Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 289 in total

  1. Karunarathne VK, Paul SC, Šavija B
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Aug 17;12(16).
    PMID: 31426501 DOI: 10.3390/ma12162622
    In this study, the use of nano-silica (nano-SiO2) and bentonite as mortar additives for combating reinforcement corrosion is reported. More specifically, these materials were used as additives in ordinary Portland cement (OPC)/fly ash blended mortars in different amounts. The effects of nano-silica and bentonite addition on compressive strength of mortars at different ages was tested. Accelerated corrosion testing was used to assess the corrosion resistance of reinforced mortar specimens containing different amounts of nano-silica and bentonite. It was found that the specimens containing nano-SiO2 not only had higher compressive strength, but also showed lower steel mass loss due to corrosion compared to reference specimens. However, this was accompanied by a small reduction in workability (for a constant water to binder ratio). Mortar mixtures with 4% of nano-silica were found to have optimal performance in terms of compressive strength and corrosion resistance. Control specimens (OPC/fly ash mortars without any additives) showed low early age strength and low corrosion resistance compared to specimens containing nano-SiO2 and bentonite. In addition, samples from selected mixtures were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Finally, the influence of Ca/Si ratio of the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) in different specimens on the compressive strength is discussed. In general, the study showed that the addition of nano-silica (and to a lesser extent bentonite) can result in higher strength and corrosion resistance compared to control specimens. Furthermore, the addition of nano-SiO2 can be used to offset the negative effect of fly ash on early age strength development.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  2. Vinuthinee N, Azreen-Redzal A, Juanarita J, Zunaina E
    Int Med Case Rep J, 2015;8:47-50.
    PMID: 25709507 DOI: 10.2147/IMCRJ.S75198
    We report a rare case of sling shot injury that presented with a gunshot-like wound with preseptal cellulitis, in a toddler. An 11-month-old Malay child presented with a gunshot-like wound over the forehead following sling shot injury. On examination, he had a deep circular laceration wound over the forehead, measuring 2.0 cm in diameter, with minimal bleeding. There was no obvious foreign body seen inside the wound and no palpable foreign body surrounding the wound. The gunshot-like wound was associated with left preseptal cellulitis. A skull X-ray showed a white opaque foreign body in the left frontal bone. Computed tomography (CT) scan of orbit and brain revealed a left comminuted fracture of the left orbital roof, and left frontal brain contusion with prelesional edema. Wound exploration was performed and revealed a 0.5 cm unshattered marble embedded in the left frontal bone. The marble and bone fragments were removed. The left preseptal cellulitis responded well to intravenous antibiotic and topical antibiotic.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  3. Pan KL, Zulkarnaen M
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Aug;69(4):197-8.
    PMID: 25500853 MyJurnal
    There is a resurgence of tuberculosis globally but lesions affecting the skull are rare. Cases reported are of single, focal lesions as seen on plain x-rays. We report a 34 yearold patient with tuberculosis of the skull where multiple punched out lesions are seen, mimicking that of multiple myeloma.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  4. Zin, H. M.
    The Malaysian Association of Medical Physics (MAMP) was set up in the year 2000 to promote and further develop the field that was relatively new in Malaysia. The article briefly summarises key developments in medical physics since the first discovery of x-rays in 1895. The resulted rapid progress in the field was also highlighted and related to the pace of development in Malaysia. Key activities organised by MAMP were also addressed. The international practices related to the field and the profession were highlighted and compared to the current status in Malaysia. Although the field has progressed well in the country, there are several gaps identified to further improve the field and the profession in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  5. Shi L, Fu X, Tan CP, Huang Q, Zhang B
    J Agric Food Chem, 2017 Mar 15;65(10):2189-2197.
    PMID: 28215072 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b05749
    Ethylene gas was introduced into granular cold-water-soluble (GCWS) starches using a solid encapsulation method. The morphological and structural properties of the novel inclusion complexes (ICs) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and Raman spectroscopy. The V-type single helix of GCWS starches was formed through controlled gelatinization and ethanol precipitation and was approved to host ethylene gas. The controlled release characteristics of ICs were also investigated at various temperature and relative humidity conditions. Avrami's equation was fitted to understand the release kinetics and showed that the release of ethylene from the ICs was accelerated by increasing temperature or RH and was decelerated by increased degree of amylose polymerization. The IC of Hylon-7 had the highest ethylene concentration (31.8%, w/w) among the five starches, and the IC of normal potato starch showed the best controlled release characteristics. As a renewable and inexpensive material, GCWS starch is a desirable solid encapsulation matrix with potential in agricultural and food applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  6. Che Nor Zarida Che Seman, Zamzuri Zakaria
    Critical size defects (CSD) in the long bones of New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been used for years as an experimental model for investigation of the effectiveness of a new bone substitute material. There are varieties of protocols available in the literature. This technical note attempts to present an alternative surgical technique of a CSD in the New Zealand white rabbit tibia. Methods: Thirty-nine New Zealand White rabbits were used in this study. A CSD of approximately 4.5 mm (width) X 9.0 mm (length) was surgically drilled at the proximal tibial metaphysis, approximately 1 cm from the knee joint. The surrounding of soft tissue was repositioned and sutured layer by layer with bioabsorbable surgical suture. Two x-rays of anteroposterior and lateral were taken before assessed under computed tomography scan at 6, 12 and 24 weeks. Results: This alternative method created CSD with less bleeding from the muscle observed. No mortality or other surgical complications observed within 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks following surgery. Conclusion: A simple and safe method for performing CSD was demonstrated and recommended as an alternative approach for surgery on New Zealand White rabbits.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  7. Nazarpour F, Abdullah DK, Abdullah N, Zamiri R
    Materials (Basel), 2013 May 15;6(5):2059-2073.
    PMID: 28809260 DOI: 10.3390/ma6052059
    e effects of biological pretreatment on the rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis), was evaluated after cultivation of white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Trametes versicolor, and a mixed culture of C. subvermispora and T. versicolor. The analysis of chemical compositions indicated that C. subvermispora had greater selectivity for lignin degradation with the highest lignin and hemicellulose loss at 45.06% and 42.08%, respectively, and lowest cellulose loss (9.50%) after 90 days among the tested samples. X-ray analysis showed that pretreated samples had a higher crystallinity than untreated samples. The sample pretreated by C. subvermispora presented the highest crystallinity of all the samples which might be caused by the selective degradation of amorphous components. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy demonstrated that the content of lignin and hemicellulose decreased during the biological pretreatment process. A study on hydrolysis of rubberwood treated with C. subvermispora, T. versicolor, and mixed culture for 90 days resulted in an increased sugar yield of about 27.67%, 16.23%, and 14.20%, respectively, as compared with untreated rubberwood (2.88%). The results obtained demonstrate that rubberwood is a potential raw material for industrial applications and white rot fungus C. subevermispora provides an effective method for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of rubberwood.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  8. Nur Aimi M, Anuar H, Maizirwan M, Sapuan S, Wahit M, Zakaria S
    Sains Malaysiana, 2015;44:1551-1559.
    Biological fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae was introduced to extract cellulose nanofibre from durian skin fibre (DSF).
    The diameter of the extracted durian skin nanofibre (DSNF) was in the range of 49-81 nm. The changes of chemical
    composition of DSNF were clearly seen after evaluated via TAPPI standard test methods. Verification via Fourier transform
    infrared (FTIR) confirmed the deduction of hemicelluloses and lignin in DSNF in the range of 1200 to 1000 cm-1. X-ray
    diffraction (XRD) demonstrated increment in the crystallinity from 58.3 to 72.2% after biological fermentation. DSNF was
    then incorporated into polylactic acid (PLA) via extrusion and injection moulding processes. The effect of 1-5 wt. % DSNF
    content on PLA biocomposites was investigated for its mechanical and thermal properties. The presence of only 1 wt. %
    improved the tensile and impact strength by 14.1 MPa and 33.1 kJ/m2
    , respectively. The thermal properties of PLA-1DSNF
    biocomposite also recorded higher thermal stability, glass transition temperature (Tg
    ), crystallization temperature (Tc
    and melting temperature (Tm). Additionally, from the DMA, it was determined that PLA-1DSNF possessed lower storage
    modulus and loss modulus, as well as low energy dissipation.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  9. Zainul Ibrahim Bin Zainuddin
    The effects of radiation on man and his health had been noticed since the early years after the discovery of X-rays. These biological concerns were more commonly known as “radio-sensitiveness” in the early publications. Later, the term radiation protection was introduced to express the need for protective measures to be promoted, formulated, implemented, evaluated and sustained to reduce the biological effects associated with radiation exposure. The principles of radiation protection were then supported with the concepts of justification, ALARA and “Benefits against the risks”. But these could not ensure that the application of radiation protection has been optimized. Amidst the technological advancements associated with radiation based imaging modalities in healthcare for more than 120 years, those advancements have yet to be able reduce the impact of these modalities being a source of risks upon the more beneficial role as a
    diagnostic tool. This paper reports a review on radiation protection from articles indexed in an online database. Considering that the titles of the articles contain the core subject matter that a publication carries, data were retrieved on those titles with the term “radiation protection”. Publications from 2008 to middle of November 2017 and aligned to Medicine and Health professions were included for further elaborations. The data were classified into four subject areas; education and training, administration and organization, practice and research. Discussions within each classification and their individual sub-classifications, supported by selected publications to the classification, highlight the importance of the particular subject area to the overall concept of radiation protection. Lessons learnt from the classifications could provide the necessary guidance on how one should adopt and adapt the concept of radiation protection holistically. The discussions that are presented are seen within the professional obligation in adhering to the principles of
    radiation protection.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  10. Jamal AbuAlRoos N, Azman MN, Baharul Amin NA, Zainon R
    Phys Med, 2020 Oct;78:48-57.
    PMID: 32942196 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmp.2020.08.017
    PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tungsten carbide as new lead-free radiation shielding material in nuclear medicine by evaluating the attenuation properties.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The elemental composition of tungsten carbide was analysed using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The purity of tungsten carbide was 99.9%, APS: 40-50 µm. Three discs of tungsten carbide was fabricated with thickness of 0.1 cm, 0.5 cm and 1.0 cm. Three lead discs with similar thickness were used to compare the attenuation properties with tungsten carbide discs. Energy calibration of gamma spectroscopy was performed by using 123I, 133Ba, 152Eu, and 137Cs. Gamma radiation from these sources were irradiated on both materials at energies ranging from 0.160 MeV to 0.779 MeV. The experimental attenuation coefficients of lead and tungsten carbide were compared with theoretical attenuation coefficients of both materials from NIST database. The half value layer and mean free path of both materials were also evaluated in this study.

    RESULTS: This study found that the peaks obtained from gamma spectroscopy have linear relationship with all energies used in this study. The relative differences between the measured and theoretical mass attenuation coefficients are within 0.19-5.11% for both materials. Tungsten carbide has low half value layer and mean free path compared to lead for all thickness at different energies.

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that tungsten carbide has high potential to replace lead as new lead-free radiation shielding material in nuclear medicine.

    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  11. Mayappan, Ramani, Ahmad Badri Ismail, Zainal Arifin Ahmad
    The microstructural evolution of Sn-40Pb/Cu joints has been investigated under 125 o C thermal exposure conditions using single shear lap joints. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the phases and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) was used to estimate the elemental compositions of the phases. A double layer of Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn were observed. The Cu6Sn5 developed with a scalloped morphology, while the Cu3Sn always grew as a somewhat undulated planar layer in phase with the Cu6Sn5. The Cu6Sn5 layer began to transform from scallop shape to planar type after aging for 375 hours due to reduction in the interfacial energy. The intermetallic layers showed a linear dependence on the square root of aging time. The growth rate constant of the intermetallic compounds are estimated as 15.2 x 10 - 14 and 0.152 x 10 -14 cm 2 /s for Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn intermetallic, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  12. Mohd Nazri Idris, Hazizan Md. Akil, Zainal Arifin Ahmad
    Sodium silicate was used to synthesize silica fine particles at room temperature using non-ionic surfactant of triethanolamine (TEA), dissolution salt and precipitating agent. The experiments were conducted by different composition of precursor material, nonionic surfactant and dissolution salt concentrations through the sol-gel process. Various particle sizes in the range 100-300nm were synthesized. The particle size of silica powders were analyzed via Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), and Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR). The result has demonstrated that the particle size can be controlled by changing the ratio of non-ionic surfactant and dissolution salt or the sodium silicate concentration.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  13. Banjuraizah Johar, Hasmaliza Mohamad, Zainal Arifin Ahmad
    Indialite or α-cordierite was synthesized by glass crystallization method using mainly talc and kaolin and with small amount of MgO, Al2O3, SiO2 to compensate the chemical formulation of non-stoihiometric compositions of cordierite. (3MgO.1.5Al2O3.5SiO2). B2O3, P2O5 and CaO was also added to decrease the melting and sintering temperature of cordierite. The glasses were pelletized and sintered from 850 o C up to 1050 o C. Phase compositions of both heat treated glass was quantified by X-ray powder diffraction data by the Rietveld method using TOPAS Ver 3 software. Result shows that about 60wt% of α cordierite has successfully crystallized at 850 o C. Beside secondary phases (forsterite) which come from initial raw materials, phases from grinding media were also presents in the sample. The contamination was considered high since it has reacted with existence phases to form a new phase at higher temperature. Without any contamination from grinding it was expected to obtain more than 90wt% α cordierite using the same composition.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  14. Ahmad Saat, Zaini Hamzah, Zaharidah Abu Bakar
    Being an imperative material for man either used as building materials, pottery or as components in material industry and technology, knowledge of clays elemental contents is important. In the present study ten clay samples obtained from various locations in North-West Peninsular Malaysia were used. Majority of the clays were economically manufactured to be used as building materials or pottery. The objective of study was to determine the main elemental contents of the samples, and relate the results to the types of minerals, as well as to compare them with clays from other studies. In the study X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) coupled to samples dilution method and standard calibration samples was used. The elements detected in the study were Si, Al, Fe, Ti, K and Ca. Depending on locations, the percentage concentration ranged between 24.8 – 32.4 for Si, 10.8 – 19.0 for Al, 0.09 – 2.12 for Fe, 0.08 – 1.13 for Ti, 0.45 – 3.39 for K and trace amount of Ca and P. However, Mg that normally found in typical clay was not found in the studied samples. Comparing the oxide of the major elements with other studies, it was found that the clay samples contained mixtures of kaolinite (two-layered structure) and illite (three-layered structure).
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  15. Ummi-Shafiqah, M.S., Fazilah, A., Karim, A.A., Kaur, B., Yusup, Y.
    Starch blend films made from sago and mung bean were prepared by casting with glycerol as the plasticizer and subsequently exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for 2 h. The films were characterized by thickness, moisture sorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. All films produced were colorless while incorporation of glycerol resulted in more flexible and manageable films. Moisture sorption isotherms for all films showed sigmoidal shape and the control films showed slightly higher curve than treated films. While for X-ray analysis, the control and treated films for all formulations showed similar pattern, however for treated films showed more crystalline character. UV radiation showed affect on X-ray diffraction and sorption isotherms; however the UV radiation did not affect the spectra pattern of FTIR.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  16. Sayed, I. S., Yusri, N. H.
    In radiography, radiation workers are responsible to protect patients and their caregivers from adverse effects of X-rays during diagnostic procedures. The X-ray examination rooms are designated as controlled areas where only authorised persons are allowed to enter. However, sometimes radiographers allow next in-line patients’ and caregivers in X-ray examination room and ask them to stand behind the mobile lead shielding when exposure is on. The objectives of this study were to determine the amount of scatter radiation dose at different heights with respect to the floor in the X-ray examination room and to educate and increase the awareness of radiation workers about the scattered radiation in minimizing the unnecessary radiation dose to patient’s caregivers. Siemens Multix Top X-ray system was used. Kyoto Kagaku PBU-50 whole body phantom was scanned. The phantom (torso) was positioned for anteroposterior (AP) lumbar projection on the examination table. The nanoDot OSLDs were fixed behind the lead shielding at different heights (120, 130, 140, 150, 160 and 170 cm) with respect to the floor 2.5 meters away from the central ray of X-ray beam. The phantom was exposed using different tube voltages 68 kVp, 79 kVp and 90 kVp at a constant tube current of 32 mAs fixing a 100 cm source to image distance (SID). Scatter radiation doses measured at different heights were different for each exposure. The highest scattered radiation dose measured was 6.4 mGy at 130 cm height for 79 kVp exposure. In conclusion the measured scattered radiation doses were within the acceptable annual dose limits as recommended by NCRP 116 and ICRP 103 for patient caregiver. However, a smallest amount of radiation dose may increase the risk of cancer. Thus, the negligence must not be overlooked because it exposes the caregiver to unnecessary radiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  17. Razali MH, Noor AFM, Yusoff M
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2020 02 01;20(2):965-972.
    PMID: 31383093 DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2020.16944
    In this study, a series of copper-ion-doped titanium dioxide (Cu-ion-doped TiO₂) nanotubes (NTs) were synthesized via a hydrothermal method by the concentration variation of doped Cu ions (0.00, 0.50, 1.00, 2.50, and 5.00 mmol). In addition, the samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), nitrogen gas adsorption measurements, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the Cu-iondoped TiO₂ NTs was investigated for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under sunlight. The results obtained from the structural and morphological studies revealed that, at low concentrations of Cu-doped TiO₂ NTs, Cu is incorporated into the interstitial positions of the TiO₂ lattice, affording a new phase of TiO₂ (hexagonal) instead of the anatase TiO₂ (tetragonal) observed for undoped TiO₂ NTs. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of Cu in the TiO₂-based photocatalyst. All of the investigated samples exhibited a hollow fibrous-like structure, indicative of an NT morphology. The inner and outer diameters of the NTs were 4 nm and 10 nm, respectively. The photocatalysts exhibited a large surface area due to the NT morphology and a type IV isotherm and H3 hysteresis, corresponding to the mesopores and slit-shaped pores. The Cu-ion-doped TiO₂ NTs were excited by sunlight because of their low bandgap energy; and after the incorporation of Cu ions into the interstitial positions of the TiO₂ lattice, the NTs exhibited high visible-light activity owing to the low bandgap.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  18. Razali MH, Ismail NA, Osman UM, Rozaini MZH, Yusoff M
    Data Brief, 2020 Feb;28:104992.
    PMID: 31890823 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2019.104992
    Titanate compounds was synthesized using hydrothermal method at various temperature (100, 150, 200, and 250 °C) for 24 hours. As-synthesized titanate was characterized using FTIR, XRD and nitrogen gas adsorption. FTIR spectra was scanned from 4000 to 400 cm-1 using Perkin Elmer Spectrum 100 FTIR spectrophotometer. XRD diffractogram was performed by using Rigaku Miniflex (II) X-ray diffractometer operating at a scanning rate of 2.00° min-1. The diffraction spectra were recorded at the diffraction angle, 2θ from 10° to 80° at room temperature. Nitrogen gas adsorption analysis was studied by using Micromeritics ASAP2020 (Alaska) to determine the surface area and pores size distribution. The nitrogen adsorption and desorption was measured at 77 K (temperature of liquid nitrogen) and the samples were degassed in a vacuum at 110 °C under nitrogen flow for overnight prior to analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
  19. Salehi Z, Ya Ali NK, Yusoff AL
    Appl Radiat Isot, 2012 Nov;70(11):2586-9.
    PMID: 22940409 DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2011.12.007
    BEAMnrc was used to derive the X-ray spectra, from which HVL and homogeneity coefficient were determined, for different kVp and filtration settings. Except for the peak at 61 keV, the spectra are in good agreement with the IPEM report 78 data for the case of filtered beams, whereas the unfiltered beams exhibit softer spectra. Although the current attenuation data deviates from the IPEM 78 data by ~±0.5%, this has negligible effects on the calculated HVL values.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays/adverse effects*
  20. Ahmed O, Yushou Song
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1883-1890.
    X-ray computed tomography (XCT) became an important instrument for quality assurance in industry products as a
    non-destructive testing tool for inspection, evaluation, analysis and dimensional metrology. Thus, a high-quality image
    is required. Due to the polychromatic nature of X-ray energy in XCT, this leads to errors in attenuation coefficient
    which is generally known as beam hardening artifact. This leads to a distortion or blurring-like cupping and streak in
    the reconstruction images, where a significant decrease in imaging quality is observed. In this paper, recent research
    publications regarding common practical correction methods that were adopted to improve an imaging quality have been
    discussed. It was observed from the discussion and evaluation, that a problem behind beam hardening reduction for the
    multi-materials object, especially in the absence of prior information about X-ray spectrum and material characterizations
    would be a significant research contribution, if the correction could be achieved without the need to perform forward
    projections and multiple reconstructions.
    Matched MeSH terms: X-Rays
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