (oxidation using hydrogen peroxide and iron catalyst aided with UV light) was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and central composite design (CCD) to determine the effects of three operating parameters (H2O2 dosage, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio, and irradiation time) on disintegration and dewaterability of WAS. MLVSS removal, capillary suction time (CST) reduction, sCOD, and EPS were obtained as 70%, 25%, 12,000 mg/L, and 500 mg/L, respectively, at the optimal conditions, i.e., 725 g H2O2/kg TS, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 80, and irradiation time 40 min. Two batch-fed completely mixed mesophilic anaerobic digesters were then operated at 15-day solid retention time (SRT) and 37 ± 0.5 °C to compare the digestibility of untreated and photo-Fenton pretreated sludge in terms of volatile solids (VS) reduction, COD removal, and biogas production at steady-state operations. Photo-Fenton pretreatment followed by anaerobic digestion of WAS was very effective and yielded 75.7% total VS reduction, 81.5% COD removal, and 0.29-0.31 m3/kg VSfed·d biogas production rate, compared to 40.7% total VS solid reduction, 54.7% COD removal, and 0.12-0.17 m3/kg VSfed·d biogas production rate for control. Thus, photo-Fenton can be a useful pretreatment step in sludge management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  2. Wang Y, Zhao Y, Xu L, Wang W, Doherty L, Tang C, et al.
    Water Sci Technol, 2017 Jul;76(2):471-477.
    PMID: 28726712 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2017.190
    In the last 10 years, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been extensively studied worldwide to extract energy from wastewater via electricity generation. More recently, a merged technique of embedding MFC into a constructed wetland (CW) has been developed and appears to be increasingly investigated. The driving force to integrate these two technologies lies in the fact that CWs naturally possess a redox gradient (depending on flow direction and wetland depth), which is required by MFCs as anaerobic anode and aerobic cathode chambers. No doubt, the integration of MFC with a CW will upgrade the CW to allow it to be used for wastewater treatment and, simultaneously, electricity generation, making CWs more sustainable and environmentally friendly. Currently, published work shows that India, China, Ireland, Spain, Germany and Malaysia are involved in the development of this technology although it is in its infant stage and many technical issues are faced on system configuration, operation and maximisation of electricity production. This paper aims to provide an updated review and analysis of the CW-MFC development. Focuses are placed on the experience gained so far from different researchers in the literature and further research directions and proposals are discussed in great detail.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  3. Zhang Y, Yan L, Qiao X, Chi L, Niu X, Mei Z, et al.
    J Environ Sci (China), 2008;20(5):558-64.
    PMID: 18575108
    Palm oil industry is the most important agro-industry in Malaysia, but its by-product-palm oil mill effluent (POME), posed a great threat to water environment. In the past decades, several treatment and disposal methods have been proposed and investigated to solve this problem. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed and constructed for POME treatment. Anaerobic digestion and aerobic biodegradation constituted the first biological stage, while ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane units were combined as the second membrane separation stage. In the anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, about 43% organic matter in POME was converted into biogas, and COD reduction efficiency reached 93% and 22% in EGSB and the following aerobic reactor, respectively. With the treatment in the first biological stage, suspended solids and oil also decreased to a low degree. All these alleviated the membrane fouling and prolonged the membrane life. In the membrane process unit, almost all the suspended solids were captured by UF membranes, while RO membrane excluded most of the dissolved solids or inorganic salts from RO permeate. After the whole treatment processes, organic matter in POME expressed by BOD and COD was removed almost thoroughly. Suspended solids and color were not detectable in RO permeate any more, and mineral elements only existed in trace amount (except for K and Na). The high-quality effluent was crystal clear and could be used as the boiler feed water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  4. García JR, Sedran U, Zaini MAA, Zakaria ZA
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Feb;25(6):5076-5085.
    PMID: 28391459 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8975-8
    Palm oil mill wastes (palm kernel shell (PKS)) were used to prepare activated carbons, which were tested in the removal of colorants from water. The adsorbents were prepared by 1-h impregnation of PKS with ZnCl2 as the activating agent (PKS:ZnCl2 mass ratios of 1:1 and 2:1), followed by carbonization in autogenous atmosphere at 500 and 550 °C during 1 h. The characterization of the activated carbons included textural properties (porosity), surface chemistry (functional groups), and surface morphology. The dye removal performance of the different activated carbons was investigated by means of the uptake of methylene blue (MB) in solutions with various initial concentrations (25-400 mg/L of MB) at 30 °C, using a 0.05-g carbon/50-mL solution relationship. The sample prepared with 1:1 PKS:ZnCl2 and carbonized at 550 °C showed the highest MB adsorption capacity (maximum uptake at the equilibrium, q max = 225.3 mg MB / g adsorbent), resulting from its elevated specific surface area (BET, 1058 m2/g) and microporosity (micropore surface area, 721 m2/g). The kinetic experiments showed that removals over 90% of the equilibrium adsorptions were achieved after 4-h contact time in all the cases. The study showed that palm oil mill waste biomass could be used in the preparation of adsorbents efficient in the removal of colorants in wastewaters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  5. Abdul-Rahman R, Tsuno H, Zainol N
    Water Sci Technol, 2002;45(12):197-204.
    PMID: 12201103
    Elevated levels of nutrients in agroindustry wastewaters, and higher reliance on chlorination pose health threats due to formation of chlorinated organics as well as increased chlorination costs. Removals of ammonium and nitrate compounds were studied using activated carbon from palm shells, as adsorbent and support media. Experiments were carried out at several loadings, F:M from 0.31 to 0.58, and hydraulic residence times (HRT) of 24 h, 12 h and 8 h. Results show that the wastewater treatment process achieved removals of over 90% for COD and 62% for Total-N. Studies on removals from river water were carried out in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and activated carbon biofilm (ACB) reactor. Removals achieved by the SBR adsorption-biodegradation combination were 67.0% for COD, 58.8% for NH3-N and 25.5% for NO3-N while for adsorption alone the removals were only 37.0% for COD, 35.2% for NH3-N and 13.8% for NO3-N. In the ACB reactor, at HRT of 1.5 to 6 h, removals ranged from 12.5 to 100% for COD, 16.7 to 100% for NO3-N and 13.5 to 100% for NH3-N. Significant decrease in removals was shown at lower HRT. The studies have shown that substantial removals of COD, NO3-N and NH3-N from both wastewater and river water may be achieved via adsorption-biodegradation by biofilm on activated carbon processes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  6. Alexander JA, Surajudeen A, Aliyu EU, Omeiza AU, Zaini MAA
    Water Sci Technol, 2017 Oct;76(7-8):2232-2241.
    PMID: 29068353 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2017.391
    The present work was aimed at evaluating the multi-metals column adsorption of lead(II), cadmium(II) and manganese(II) ions onto natural bentonite. The bentonite clay adsorbent was characterized for physical and chemical properties using X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and cation exchange capacity. The column performance was evaluated using adsorbent bed height of 5.0 cm, with varying influent concentrations (10 mg/L and 50 mg/L) and flow rates (1.4 mL/min and 2.4 mL/min). The result shows that the breakthrough time for all metal ions ranged from 50 to 480 minutes. The maximum adsorption capacity was obtained at initial concentration of 10 mg/L and flow rate of 1.4 mL/min, with 2.22 mg/g of lead(II), 1.71 mg/g of cadmium(II) and 0.37 mg/g of manganese(II). The order of metal ions removal by natural bentonite is lead(II) > cadmium(II) > manganese(II). The sorption performance and the dynamic behaviour of the column were predicted using Adams-Bohart, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models. The linear regression analysis demonstrated that the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models fitted well with the column adsorption data for all metal ions. The natural bentonite was effective for the treatment of wastewater laden with multi-metals, and the process parameters obtained from this work can be used at the industrial scale.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods
  7. Mojiri A, Aziz HA, Zaman NQ, Aziz SQ, Zahed MA
    J Environ Manage, 2014 Jun 15;139:1-14.
    PMID: 24662109 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.02.017
    Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is one of the various methods of biological treatments used for treating wastewater and landfill leachate. This study investigated the treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater by adding a new adsorbent (powdered ZELIAC; PZ) to the SBR technique. ZELIAC consists of zeolite, activated carbon, lime stone, rice husk ash, and Portland cement. The response surface methodology and central composite design were used to elucidate the nature of the response surface in the experimental design and describe the optimum conditions of the independent variables, including aeration rate (L/min), contact time (h), and ratio of leachate to wastewater mixture (%; v/v), as well as their responses (dependent variables). Appropriate conditions of operating variables were also optimized to predict the best value of responses. To perform an adequate analysis of the aerobic process, four dependent parameters, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), and phenols, were measured as responses. The results indicated that the PZ-SBR showed higher performance in removing certain pollutants compared with SBR. Given the optimal conditions of aeration rate (1.74 L/min), leachate to wastewater ratio (20%), and contact time (10.31 h) for the PZ-SBR, the removal efficiencies for color, NH3-N, COD, and phenols were 84.11%, 99.01%, 72.84%, and 61.32%, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  8. Mohajeri L, Aziz HA, Isa MH, Zahed MA
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Feb;101(3):893-900.
    PMID: 19773160 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.09.013
    This work studied the bioremediation of weathered crude oil (WCO) in coastal sediment samples using central composite face centered design (CCFD) under response surface methodology (RSM). Initial oil concentration, biomass, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were used as independent variables (factors) and oil removal as dependent variable (response) in a 60 days trial. A statistically significant model for WCO removal was obtained. The coefficient of determination (R(2)=0.9732) and probability value (P<0.0001) demonstrated significance for the regression model. Numerical optimization based on desirability function were carried out for initial oil concentration of 2, 16 and 30 g per kg sediment and 83.13, 78.06 and 69.92 per cent removal were observed respectively, compare to 77.13, 74.17 and 69.87 per cent removal for un-optimized results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods
  9. Aziz HA, Alias S, Adlan MN, Faridah, Asaari AH, Zahari MS
    Bioresour Technol, 2007 Jan;98(1):218-20.
    PMID: 16386895
    A study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of coagulation and flocculation processes for removing colour from a semi-aerobic landfill leachate from one of the landfill sites in Malaysia. Four types of coagulant namely aluminium (III) sulphate (alum), ferric (III) chloride, ferrous (II) sulphate and ferric (III) sulphate were studied using standard jar test apparatus. Results indicated that ferric chloride was superior to the other coagulants and removed 94% of colour at an optimum dose of 800 mg/l at pH 4. The effect of coagulant dosages on colour removal showed similar trend as for COD, turbidity and suspended solids. This suggested that colour in landfill leachate was mainly contributed by organic matters with some insoluble forms that exhibited turbidity and suspended solids readings. The results from this study suggested that ferric chloride could be a viable coagulant in managing colour problems associated with landfill leachate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  10. Hossain Molla A, Fakhru'l-Razi A, Zahangir Alam M
    Water Res, 2004 Nov;38(19):4143-52.
    PMID: 15491662
    Natural and environmental-friendly disposal of wastewater sludge is a great concern. Recently, biological treatment has played prominent roles in bioremediation of complex hydrocarbon- rich contaminants. Composting is quite an old biological-based process that is being practiced but it could not create a great impact in the minds of concerned researchers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the solid-state bioconversion (SSB) processes in the biodegradation of wastewater sludge by exploiting this promising technique to rejuvenate the conventional process. The Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) domestic wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) sludge was considered for evaluation of SSB by monitoring the microbial growth and its subsequent roles in biodegradation under two conditions: (i) flask (F) and (ii) composting bin (CB) cultures. Sterile and semi-sterile environments were allowed in the F and the CB, respectively, using two mixed fungal cultures, Trichoderma harzianum with Phanerochaete chrysosporium 2094 (T/P) and T. harzianum with Mucor hiemalis (T/M) and two bulking materials, sawdust (SD) and rice straw (RS). The significant growth and multiplication of both the mixed fungal cultures were reflected in soluble protein, glucosamine and color intensity measurement of the water extract. The color intensity and pH of the water extract significantly increased and supported the higher growth of microbes and bioconversion. The most encouraging results of microbial growth and subsequent bioconversion were exhibited in the RS than the SD. A comparatively higher decrease of organic matter (OM) % and C/N ratio were attained in the CB than the F, which implied a higher bioconversion. But the measurement of soluble protein, glucosamine and color intensity exhibited higher values in the F than the CB. The final pH drop was higher in the CB than the F, which implied that a higher nitrification occurred in the CB associated with a higher release of H+ ions. Both the mixed cultures performed almost equal roles in all cases except the changes in moisture content.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  11. Umar M, Aziz HA, Yusoff MS
    Waste Manag, 2010 Nov;30(11):2113-21.
    PMID: 20675113 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2010.07.003
    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) such as Fenton, electro-Fenton and photo-Fenton have been applied effectively to remove refractory organics from landfill leachate. The Fenton reaction is based on the addition of hydrogen peroxide to the wastewater or leachate in the presence of ferrous salt as a catalyst. The use of this technique has proved to be one of the best compromises for landfill leachate treatment because of its environmental and economical advantages. Fenton process has been used successfully to mineralize wide range of organic constituents present in landfill leachate particularly those recalcitrant to biological degradation. The present study reviews the use of Fenton and related processes in terms of their increased application to landfill leachate. The effects of various operating parameters and their optimum ranges for maximum COD and color removal are reviewed with the conclusion that the Fenton and related processes are effective and competitive with other technologies for degradation of both raw and pre-treated landfill leachate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods
  12. Zainal Z, Lee CY, Hussein MZ, Kassim A, Yusof NA
    J Hazard Mater, 2007 Jul 19;146(1-2):73-80.
    PMID: 17196740
    Mixed dye consists of six commercial dyes and textile effluents from cotton dyeing process were treated by electrochemical-assisted photodegradation under halogen lamp illumination. Two types of effluents were collected which are samples before and after undergone pre-treatment at the factory wastewater treatment plant. The photodegradation process was studied by evaluating the changes in concentration employing UV-vis spectrophotometer (UV-vis) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. The photoelectrochemical degradation of mixed dye was found to follow the Langmuir Hinshelwood pseudo-first order kinetic while pseudo-second order kinetic model for effluents by using TOC analyses. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values of mixed dye and raw effluents were reported. Photoelectrochemical characteristic of pollutants was studied using the cyclic voltammetry technique. Raw effluent was found to exhibit stronger reduction behaviour at cathodic bias potential but slightly less photoresponse at anodic bias than mixed dye.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods
  13. Haron MJ, Yunus WM
    PMID: 11460327
    A cerium-loaded poly(hydroxamic acid) chelating ion exchanger was used for fluoride ion removal from aqueous solution. The resin was effective in decreasing the fluoride concentration from 5 mM down to 0.001 mM in acidic pH between 3 and 6. The sorption followed a Langmuir model with a maximum capacity of 0.5 mmol/g. The removal is accomplished by an anion exchange mechanism. The rate constant for the sorption was found to be 9.6 x 10(-2) min-1. A column test shows that the fluoride ion was retained on the column until breakthrough point and the fluoride sorbed in the column can be eluted with 0.1 M NaOH. The column can be reused after being condition with hydrochloric acid at pH 4. The resin was tested and found to be effective for removal of fluoride from actual industrial wastewater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  14. Vijayaraghavan K, Ahmad D, Yazid AY
    J Hazard Mater, 2008 Jan 31;150(2):351-6.
    PMID: 17543454
    A new method of Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR) process wastewater treatment was developed based on in situ hypochlorous acid generation. The hypochlorous acid was generated in an undivided electrolytic cell consisting of two sets of graphite as anode and stainless sheets as cathode. The generated hypochlorous acid served as an oxidizing agent to destroy the organic matter present in the SMR wastewater. For an influent COD concentration of 2960 mg/L at an initial pH 4.5+/-0.1, current density 74.5 mA/cm(2), sodium chloride content 3% and electrolysis period of 75 min, resulted in the following residual values pH 7.5, COD 87 mg/L, BOD(5) 60 mg/L, TOC 65 mg/L, total chlorine 146 mg/L, turbidity 7 NTU and temperature 48 degrees C, respectively. In the case of 2% sodium chloride as an electrolyte for the above said operating condition resulted in the following values namely: pH 7.2, COD 165 mg/L, BOD(5) 105 mg/L, TOC 120 mg/L, total chlorine 120 mg/L, turbidity 27 NTU and temperature 53 degrees C, respectively. The energy requirement were found to be 30 and 46 Wh/L, while treating 24 L of SMR wastewater at 2 and 3% sodium chloride concentration at a current density 74.5 mA/cm(2). The observed energy difference was due to the improved conductivity at high sodium chloride content.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  15. Khan MB, Nisar H, Ng CA, Lo PK, Yap VV
    Environ Technol, 2018 Jan;39(1):24-34.
    PMID: 28278778 DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2017.1293166
    The state of activated sludge wastewater treatment process (AS WWTP) is conventionally identified by physico-chemical measurements which are costly, time-consuming and have associated environmental hazards. Image processing and analysis-based linear regression modeling has been used to monitor the AS WWTP. But it is plant- and state-specific in the sense that it cannot be generalized to multiple plants and states. Generalized classification modeling for state identification is the main objective of this work. By generalized classification, we mean that the identification model does not require any prior information about the state of the plant, and the resultant identification is valid for any plant in any state. In this paper, the generalized classification model for the AS process is proposed based on features extracted using morphological parameters of flocs. The images of the AS samples, collected from aeration tanks of nine plants, are acquired through bright-field microscopy. Feature-selection is performed in context of classification using sequential feature selection and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator. A support vector machine (SVM)-based state identification strategy was proposed with a new agreement solver module for imbalanced data of the states of AS plants. The classification results were compared with state-of-the-art multiclass SVMs (one-vs.-one and one-vs.-all), and ensemble classifiers using the performance metrics: accuracy, recall, specificity, precision, F measure and kappa coefficient (κ). The proposed strategy exhibits better results by identification of different states of different plants with accuracy 0.9423, and κ 0.6681 for the minority class data of bulking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  16. Abdullah N, Ujang Z, Yahya A
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Jun;102(12):6778-81.
    PMID: 21524907 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.04.009
    The present study investigates the formation of aerobic granular sludge in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with palm oil mill effluent (POME). Stable granules were observed in the reactor with diameters between 2.0 and 4.0mm at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of 2.5 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). The biomass concentration was 7600 mg L(-1) while the sludge volume index (SVI) was 31.3 mL g SS(-1) indicating good biomass accumulation in the reactor and good settling properties of granular sludge, respectively. COD and ammonia removals were achieved at a maximum of 91.1% and 97.6%, respectively while color removal averaged at only 38%. This study provides insights on the development and the capabilities of aerobic granular sludge in POME treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  17. Ong SA, Min OM, Ho LN, Wong YS
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2013 May;20(5):3405-13.
    PMID: 23114839 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-012-1286-1
    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of adsorbability and number of sulfonate group on solar photocatalytic degradation of mono azo methyl orange (MO) and diazo Reactive Green 19 (RG19) in single and binary dye solutions. The adsorption capacity of MO and RG19 onto the TiO₂ was 16.9 and 26.8 mg/g, respectively, in single dye solution, and reduced to 5.0 and 23.1 mg/g, respectively, in the binary dye solution. The data obtained for photocatalytic degradation of MO and RG19 in single and binary dye solution were well fitted with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. The pseudo-first-order rate constants of diazo RG19 were significant higher than the mono azo MO either in single or binary dye solutions. The higher number of sulfonate group in RG19 contributed to better adsorption capacity onto the surface of TiO₂ than MO indicating greater photocatalytic degradation rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  18. Show KY, Ng CA, Faiza AR, Wong LP, Wong LY
    Water Sci Technol, 2011;64(12):2439-44.
    PMID: 22170839 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2011.824
    Conventional aerobic and low-rate anaerobic processes such as pond and open-tank systems have been widely used in wastewater treatment. In order to improve treatment efficacy and to avoid greenhouse gas emissions, conventional treatment can be upgraded to a high performance anaerobic granular-sludge system. The anaerobic granular-sludge systems are designed to capture the biogas produced, rendering a potential for claims of carbon credits under the Kyoto Protocol for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) would be issued, which can be exchanged between businesses or bought and sold in international markets at the prevailing market prices. As the advanced anaerobic granular systems are capable of handling high organic loadings concomitant with high strength wastewater and short hydraulic retention time, they render more carbon credits than other conventional anaerobic systems. In addition to efficient waste degradation, the carbon credits can be used to generate revenue and to finance the project. This paper presents a scenario on emission avoidance based on a methane recovery and utilization project. An example analysis on emission reduction and an overview of the global emission market are also outlined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  19. Liang Z, Shi J, Wang C, Li J, Liang D, Yong EL, et al.
    Appl Environ Microbiol, 2020 11 10;86(23).
    PMID: 32948522 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01920-20
    Pretreatment of waste-activated sludge (WAS) is an effective way to destabilize sludge floc structure and release organic matter for improving sludge digestion efficiency. Nonetheless, information on the impact of WAS pretreatment on digestion sludge microbiomes, as well as mechanistic insights into how sludge pretreatment improves digestion performance, remains elusive. In this study, a genome-centric metagenomic approach was employed to investigate the digestion sludge microbiome in four sludge digesters with different types of feeding sludge: WAS pretreated with 0.25 mol/liter alkaline/acid (APAD), WAS pretreated with 0.8 mol/liter alkaline/acid (HS-APAD), thermally pretreated WAS (thermal-AD), and fresh WAS (control-AD). We retrieved 254 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) to identify the key functional populations involved in the methanogenic digestion process. These MAGs span 28 phyla, including 69 yet-to-be-cultivated lineages, and 30 novel lineages were characterized with metabolic potential associated with hydrolysis and fermentation. Interestingly, functional populations involving carbohydrate digestion were enriched in APAD and HS-APAD, while lineages related to protein and lipid fermentation were enriched in thermal-AD, corroborating the idea that different substrates are released from alkaline/acid and thermal pretreatments. Among the major functional populations (i.e., fermenters, syntrophic acetogens, and methanogens), significant correlations between genome sizes and abundance of the fermenters were observed, particularly in APAD and HS-APAD, which had improved digestion performance.IMPORTANCE Wastewater treatment generates large amounts of waste-activated sludge (WAS), which consists mainly of recalcitrant microbial cells and particulate organic matter. Though WAS pretreatment is an effective way to release sludge organic matter for subsequent digestion, detailed information on the impact of the sludge pretreatment on the digestion sludge microbiome remains scarce. Our study provides unprecedented genome-centric metagenomic insights into how WAS pretreatments change the digestion sludge microbiomes, as well as their metabolic networks. Moreover, digestion sludge microbiomes could be a unique source for exploring microbial dark matter. These results may inform future optimization of methanogenic sludge digestion and resource recovery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  20. Wang CT, Sangeetha T, Yan WM, Chong WT, Saw LH, Zhao F, et al.
    J Environ Sci (China), 2019 Jan;75:163-168.
    PMID: 30473281 DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2018.03.013
    Single-chamber sediment microbial fuel cells (SSMFCs) have received considerable attention nowadays because of their unique dual-functionality of power generation and enhancement of wastewater treatment performance. Thus, scaling up or upgrading SSMFCs for enhanced and efficient performance is a highly crucial task. Therefore, in order to achieve this goal, an innovative physical technique of using interface layers with four different pore sizes embedded in the middle of SSMFCs was utilized in this study. Experimental results showed that the performance of SSMFCs employing an interface layer was improved regardless of the pore size of the interface material, compared to those without such layers. The use of an interface layer resulted in a positive and significant effect on the performance of SSMFCs because of the effective prevention of oxygen diffusion from the cathode to the anode. Nevertheless, when a smaller pore size interface was utilized, better power performance and COD degradation were observed. A maximum power density of 0.032mW/m2 and COD degradation of 47.3% were obtained in the case of an interface pore size of 0.28μm. The findings in this study are of significance to promote the future practical application of SSMFCs in wastewater treatment plants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
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