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  1. Pasayan MKU, S Mationg ML, Boettiger D, Lam W, Zhang F, Ku SW, et al.
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2019 04 01;80(4):436-443.
    PMID: 30550488 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001933
    BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium complex prophylaxis is recommended for patients with advanced HIV infection. With the decrease in incidence of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection and the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the benefits of macrolide prophylaxis were investigated. This study examined the impact of macrolide prophylaxis on AIDS-defining conditions and HIV-associated mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected patients on ART.

    METHODS: Patients from TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (September 2015 data transfer) aged 18 years and older with a CD4 count <50 cells/mm at ART initiation were included. The effect of macrolide prophylaxis on HIV-associated mortality or AIDS-defining conditions (as a combined outcome) and HIV-associated mortality alone were evaluated using competing risk regression. Sensitivity analysis was conducted in patients with a CD4 <100 cells/mm at ART initiation.

    RESULTS: Of 1345 eligible patients, 10.6% received macrolide prophylaxis. The rate of the combined outcome was 7.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.04 to 8.95] per 100 patient-years, whereas the rate of HIV-associated mortality was 3.14 (95% CI: 2.35 to 4.19) per 100 patient-years. Macrolide use was associated with a significantly decreased risk of HIV-associated mortality (hazard ratio 0.10, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.80, P = 0.031) but not with the combined outcome (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% CI: 0.32 to 2.229, P = 0.764). Sensitivity analyses showed consistent results among patients with a CD4 <100 cells/mm at ART initiation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Macrolide prophylaxis is associated with improved survival among Asian HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts and on ART. This study suggests the increased usage and coverage of macrolide prophylaxis among people living with HIV in Asia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  2. Ibrahim N, Che Din N, Ahmad M, Amit N, Ghazali SE, Wahab S, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2019 Jun 13;19(Suppl 4):553.
    PMID: 31196009 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-6861-7
    BACKGROUND: The high number of adolescents and young adults harbouring suicidal ideation, as reported by the Ministry of Health Malaysia, is alarming. This cross-sectional study aims to examine the association between social support and spiritual wellbeing in predicting suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents.

    METHODS: A total of 176 adolescents in selected urban areas in the states of Wilayah Persekutuan and Selangor were selected. The Suicide Ideation Scale (SIS) was used to measure the level of severity or tendency of suicidal ideation. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) was used to measure the perceived social support received by the respondent while the Spiritual Wellbeing Scale (SWBS) was used to measure the religious wellbeing (RWB), the existential wellbeing (EWB) and the overall score of spiritual wellbeing (SWB).

    RESULTS: The study found that both RWB and EWB showed significant negative correlation with suicidal ideation. Similarly, support from family and friends also showed a negative correlation with suicidal ideation. Further analysis using multiple regressions showed that RWB and SWB, and family support predict suicidal ideation in adolescents.

    CONCLUSION: Spiritual wellbeing in combination with family support plays a major role in predicting suicidal ideation. Therefore, intervention for encompassing spirituality and family support may contribute to a more positive outcome in suicidal adolescents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  3. Devarbhavi H, Choudhury AK, Sharma MK, Maiwall R, Al Mahtab M, Rahman S, et al.
    Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2019 06;114(6):929-937.
    PMID: 31021832 DOI: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000000201
    OBJECTIVES: Acute insults from viruses, infections, or alcohol are established causes of decompensation leading to acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Information regarding drugs as triggers of ACLF is lacking. We examined data regarding drugs producing ACLF and analyzed clinical features, laboratory characteristics, outcome, and predictors of mortality in patients with drug-induced ACLF.

    METHODS: We identified drugs as precipitants of ACLF among prospective cohort of patients with ACLF from the Asian Pacific Association of Study of Liver (APASL) ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) database. Drugs were considered precipitants after exclusion of known causes together with a temporal association between exposure and decompensation. Outcome was defined as death from decompensation.

    RESULTS: Of the 3,132 patients with ACLF, drugs were implicated as a cause in 329 (10.5%, mean age 47 years, 65% men) and other nondrug causes in 2,803 (89.5%) (group B). Complementary and alternative medications (71.7%) were the commonest insult, followed by combination antituberculosis therapy drugs (27.3%). Alcoholic liver disease (28.6%), cryptogenic liver disease (25.5%), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (16.7%) were common causes of underlying liver diseases. Patients with drug-induced ACLF had jaundice (100%), ascites (88%), encephalopathy (46.5%), high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) (30.2), and Child-Turcotte-Pugh score (12.1). The overall 90-day mortality was higher in drug-induced (46.5%) than in non-drug-induced ACLF (38.8%) (P = 0.007). The Cox regression model identified arterial lactate (P < 0.001) and total bilirubin (P = 0.008) as predictors of mortality.

    DISCUSSION: Drugs are important identifiable causes of ACLF in Asia-Pacific countries, predominantly from complementary and alternative medications, followed by antituberculosis drugs. Encephalopathy, bilirubin, blood urea, lactate, and international normalized ratio (INR) predict mortality in drug-induced ACLF.

    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  4. Jaafar A, Rosli R, Shamsulhuda N, Samsudin AD, Ab Mumin N
    MyJurnal
    1st IIUM International Dental Conference 2017
    Introduction: Oral health literacy (OHL) can be different between science stream and non-science stream students as the exposure to knowledge of science is low among non-science stream. This situation can lead to unhealthy oral health behaviour and later increase the oral health problem among the non-science stream group. Thus, the study conducted aimed to compare the oral health literacy among science stream and non-science stream students and other factors associated, among first year students of Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM).
    Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 256 students from various faculties of USIM consisted of both science and non-science stream group. A validated Malay version, self-administered questionnaire of Oral Health Literacy Instrument (OHLI) was used to assess their OHL. Data gathered was later
    analysed using IBM SPSS version 21.0. Multiple logistics regression was used to determine the associated risk factors of OHL.
    Results: Study indicated that science stream students compared to non-science stream students have higher oral health literacy (OR= 6.98; 95% CI= 3.64, 13.39; p<0.001). Besides, students whom their mother's education level are high have higher OHL compared to their counterparts (OR= 2.31; 95%CI= 1.24, 4.28; p= 0.008).
    Conclusion(s): An exposure to in-depth knowledge of science has an effect on OHL. Science stream students have high oral health literacy compared to non-science group. This finding give some ideas on suitable methods of oral health promotion that can be implemented among science and non-science stream background of students especially in school.
    KEYWORDS: oral health literacy, science stream, first year students, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  5. Khoo CS, Ab Rahman SS
    Med. J. Aust., 2017 11 20;207(10):421.
    PMID: 29129168
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  6. Daud NA, Ab-Rahman A
    Neurosciences (Riyadh), 2012 Jul;17(3):269-70.
    PMID: 22772938
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  7. AlMarri TS, Oei TP, AbRahman RM
    Addict Behav, 2009 Sep;34(9):776-8.
    PMID: 19481874 DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.05.009
    The influence of an individuals' belief in their ability to resist drinking alcohol has recognised importance in understanding the pattern of drinking behaviours among Caucasian samples. Measures used to investigate this construct, such as the drinking refusal self-efficacy questionnaire-revised (DRSEQ-R; [Oei, T. P. S., Hasking, P. A., & Young, R. M. (2005). Drinking refusal self-efficacy questionnaire-revised (DRSEQ-R): A new factor structure with confirmatory factor analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 78, 297-307.]) have been widely used and have established psychometric properties. However, the exploration of the utility of this questionnaire with samples of different ethnicity, religion and living in different countries remains scarce. In the current study, Arab Muslim samples living in the United Arab Emirates and Oman (n=356) and Asian predominately Muslim samples living in Malaysia and Indonesia (n=256) were used. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the DRSEQ-R has a three factor structure. Internal consistency ranged from alpha .96 to alpha .86 and validity was good. This study offers evidence of the utility of this measure with Arab and Asian samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  8. Lonsdale KA, Abadi FH
    Med Probl Perform Art, 2018 09;33(3):191-197.
    PMID: 30204825 DOI: 10.21091/mppa.2018.3027
    While numerous studies have investigated associations between Ramadan fasting and sports performance, as well as general health, little is known about the experiences of musicians who play while fasting. This exploratory case study aimed to gain a better understanding of the experiences of tertiary-level woodwind players who practice, rehearse, and perform while fasting. Sixteen undergraduate woodwind players from two Malaysian university music faculties completed an 11-item questionnaire, as well as a 7-day food and playing diary, which formed the basis for a semi-structured interview. Their experiences were compared with previous studies of fasting athletes. Many participants stated that practicing from noon to 3:00 pm was difficult due to feeling thirsty, hungry, tired, and exhausted, with some experiencing a dry mouth and/or lips. By 3:00 to 6:00 pm, some had difficulty focusing and felt tired, dizzy, or lacked energy to practice. Many felt more comfortable playing after breaking the fast or after eating sahur. The majority experienced positive impacts such as increased focus and efficiency while practicing. This study suggests that fasting woodwind players would benefit from practicing in the morning and after sunset, limiting their practice time in the afternoon, not skipping sahur, and ensuring adequate hydration during sunset and sunrise.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  9. Abdulamir AS, Kadhim HS, Hafidh RR, Ali MA, Faik I, Abubakar F, et al.
    PMID: 19610265
    OBJECTIVES: We studied the role of the regulatory T cells CD4+CD25+ (Treg) and activated CD4+CD30+ cells in the pathogenesis of asthma and their association with apoptosis and NF-kappaB in patients with mild intermittent asthma (MA), severe persistent asthma (SA), and healthy volunteers (HV).
    METHODS: Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were extracted from asthmatic patients during exacerbations, and CD4+ cells were separated using Dynal beads. Immunostaining of whole PBL for NF-kappaB, Bax, and Bcl-2, and immunostaining of CD4+ cells for CD25+ and CD30+ cells were performed using immunocytochemistry.
    RESULTS: Treg cells were expressed at higher levels in MA than in HV and SA (P < .05), while CD30+ T cells were expressed at higher levels in both SA and MA than in HV (P < .05), although there was no remarkable difference between SA and MA (P>.05). Levels of NF-kappaB, Bcl-2, and Bcl-2/Bax increased, whereas those of Bax decreased, progressively, from MA to SA (P < .05). NF-kappaB levels correlated directly with the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and with CD4+CD30+ cells in SA and MA, whereas CD4+CD30+ cells correlated inversely with the Bcl-2/Bax ratio.
    CONCLUSIONS: Unregulated Treg cells probably return inflammatory responses to normal values during exacerbations in MA; however, expression of Treg cells was extensively diminished in SA, leading to probable loss of suppressive control over underlying immune reactions. CD4+CD30+ cells were associated with the pathogenesis of asthma but not with severity. NF-kappaB seems to be the central inflammatory factor in SA, with a remarkable loss of PBL apoptosis, diminished Treg levels, and high CD30+ cell levels that probably induce NF-kappaB, which in turn blocks the proapoptotic potential of CD30 induction itself.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  10. Abdulamir AS, Hafidh RR, Abdulmuhaimen N, Abubakar F, Abbas KA
    BMC Public Health, 2008;8:400.
    PMID: 19055849 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-400
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and other head and neck cancer (HNCA) types show a great epidemiological variation in different regions of the world. NPC has multifactorial etiology and many interacting risk factors are involved in NPC development mainly Epstein Barr virus (EBV). There is a need to scrutinize the complicated network of risk factors affecting NPC and how far they are different from that of other HNCA types.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  11. Siar CH, Abbas SA
    PMID: 23601220 DOI: 10.1016/j.oooo.2013.02.013
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression and localization of tight junction proteins (TJPs) or claudins in the keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) and to correlate with its biological behavior.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  12. Abdullah D, Eziana Hussein F, Abd Ghani H
    Iran Endod J, 2017;12(2):257-260.
    PMID: 28512497 DOI: 10.22037/iej.2017.50
    This case report describes the endodontic treatment of an idiopathic perforated internal root resorption. A 24-year-old male Malay patient presented with internal root resorption of two of his anterior teeth. The medical history was non-contributory and he had no history of traumatic injury or orthodontic treatment. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) determined the nature, location and severity of the resorptive lesion. Non-surgical root canal treatment of tooth #22 and combined non-surgical and surgical approach for tooth #11 were carried out using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as the filling material. The clinical and radiographic examination three years after completion of treatment revealed evidences of periapical healing. The appropriate diagnosis and the treatment of internal root resorption allowed good healing of these lesions and maintained the tooth in function for as long as possible.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  13. Baharuddin MY, Salleh ShH, Zulkifly AH, Lee MH, Noor AM, A Harris AR, et al.
    PMID: 24484753 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-15-30
    Minimal available information concerning hip morphology is the motivation for several researchers to study the difference between Asian and Western populations. Current use of a universal hip stem of variable size is not the best option for all femur types. This present study proposed a new design process of the cementless femoral stem using a three dimensional model which provided more information and accurate analysis compared to conventional methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  14. Wong SC, Nawawi O, Ramli N, Abd Kadir KA
    Acad Radiol, 2012 Jun;19(6):701-7.
    PMID: 22578227 DOI: 10.1016/j.acra.2012.02.012
    The aim of this study was to compare conventional two-dimensional (2D) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with three-dimensional (3D) rotational DSA in the investigation of intracranial aneurysm in terms of detection, size measurement, neck diameter, neck delineation, and relationship with surrounding vessels. A further aim was to compare radiation dose, contrast volume, and procedural time between the two protocols.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  15. Al-Dubai SA, Alshagga MA, Al-Naggar RA, Al-Jashamy K, Baobaid MF, Tuang CP, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(4):887-92.
    PMID: 21133596
    A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 Malaysian women in the obstetrics and gynecology outpatient clinic in a selected hospital in Bangi, Selangor to determine the level of knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccines, attitudes toward HPV vaccination and barriers of being vaccinated. Factors associated with knowledge and attitudes were also addressed with a questionnaire. Seventy eight women (26%) had heard about the HPV virus and 65 about HPV vaccines (21.7%). Marital status was associated significantly with awareness of HPV and HPV vaccine (p=0.002, p=0.002; respectively), in addition to level of education (p=0.042). The percentages of women who reported correct answers for the questions on knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine ranged from 12% to 25%. One hundred fifty nine respondents (53%) had a positive attitude toward HPV vaccination. Age, marital status, and level of education were associated significantly with attitude (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.002; respectively). The most important barriers reported were 'unawareness of the vaccine' 'concerned about side effects' and 'afraid of needles'. This study found a very low level of knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine. Education of population is highly recommended and barriers to being vaccinated should be dealt with seriously.
    Study site: Hospital, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  16. Cheah YK, Azahadi M, Phang SN, Abd Manaf NH
    Psychiatry Res, 2018 03;261:319-324.
    PMID: 29331849 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.12.086
    Suicide has become a serious matter in both developed and developing countries. The objective of the present study is to examine the factors affecting suicidal behaviour among adults in Malaysia. A nationally representative data which consists of 10,141 respondents is used for analysis. A trivariate probit model is utilised to identify the probability of having suicide ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt. Results of the regression analysis show that to ensure unbiased estimates, a trivariate probit model should be used instead of three separate probit models. The determining factors of suicidal behaviour are income, age, gender, ethnicity, education, marital status, self-rated health and being diagnosed with diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. The likelihood of adopting suicidal behaviour is lower among higher income earners and older individuals. Being male and married significantly reduce the propensity to engage in suicidal behaviour. Of all the ethnic groups, Indian/others displays the highest likelihood of adopting suicidal behaviour. There is a positive relationship between poor health condition and suicide. Policies targeted at individuals who are likely to adopt suicidal behaviour may be effective in lowering the prevalence of suicide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  17. Cheah YK, Azahadi M, Phang SN, Abd Manaf NH
    East Asian Arch Psychiatry, 2018 Sep;28(3):85-94.
    PMID: 30146496
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of suicidal ideation with demographic, lifestyle, and health factors, using data from National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011 (NHMS 2011) of Malaysia.
    METHODS: The NHMS 2011 included 10,141 respondents. Independent variables of suicidal ideation were income, age, household size, sex, ethnicity, education, marital status, smoking, physical activity, and self-rated health. The risk factors of suicidal ideation were determined using logistic regression analysis.
    RESULTS: In the pooled sample, suicidal ideation was associated with age, sex, ethnicity, and self-rated health, but not associated with income, household size, education, physical activity, or smoking.
    CONCLUSION: The likelihood of having suicidal ideation is positively associated with young adults, women, Indians, and those with poor self-rated health.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2011)
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  18. Rashwan HH, Saat NZ, Abd Manan DN
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(5):2279-83.
    PMID: 22901207
    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and oncogenic HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer. However, HPV vaccination is already available as the primary preventive method against cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of HPV vaccination among Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and Universiti Malaya (UM) students. This study was conducted from March until August 2009. Pre-tested and validated questionnaires were filled by the third year UKM (n=156) and UM (n=149) students from medical, dentistry and pharmacy faculties. The results showed that the overall level of knowledge on HPV infection, cervical cancer and its prevention among respondents was high and the majority of them had positive attitude towards HPV vaccination. Medical students had the highest level of knowledge (p<0.05). Very few students (3.6%) had already taken the vaccine with no significant difference between the two Universities (p=0.399). In conclusion, the knowledge and attitude of the respondents were high and positive, respectively. Only few students took HPV vaccination. Thus, more awareness campaigns and HPV vaccination services should be provided at universities' campuses with the price of the HPV vaccine reduced for the students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  19. Chan GF, Sinniah S, Idris TI, Puad MS, Abd Rahman AZ
    Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2013 Mar 01;16(5):208-18.
    PMID: 24175430
    Persistent superficial skin infection caused by multiple fungi is rarely reported. Recently, a number of fungi, both opportunistic and persistent in nature were isolated from the foot skin of a 24-year old male in Malaysia. The fungi were identified as Candida parapsilosis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Phoma spp., Debaryomyces hansenii, Acremonium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Aspergillus spp., This is the first report on these opportunistic strains were co-isolated from a healthy individual who suffered from persistent foot skin infection which was diagnosed as athlete's foot for more than 12 years. Among the isolated fungi, C. parapsilosis has been an increasingly common cause of skin infections. R. mucilaginosa and D. hansenii were rarely reported in cases of skin infection. A. pullulans, an emerging fungal pathogen was also being isolated in this case. Interestingly, it was noted that C. parapsilosis, R. mucilaginosa, D. hansenii and A. pullulans are among the common halophiles and this suggests the association of halotolerant fungi in causing persistent superficial skin infection. This discovery will shed light on future research to explore on effective treatment for inhibition of pathogenic halophiles as well as to understand the interaction of multiple fungi in the progress of skin infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  20. Talwar P, Abd Rahman MF
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2015;16(2):232-240.
    MyJurnal
    This study aims to assess the factor structure and reliability of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Additionally, the study also attempts to evaluate the psychological well-being among university students using the GHQ-12 scale and thereby determine a relationship between select demographic variables and well-being. Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate students of a public university in Sarawak, Malaysia. A self administered questionnaire consisting of the demographic aspects and the GHQ 12 scale were utilized to assess the well-being of students, who were selected by convenience sampling technique. Results: Factorability of the GHQ-12 was examined and a three-factor model explaining 55% total variance was found to be the best fit. Internal consistency of the scale was 0.78, which is within the acceptable range. The results also suggest that considerable proportion (57%) of students had psychological distress. Participants who were susceptible to psychological distress in the present study were identified as students from low income families, with poor social support, in a relationship with partner as well as the student with Hindu’s religion and male students. By multiple regression analysis, variables that significantly predicted psychological distress were gender; income; area of residence; relationship with parents; negative life events; smoking; drinking and event with the overall model fit were 34%. Conclusion: Based on these findings, it may be foreseen that if prompt intervention is not provided to students in distress, they may be susceptible to depression, anxiety and stress. The findings have implications for teachers and counsellors, who are in a position to influence a wide range of students and provide support to improve the psychological well-being of students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
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