Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 289 in total

  1. Zulkifli NNI, Abdullah MMAB, Przybył A, Pietrusiewicz P, Salleh MAAM, Aziz IH, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2021 Apr 26;14(9).
    PMID: 33925777 DOI: 10.3390/ma14092213
    This paper clarified the microstructural element distribution and electrical conductivity changes of kaolin, fly ash, and slag geopolymer at 900 °C. The surface microstructure analysis showed the development in surface densification within the geopolymer when in contact with sintering temperature. It was found that the electrical conductivity was majorly influenced by the existence of the crystalline phase within the geopolymer sample. The highest electrical conductivity (8.3 × 10-4 Ωm-1) was delivered by slag geopolymer due to the crystalline mineral of gehlenite (3Ca2Al2SiO7). Using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence, the high concentration Ca boundaries revealed the appearance of gehlenite crystallisation, which was believed to contribute to development of denser microstructure and electrical conductivity.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  2. Zulkifley MA, Mohamed NA, Abdani SR, Kamari NAM, Moubark AM, Ibrahim AA
    Diagnostics (Basel), 2021 Apr 24;11(5).
    PMID: 33923215 DOI: 10.3390/diagnostics11050765
    Skeletal bone age assessment using X-ray images is a standard clinical procedure to detect any anomaly in bone growth among kids and babies. The assessed bone age indicates the actual level of growth, whereby a large discrepancy between the assessed and chronological age might point to a growth disorder. Hence, skeletal bone age assessment is used to screen the possibility of growth abnormalities, genetic problems, and endocrine disorders. Usually, the manual screening is assessed through X-ray images of the non-dominant hand using the Greulich-Pyle (GP) or Tanner-Whitehouse (TW) approach. The GP uses a standard hand atlas, which will be the reference point to predict the bone age of a patient, while the TW uses a scoring mechanism to assess the bone age using several regions of interest information. However, both approaches are heavily dependent on individual domain knowledge and expertise, which is prone to high bias in inter and intra-observer results. Hence, an automated bone age assessment system, which is referred to as Attention-Xception Network (AXNet) is proposed to automatically predict the bone age accurately. The proposed AXNet consists of two parts, which are image normalization and bone age regression modules. The image normalization module will transform each X-ray image into a standardized form so that the regressor network can be trained using better input images. This module will first extract the hand region from the background, which is then rotated to an upright position using the angle calculated from the four key-points of interest. Then, the masked and rotated hand image will be aligned such that it will be positioned in the middle of the image. Both of the masked and rotated images will be obtained through existing state-of-the-art deep learning methods. The last module will then predict the bone age through the Attention-Xception network that incorporates multiple layers of spatial-attention mechanism to emphasize the important features for more accurate bone age prediction. From the experimental results, the proposed AXNet achieves the lowest mean absolute error and mean squared error of 7.699 months and 108.869 months2, respectively. Therefore, the proposed AXNet has demonstrated its potential for practical clinical use with an error of less than one year to assist the experts or radiologists in evaluating the bone age objectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  3. Zuber SH, Hashikin NAA, Mohd Yusof MF, Aziz MZA, Hashim R
    Appl Radiat Isot, 2021 Apr;170:109601.
    PMID: 33515930 DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2021.109601
    Experimental particleboards are made from Rhizophora spp. wood trunk with three different percentages of lignin and soy flour (0%, 6% and 12%) as adhesives. The objective was to investigate the equivalence of Rhizophora spp. particleboard as phantom material with human soft tissue using Computed Tomography (CT) number. The linear and mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboard at low energy range was also explored using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) configuration technique. Further characterization of the particleboard was performed to determine the effective atomic number, Zeff using Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) method. Adhesive-bonded Rhizophora spp. particleboard showed close similarities with water, based on the average CT numbers, electron density calibration curve and the analysis of CT density profile, compared to the binderless particleboard. The effective atomic number obtained from the study indicated that the attenuation properties of all the particleboards at different percentages of adhesives were almost similar to water. The mass attenuation coefficient calculated from XRF configuration technique showed good agreement with water from XCOM database, suggesting its potential as phantom material for radiation study.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  4. Zin, H. M.
    The Malaysian Association of Medical Physics (MAMP) was set up in the year 2000 to promote and further develop the field that was relatively new in Malaysia. The article briefly summarises key developments in medical physics since the first discovery of x-rays in 1895. The resulted rapid progress in the field was also highlighted and related to the pace of development in Malaysia. Key activities organised by MAMP were also addressed. The international practices related to the field and the profession were highlighted and compared to the current status in Malaysia. Although the field has progressed well in the country, there are several gaps identified to further improve the field and the profession in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  5. Zambri NDS, Taib NI, Abdul Latif F, Mohamed Z
    Molecules, 2019 Oct 22;24(20).
    PMID: 31652583 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24203803
    The present work reports the successful synthesis of biosynthesized iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) with the use of non-toxic leaf extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The successful synthesis was confirmed by infrared spectra analysis with strong peak observed between 400-600 cm-1 that corresponds to magnetite nanoparticles characteristics. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that iron oxide nanoparticles were of high purity with crystalline cubic structure phases in nature. Besides, the average size of magnetite nanoparticles was observed to be 9-12 nm with mostly irregular shapes using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and was supported by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Energy dispersive X-ray analysis shown that the elements iron (Fe) and oxygen (O) were present with atomic percentages of 33.29% and 66.71%, respectively. From the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis it was proven that the nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic properties with a magnetization value of 73 emu/g and the results showed superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, suggesting potential applications for a magnetic targeting drug delivery system.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  6. Zakaria MB, Saito I, Yao XK, Wang RJ, Matsuura T
    Planta Med, 1989 Oct;55(5):477-8.
    PMID: 17262463
    Fibraurin, chasmanthin, and palmarin were isolated from the stems of FIBRAUREA CHLOROLEUCA, Fam. Menispermaceae. The structure of the minor constituent, palmarin, was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  7. Zainul Ibrahim Bin Zainuddin
    The effects of radiation on man and his health had been noticed since the early years after the discovery of X-rays. These biological concerns were more commonly known as “radio-sensitiveness” in the early publications. Later, the term radiation protection was introduced to express the need for protective measures to be promoted, formulated, implemented, evaluated and sustained to reduce the biological effects associated with radiation exposure. The principles of radiation protection were then supported with the concepts of justification, ALARA and “Benefits against the risks”. But these could not ensure that the application of radiation protection has been optimized. Amidst the technological advancements associated with radiation based imaging modalities in healthcare for more than 120 years, those advancements have yet to be able reduce the impact of these modalities being a source of risks upon the more beneficial role as a
    diagnostic tool. This paper reports a review on radiation protection from articles indexed in an online database. Considering that the titles of the articles contain the core subject matter that a publication carries, data were retrieved on those titles with the term “radiation protection”. Publications from 2008 to middle of November 2017 and aligned to Medicine and Health professions were included for further elaborations. The data were classified into four subject areas; education and training, administration and organization, practice and research. Discussions within each classification and their individual sub-classifications, supported by selected publications to the classification, highlight the importance of the particular subject area to the overall concept of radiation protection. Lessons learnt from the classifications could provide the necessary guidance on how one should adopt and adapt the concept of radiation protection holistically. The discussions that are presented are seen within the professional obligation in adhering to the principles of
    radiation protection.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  8. Zainudin LD, Abdul Hafidz MI, Zakaria AF, Mohd Zim MA, Ismail AI, Abdul Rani MF
    Respirol Case Rep, 2016 Mar;4(1):19-21.
    PMID: 26839696 DOI: 10.1002/rcr2.143
    We report a case of a 34-year-old lady with past history of asthma and pulmonary tuberculosis, who presented 5 weeks pregnant with acute dyspnea. Her chest X-ray showed left-sided complete lung collapse and concomitant right-sided pneumothorax. The pneumothorax was initially managed conservatively with a chest tube but due to its persistence despite suction, was subsequently changed to a Pneumostat(TM), with which she was later discharged. She had a normal echocardiography (ejection fraction [EF] 67%) at 5 weeks of gestation but developed pulmonary hypertension (EF 55%, pulmonary arterial pressure 40.7 mmHg) as the pregnancy progressed. She delivered a healthy baby at 35 weeks via elective lower section caesarean section with spinal anesthesia. We followed her up postnatally and noted the presence of left-sided pulmonary embolism, hypoplastic left lung, and left pulmonary artery. The management of this complex case involved a multidisciplinary effort between general medical, respiratory, obstetric, and cardiothoracic teams.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  9. Zaini Hamzah, Nurul Latiffah Abd Rani, Ahmad Saat
    Measurement of major cation such as Na+, K+, and Ca2+ in water are normally carried out using
    AAS, ICP-OES or flame photometry. In this study, an attempt was made to measure these cations
    using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent Spectrometry (EDXRF). Hot spring s water was taken from varies hot spring in Selangor and divided into two portions that is filtered and unfiltered. 5 mL of water samples were pipette into a special liquid cups (sample holders) which has a thin mylar film underneath. The MiniPal4 XRF instrument was used in this study. The resolution for the instrument use is 145 keV with energy resolution at 5.9 keV. The spectrum of cations were analysed by using MiniPal/MiniMate software to determine the cations concentration. For K+ and Ca2+, Al-thin filter was used and default filter was used for Na+. The concentration of Na+ obtained for filtered and unfiltered samples were ranged from 38.00 to 66.05 and 43.26 to 76.95 ppm. Meanwhile, concentrations of K+ for filtered and unfiltered samples were ranged from 2.42 to 8.07 and 6.18 to 29.28 ppm. Concentrations of Ca2+ for filtered and unfiltered samples were ranged from 2.59 to 10.94 and 3.18 to 12.99 ppm.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  10. Zaini Hamzah, Marlinda Musa, Ahmad Saat
    There are many essential and non-essential elements including metals and radionuclides present in vegetables. Howeve r, the accumulation of the several metals and radionuclides might cause the contamination to vegetables itself. Green m ustard (Brasissca rapa var. Parachinesis L.) was selected to represent the vegetable in this study. Objectives of this stud y are to determine the concentration of metals and radionuclides in the samples and to calculate the enrichment factor ( EF) and also to estimate the uptake, base on biological accumulation coefficient (BAC), for the various parts of selecte d vegetables. Three farmlands in the Cameron Highlands were studied namely Bharat, Kg Raja and Bertam area. The g reen mustard and soil samples were collected during the harvest season. Samples were dried, ground and sieved prior t o analysis. Analyses for both samples were done by using X-rays Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) to measure the conc entration of Fe, Zn, Hg, U and Th. The concentration of all elements in the soils is lower than their concentration in the control soil, except for Zn, U and Th. The concentration of all elements in Green Mustard is lower than their concentrat ion in the soil where it was grown. The EF values in the Brasissca rapa var. Parachinesis L are lower than 2 except for U and Th, indicating some degree of contamination due to anthropogenic activities or naturally origin. The BAC values show that Zn and Hg were accumulated in the green mustard, depending on where the plant grows.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  11. Zaini Hamzah, Mohd Najif Ab Rahman, Siti Mariam Sumari, Yamin Yasin, Ahmad Saat
    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) with Mg/Al molar ratio of 4/1 (MAN-4) was synthesized by co-precipitation and followed by hydrothermal method. The compound was allowed to undergo ion exchange with K2HPO4 for 48 hours to produce MgAlHPO4 (MAHP-4). The solid produced was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Adsorption of copper solution by MAHP-4 was carried out using batch experiment by mixing the copper solution and the sorbent MAHP-4. The effects of
    various parameters such as contact time, pH, adsorbent dosage and initial concentration were investigated. The optimum pH for copper removal was found to be 4 and the optimum time of copper removal was found at 4 hours. The isotherm data was analysed using model isotherm Langmuir with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 was recorded. The maximum adsorption capacity, Qo (mg/g) of 142.8 mg/g was also recorded from the Langmuir isotherm. The remaining copper solution was determined by using EDXRF (Energy Dispersive XRay Fluorescence spectrometry) model MiniPal 4 (PAN analytical). The results in this study indicate that MAHP-4 has potential as an effective adsorbent for removing copper from aqueous solution.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  12. Zaini Hamzah, Wan Noorhayani Wan Rosdi, Abdul Khalik Wood
    Well water is a renewable natural resources and one of the drinking water sources. The well water may constituted of dissolved essential chemicals such as K+, Ca''+ and Na+ ; and natural radionuclides such as radioisotopes from uranium-thorium decay series. The geology and mineral composition of the soil will determined the kinds and levels of chemical contents in the groundwater resources. The water flows through the geological formation and dissolved the chemicals before reaching the aquifers. To evaluate how much chemicals and natural radioactive in the water resources, a study has been carried out. Well water samples in this study were taken from 3 districts in Kelantan, which is Bachok, Machang and Kuala Krai. Similarly, in situ water quality parameters were measured using YSI portable water quality parameter include pH, salinity, dissolve oxygen(DO), conductivity, turbidity and total dissolved solids(TDS). The concentrations of K', Ca" and Na' were determined using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). Five ml of filtered sample was pipette into the sample cup and, irradiated and measured for 100 seconds counting times. The type of filter used for measuring If+ and Cat{ was Al-thin and default for Nat The ranged of concentration of Kt Ce and Na+ is 23.04-251.89, 3.12-.45.41, and 3.71-125.75 ppm, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  13. Zainal-Abidin MH, Hayyan M, Ngoh GC, Wong WF
    ACS Omega, 2020 Jan 28;5(3):1656-1668.
    PMID: 32010840 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.9b03709
    The application of graphene in the field of drug delivery has attracted massive interest among researchers. However, the high toxicity of graphene has been a drawback for its use in drug delivery. Therefore, to enhance the biocompatibility of graphene, a new route was developed using ternary natural deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as functionalizing agents, which have the capability to incorporate various functional groups and surface modifications. Physicochemical characterization analyses, including field emission scanning electron microscope, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray, were used to verify the surface modifications introduced by the functionalization process. Doxorubicin was loaded onto the DES-functionalized graphene. The results exhibited significantly improved drug entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading capacity (DLC) compared with pristine graphene and oxidized graphene. Compared with unfunctionalized graphene, functionalization with DES choline chloride (ChCl):sucrose:water (4:1:4) resulted in the highest drug loading capacity (EE of 51.84% and DLC of 25.92%) followed by DES ChCl:glycerol:water (1:2:1) (EE of 51.04% and DLC of 25.52%). Following doxorubicin loading, graphene damaged human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) through the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (>95%) and cell cycle disruption by increase in the cell population at S phase and G2/M phase. Thus, DESs represent promising green functionalizing agents for nanodrug carriers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that DES-functionalized graphene has been used as a nanocarrier for doxorubicin, illustrating the potential application of DESs as functionalizing agents in drug delivery systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  14. Zafar MN, Masood S, Chaudhry GE, Muhammad TST, Dalebrook AF, Nazar MF, et al.
    Dalton Trans, 2019 Aug 08.
    PMID: 31393494 DOI: 10.1039/c9dt01923e
    The two cationic palladium(ii) complexes, [Pd(Len)2][OTf]2 (4) and [Pd(Lphen)2][OTf]2 (5), were synthesized by treatment of bis(benzonitrile)dichloropalladium(ii) with [H2Len][OTf]2 (2) or [H2Lphen][OTf]2 (3), respectively, in the presence of a weak base. The pro-ligands 2 and 3 were synthesized by melt reactions between N-methyl-4-chloropyridinium triflate (1) and the amines ethylenediamine or phenylenediamine, respectively. The water-soluble compounds 2-5 were fully characterized, including by single-crystal X-ray crystal structure determinations for 2-4. UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to study the binding interactions of 2-5 with CT-DNA. The spectroscopic data suggested the presence of intercalative and groove binding modes and this was supported by molecular docking studies. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies (IC50 values) showed that the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D were more sensitive towards 3, 4 and 5 than cisplatin. The cytotoxicity of the new compounds decreased in the order 5 > 4 > 3 > 2. Furthermore, the annexin V-FITC staining method strongly suggested the presence of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer membrane of the treated cells, which is a hallmark of apoptosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  15. Yusuff AS, Gbadamosi AO, Lala MA, Ngochindo JF
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Jul;25(19):19143-19154.
    PMID: 29725925 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-2075-2
    In this study, adsorption behavior of anthill-eggshell composite (AEC) for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) from aqueous solution was investigated. The raw AEC sample was thermally treated at 864 °C for 4 h and characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques. The effects of adsorption process variables including initial Cr6+ concentration, contact time, and adsorbent dosage on the Cr6+ removal efficiency were investigated using central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM). Equilibrium adsorption isotherm and kinetic were also studied. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the three variables proved to be significant and the optimum conditions for Cr6+ adsorption were obtained to be 150 mg/L initial Cr6+ concentration, 45.04-min contact time, and 0.5 g adsorbent dosage, which resulted in 86.21% of Cr6+ adsorbed. Equilibrium isotherm study showed that Freundlich model fitted well to the experimental data. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model appeared to better describe the experimental data. The study showed that mixed anthill-eggshell is a promising adsorbent for removing Cr6+ from aqueous solution.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  16. Yusof, Z.Y.M., Nambiar, P.
    Malaysian Dental Journal, 2007;28(1):51-58.
    Quality radiographs of diagnostic value are important in root canal treatment. The dentist who has knowledge and skills in the use of radiographs for diagnostic purposes has a professional responsibility to ensure that the radiographs are obtained with minimum risk of radiation dose to and for the benefit of the patient. This article reviews the effectiveness of radiography techniques required for successful root canal treatment with the patient’s interest in mind. Awareness of effectual radiographic techniques, their constraints and applicable techniques for improvements are discussed. It seeks to reduce potentially harmful ionising radiation dose to patients and optimise the use of X-rays to produce diagnostic radiographs during root canal treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  17. Yusof MSM, Othman MHD, Mustafa A, Rahman MA, Jaafar J, Ismail AF
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Aug;25(22):21644-21655.
    PMID: 29785602 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-2286-6
    Palm oil fuel ash (POFA) is an agricultural waste which was employed in this study to produce novel adsorptive ceramic hollow fibre membranes. The membranes were fabricated using phase inversion-based extrusion technique and sintered at 1150 °C. The membranes were then evaluated on their ability to adsorb cadmium (Cd(II)). These membranes were characterised using (nitrogen) N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FESEM-EDX) mapping, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses while adsorptivity activity was examined by batch adsorption studies. The adsorption test results show that the quantity of hollow fibre used and water pH level significantly affected the adsorption performance with the 3-fibre membrane yielding 96.4% Cd(II) removal in 30 min equilibrium time at pH 7. These results are comparable to those reported by other studies, and hence demonstrate a promising alternative of low-cost hollow fibre adsorbent membrane. Graphical abstract Figure of FESEM image of the hollow fibre, proposed mechanism and the graph of percentage removal of Cd(II) using POFA.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  18. Yunos MA, Hussain SA, Yusoff HM, Abdullah J
    Appl Radiat Isot, 2014 Sep;91:57-61.
    PMID: 24907683 DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2014.05.015
    Radioactive particle tracking (RPT) has emerged as a promising and versatile technique that can provide rich information about a variety of multiphase flow systems. However, RPT is not an off-the-shelf technique, and thus, users must customize RPT for their applications. This paper presents a simple procedure for preparing radioactive tracer particles created via irradiation with neutrons from the TRIGA Mark II research reactor. The present study focuses on the performance evaluation of encapsulated gold and scandium particles for applications as individual radioactive tracer particles using qualitative and quantitative neutron activation analysis (NAA) and an X-ray microcomputed tomography (X-ray Micro-CT) scanner installed at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  19. Yoga, R., Sivapathasundaram, N., Suresh, C.
    Malays Orthop J, 2009;3(1):72-77.
    We evaluated the efficacy of a cement gun to improve the depth of cement penetration in total knee arthroplasty. Ninety-one consecutive patients from two hospitals were recruited for this study. For Group I cement was applied to the tibial baseplate and the proximal tibia with fingers. Group 2 had similar application of cement to the tibial baseplate but cement was pressurized into the proximal tibia using a cement gun.. The knee was kept extended until the cement hardened. Standard post-operative x-rays were reviewed to assess cement penetration into the proximal tibia. The mean cement penetration was 2.1 mm in Group 1 and 3.1 mm in Group 2 and the difference was statistically significant. The use of the cement gun improves cement penetration into the proximal tibia and facilitates early stability of the implant fixation to the bone.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  20. Ying, C.K., W.A. Kamil, Matsufuji, Naruhiro
    Charged particle therapy with carbon ions has advantages over conventional radiotherapy using x-ray beams. The application of charged particle therapy has rapidly increased over the last decades. This is due to its characteristic Bragg peak which has relatively low entrance doses and favourable doses distribution. In this research work, Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulation (MC) method has been used to calculate the radiation transportation and dose distributions in tissue-like media. The main objective of the work was to compare the Geant4 simulated depth dose distributions with experimental measurements and verify the capability of the geant4 simulation toolkit. The carbon ion beams for the therapeutic energy of 350 MeV/u and 400 MeV/u respectively were simulated, with the same settings as the experimental work carried out at the treatment room at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC), National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The simulation results were verified with measurements data. The work was to measure the accuracy and quality of the dose distributions by Geant4 MC methods. The results show that the Bragg peak and spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) distributions in simulation has fairly good agreement with measurements.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
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