METHODS: Fifty-three formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue blocks were chosen for this study. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was determined by in situ hybridisation using an EBER probe. p53 protein expression was detected using immunohistochemistry. Simultaneously, amplifications by PCR were performed for p53 exons 5 to 8, followed by mutation screening via single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Sequencing of all the four exons was performed in five samples with mobility shift. To rule out false negative results by SSCP, 13 samples with p53 overexpression and five samples with low p53 expression were randomly selected and sequenced.
RESULTS: There was no mutation found in exons 5 to 8 in all the samples despite 46 (87%) of them having high p53 levels. EBV was detected in 51 (96%) out of 53 samples. There was no statistically significant association between p53 expression level and EBV presence.
CONCLUSIONS: High-intensity staining for p53 by immunohistochemistry was common in our series of NPC tissue samples but was not associated with 'hot spot' mutations of exons 5-8 of the gene. We did not find a significant relationship between the expression level of p53 and presence of EBV. Our study confirms that mutation of the DNA-binding domain of p53 is rare in NPC.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of folic acid or l-5-MTHF supplementation on blood folate concentrations, methyl nutrient metabolites, and DNA methylation in women living in Malaysia, where there is no mandatory fortification policy.
Methods: In a 12-wk, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trial, healthy Malaysian women (n = 142, aged 20-45 y) were randomly assigned to receive 1 of the following supplements daily: 1 mg (2.27 μmol) folic acid, 1.13 mg (2.27 μmol) l-5-MTHF, or a placebo. The primary outcomes were plasma and RBC folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations. Secondary outcomes included plasma total homocysteine, total cysteine, methionine, betaine, and choline concentrations and monocyte long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) methylation.
Results: The folic acid and l-5-MTHF groups had higher (P
METHODS: Currently available indicators from both household and facility surveys were collated through publicly available global databases and respective survey instruments. We then developed a suite of potential indicators and associated data points for the 45 WHO Essential Interventions spanning preconception to newborn care. Four types of performance indicators were identified (where applicable): process (i.e. coverage) and outcome (i.e. impact) indicators for both screening and treatment/prevention. Indicators were evaluated by an international expert panel against the eRegistries indicator evaluation criteria and further refined based on feedback by the eRegistries technical team.
RESULTS: Of the 45 WHO Essential Interventions, only 16 were addressed in any of the household survey data available. A set of 216 potential indicators was developed. These indicators were generally evaluated favourably by the panel, but difficulties in data ascertainment, including for outcome measures of cause-specific morbidity and mortality, were frequently reported as barriers to the feasibility of indicators. Indicators were refined based on feedback, culminating in the final list of 193 total unique indicators: 93 for preconception and antenatal care; 53 for childbirth and postpartum care; and 47 for newborn and small and ill baby care.
CONCLUSIONS: Large gaps exist in the availability of information currently collected to support the implementation of the WHO Essential Interventions. The development of this suite of indicators can be used to support the implementation of eRegistries and other data platforms, to ensure that data are utilised to support evidence-based practice, facilitate measurement and accountability, and improve maternal and child health outcomes.
METHODS: The scoliosis curves were divided into eight zones. CT scans were used to assess perforations: Grade 0, Grade 1( 4 mm). Anterior perforations were classified into Grade 0, Grade 1( 6 mm). Grade 2 and 3 (except lateral grade 2 and 3 perforation over thoracic vertebrae) were considered as 'critical perforations'.
RESULTS: 1986 screws in 137 patients were analyzed. The overall perforation rate was 8.4% after exclusion of the lateral perforation. The highest medial perforation rate was at the transitional proximal thoracic (PT)/main thoracic (MT) zone (6.9%), followed by concave lumbar (6.7%) and convex main thoracic (MT) zone (6.1%). The overall critical medial perforation rate was 0.9%. 33.3% occurred at convex MT and 22.2% occurred at transitional PT/MT zone. There were 39 anterior perforations (overall perforation rate of 2.0%). 43.6% occurred at transitional PT/MT zone, whereas 23.1% occurred at concave PT zone. The overall critical anterior perforation rate was 0.6%. 5/12 (41.7%) critical perforations occurred at concave PT zone, whereas four perforations occurred at the transitional PT/MT zone. There were only two symptomatic left medial grade 2 perforations (0.1%) resulting radiculopathy, occurring at the transitional main thoracic (MT)/Lumbar (L) zone.
CONCLUSION: Overall pedicle perforation rate was 8.4%. Highest rate of critical medial perforation was at the convex MT zone and the transitional PT/MT zone, whereas highest rate of critical anterior perforation was at the concave PT zone and the transitional PT/MT zone. The rate of symptomatic perforations was 0.1%.
METHODS: Plasma inflammatory cytokines were measured using a cytometric bead array in 87 asymptomatic young adult survivors of childhood ALL (median age, 25 years; age range, 18-35 years) who attended annual follow-up clinic and compared with healthy, age-matched and sex-matched controls. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured using Southern blot analysis.
RESULTS: Survivors had significant elevation of plasma interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-10, IL-17a, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (all P 0.8 mg/dL) was related to increased odds of having metabolic syndrome (odds ratio, 7.256; 95% confidence interval, 1.501-35.074). Survivors also had significantly shorter LTL compared with controls (median, 9866 vs 10,392 base pairs; P = .021). Compared with published data, LTL in survivors was similar to that in healthy individuals aged 20 years older. Survivors who received cranial irradiation had shorter LTL compared with those who had not (P = .013).
CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic young adult survivors of childhood ALL demonstrate a biologic profile of chronic inflammation and telomere attrition, consistent with an early onset of cellular processes that drive accelerated aging. These processes may explain the premature development of age-related chronic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. Understanding their molecular basis may facilitate targeted interventions to disrupt the accelerated aging process and its long-term impact on overall health. Cancer 2017;123:4207-4214. © 2017 American Cancer Society.