In the present study, we report the properties of a mucoadhesive chitosan-pectinate nanoparticulate formulation able to retain its integrity in the milieu of the upper gastrointestinal tract and subsequently, mucoadhere and release curcumin in colon conditions. Using this system, we aimed to deliver curcumin to the colon for the possible management of colorectal cancer. The delivery system comprised of a chitosan-pectinate composite nanopolymeric with a z-average of 206.0 nm (±6.6 nm) and zeta potential of +32.8 mV (±0.5 mV) and encapsulation efficiency of 64%. The nanoparticles mucoadhesiveness was higher at alkaline pH compared to acidic pH. Furthermore, more than 80% release of curcumin was achieved in pectinase-enriched medium (pH 6.4) as opposed to negligible release in acidic and enzyme-restricted media at pH 6.8. SEM images of the nanoparticles after exposure to the various media indicate a retained matrix in acid media as opposed to a distorted/fragmented matrix in pectinase-enriched medium. The data strongly indicates that the system has the potential to be applied as a colon-targeted mucoadhesive curcumin delivery system for the possible treatment of colon cancer.
Innovative strategies for periodontal regeneration have been the focus of research clusters across the globe for decades. In order to overcome the drawbacks of currently available options, investigators have suggested a novel concept of functionally graded membrane (FGM) templates with different structural and morphological gradients. Chitosan (CH) has been used in the past for similar purpose. However, the composite formulation of composite and tetracycline when cross-linked with glutaraldehyde have received little attention. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate the drug loading and release characteristics of novel freeze gelated chitosan templates at different percentages of glutaraldehyde. These were cross-linked with 0.1 and 1% glutaraldehyde and loaded with doxycycline hyclate. The electron micrographs depicted porous morphology of neat templates. After cross-linking, these templates showed compressed ultrastructures. Computerized tomography analysis showed that the templates had 88 to 92% porosity with average pore diameter decreased from 78 to 44.9 μm with increasing concentration. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed alterations in the glycosidic segment of chitosan fingerprint region which after drug loading showed a dominant doxycycline spectral composite profile. Interestingly, swelling profile was not affected by cross-linking either at 0.1 and 1% glutaraldehyde and template showed a swelling ratio of 80%, which gained equilibrium after 15 min. The drug release pattern also showed a 40 μg/mL of release after 24 h. These doxycycline-loaded templates show their tendency to be used in a functionally graded membrane facing the defect site.
Calcium silicate (CaSiO3, CS) ceramics are promising bioactive materials for bone tissue engineering, particularly for bone repair. However, the low toughness of CS limits its application in load-bearing conditions. Recent findings indicating the promising biocompatibility of graphene imply that graphene can be used as an additive to improve the mechanical properties of composites. Here, we report a simple method for the synthesis of calcium silicate/reduced graphene oxide (CS/rGO) composites using a hydrothermal approach followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Adding rGO to pure CS increased the hardness of the material by ∼40%, the elastic modulus by ∼52%, and the fracture toughness by ∼123%. Different toughening mechanisms were observed including crack bridging, crack branching, crack deflection, and rGO pull-out, thus increasing the resistance to crack propagation and leading to a considerable improvement in the fracture toughness of the composites. The formation of bone-like apatite on a range of CS/rGO composites with rGO weight percentages ranging from 0 to 1.5 has been investigated in simulated body fluid (SBF). The presence of a bone-like apatite layer on the composite surface after soaking in SBF was demonstrated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The biocompatibility of the CS/rGO composites was characterized using methyl thiazole tetrazolium (MTT) assays in vitro. The cell adhesion results showed that human osteoblast cells (hFOB) can adhere to and develop on the CS/rGO composites. In addition, the proliferation rate and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of cells on the CS/rGO composites were improved compared with the pure CS ceramics. These results suggest that calcium silicate/reduced graphene oxide composites are promising materials for biomedical applications.
A poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel composite scaffold containing N,O-carboxymethylated chitosan (NOCC) was tested to assess its potential as a scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering in a weight-bearing environment. The mechanical properties under unconfined compression for different hydration periods were investigated. The effect of supplementing PVA with NOCC (20wt.% PVA:5vol.% NOCC) produced a porosity of 43.3% and this was compared against a non-porous PVA hydrogel (20g PVA: 100ml of water, control). Under non-hydrated conditions, the porous PVA-NOCC hydrogel behaved in a similar way to the control non-porous PVA hydrogel, with similar non-linear stress-strain response under unconfined compression (0-30% strain). After 7days' hydration, the porous hydrogel demonstrated a reduced stiffness (0.002kPa, at 25% strain), resulting in a more linear stiffness relationship over a range of 0-30% strain. Poisson's ratio for the hydrated non-porous and porous hydrogels ranged between 0.73 and 1.18, and 0.76 and 1.33, respectively, suggesting a greater fluid flow when loaded. The stress relaxation function for the porous hydrogel was affected by the hydration period (from 0 to 600s); however the percentage stress relaxation regained by about 95%, after 1200s for all hydration periods assessed. No significant differences were found between the different hydration periods between the porous hydrogels and control. The calculated aggregate modulus, H(A), for the porous hydrogel reduced drastically from 10.99kPa in its non-hydrated state to about 0.001kPa after 7days' hydration, with the calculated shear modulus reducing from 30.92 to 0.14kPa, respectively. The porous PVA-NOCC hydrogel conformed to a biphasic, viscoelastic model, which has the desired properties required for any scaffold in cartilage tissue engineering.
Recent advances and applications of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels, namely, glucose-responsive hydrogels, protein-responsive hydrogels, and nucleic-acid-responsive hydrogels are highlighted. However, achieving the ultimate purpose of using biomolecule-responsive hydrogels in preclinical and clinical areas is still at the very early stage and calls for more novel designing concepts and advance ideas. On the way toward the real/clinical application of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels, plenty of factors should be extensively studied and examined under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. For example, biocompatibility, biointegration, and toxicity of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels should be carefully evaluated. From the living body's point of view, biocompatibility is seriously depended on the interactions at the tissue/polymer interface. These interactions are influenced by physical nature, chemical structure, surface properties, and degradation of the materials. In addition, the developments of advanced hydrogels with tunable biological and mechanical properties which cause no/low side effects are of great importance.
The aim of this study was to develop polyurethane (PU) wound dressing incorporated with cobalt nitrate using electrospinning technique. The morphology analysis revealed that the developed composites exhibited reduced fiber and pore diameter than the pristine PU. The electrospun membranes exhibited average porosity in the range of 67% - 71%. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS) showed the presence of cobalt in the PU matrix. The interaction of cobalt nitrate with PU matrix was evident in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The contact angle results indicated the improved wettability of the prepared PU/cobalt nitrate composites (82° ± 2) than the pure PU (100° ± 1). The incorporation of cobalt nitrate into the PU matrix enhanced the surface roughness and mechanical strength as evident in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tensile test analysis. The blood compatibility assays revealed the anticoagulant nature of the prepared composites by displaying prolonged blood clotting time than the PU control. Further, the developed composite exhibited less toxicity nature as revealed in the hemolysis and cytotoxicity studies. It was observed that the PU wound dressing added with cobalt nitrate fibers exhibited enhanced physicochemical, better blood compatibility parameters and enhanced fibroblast proliferation rates which may serve as a potential candidate for wound dressings.
Standard prosthodontic procedures require five visits to construct a set of complete maxillary and mandibular dentures. Various attempts have been made to reduce these procedures to four or three appointments. However, most of these techniques require the use of visible light polymerized resin as the final denture base materials. Visible light-cured resin materials have inferior physical properties and biocompatibility problems as compared with heat cured polymethylmethacrylate. This paper describes a system of complete denture construction which requires three clinical appointments instead of the usual five visits. This system is made possible by using the VLC base/tray material as the preliminary impression material as well as the application of a new biometric wax occlusion rim. It retains the use of polymethylmethacrylate as the denture base material. This system also utilizes all the procedures used in the conventional five appointment system of complete denture construction.
Bioceramic nanoparticles with high specific surface area often tend to agglomerate in the polymer matrix, which results in undesirable mechanical properties of the composites and poor cell spreading and attachment. In the present work, bredigite (BR) nanoparticles were modified with an organosilane coupling agent, 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS), to enhance its dispersibility in the polymer matrix. The polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvaletare (PHBV) nanofibrous scaffolds containing either bredigite or GPTMS-modified bredigite (G-BR) nanoparticles were fabricated using electrospinning technique and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and tensile strength. Results demonstrated that modification of bredigite was effective in enhancing nanoparticle dispersion in the PHBV matrix. PHBV/G-BR scaffold showed improved mechanical properties compared to PHBV and PHBV/BR, especially at the higher concentration of nanoparticles. In vitro bioactivity assay performed in the simulated body fluid (SBF) indicated that composite PHBV scaffolds were able to induce the formation of apatite deposits after incubation in SBF. From the results of in vitro biological assay, it is concluded that the synergetic effect of BR and GPTMS provided an enhanced hFob cells attachment and proliferation. The developed PHBV/G-BR nanofibrous scaffolds may be considered for application in bone tissue engineering.
The application of layer-by-layer (LbL) approach on nanoparticle surface coating improves the colon-specific drug delivery of insoluble drugs. Here, we aimed to formulate a self-assembled cysteamine-based disulphide cross-linked sodium alginate with LbL self-assembly to improve the delivery of paclitaxel (PCX) to colonic cancer cells. Cysteamine was conjugated to the backbone of oxidized SA to form a core of self-assembled disulphide cross-linked nanospheres. P3DL was selected for PCX loading and fabricated LbL with poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium salt (PSSCMA) resulting from characterization and drug release studies. P3DL-fabricated PCX-loaded nanospheres (P3DL/PAH/PSSCMA) exhibited an encapsulation efficiency of 77.1% with cumulative drug release of 45.1%. Dynamic light scattering analysis was reported at 173.6 ± 2.5 nm with polydispersity index of 0.394 ± 0.105 (zeta potential= -58.5 mV). P3DL/PAH/PSSCMA demonstrated a pH-dependent swelling transition; from pH 1 to 7 (102.2% increase). The size increased by 33.0% in reduction response study after incubating with 10 mM glutathione (day 7). HT-29 cells showed high viabilities (86.7%) after treatment with the fabricated nanospheres at 0.8 µg/mL. Cellular internalization was successful with more than 70.0% nanospheres detected in HT-29 cells. Therefore, this fabricated nanospheres may be considered as potential nanocarriers for colon cancer-targeted chemotherapeutic drug delivery.
Controlled release delivery system of chemotherapeutic agents at the site of colon endorses modern drug-entrapped delivery tools, which release the entrappedagents at a controlled rate for anextended period providing patient compliance and additional protection from the degradinggastric environment. Thus, the present study was aimed to develop and optimize a novel polymeric microsphere of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) using natural gum katira to obtain an optimal therapeutic response at the colon. Due course of experimentation, in-vivo safety profile of the gum katira in an animal model was established. Modified solvent extraction/evaporation technique wasemployed to encapsulate 5-FU in the natural polymeric microsphere and was characterized using in-vitro studies to investigate particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency and release of the drug from developed formulation. Formulated and optimized polymeric microsphere of 5-FU using gum katira polymer own optimal physicochemical characteristics with a fine spherical particle with size ranged from 210.37±7.50 to 314.45±7.80 μm.Targeted microsphere exhibited good cytotoxicity and also has high drug entrapment efficiency, and satisfactory release pattern of the drug within a time frame of 12 h. Finally, we foresee that the optimized polymeric gum katiramicrosphere of 5-FU could be a promising micro-carrier for efficient colon drug targeting delivery tool with improved chemotherapeutic efficacy against colon cancer.
This paper studies parameters which affect the pore size diameter of a silicon membrane. Electrochemical etching is performed in characterise the parameter involved in this process. The parameter has been studied is volume ratio of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and ethanol as an electrolyte aqueous for electrochemical etch. This electrolyte aqueous solution has been mixed between HF and ethanol with volume ratio 3:7, 5:5, 7:3 and 9:1. As a result, the higher volume of HF in this electrolyte gives the smallest pore size diameter compared to the lower volume of HF. These samples have been dipped into HF and ethanol electrolyte aqueous with supplied 25 mA/cm2 current density for 20, 30, 40, and 50 minutes. The samples will inspect under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to execute the pore formations on silicon membrane surface.
Earlier studies in our laboratory demonstrated that collagen extracted from ovine tendon is biocompatible towards human dermal fibroblast. To be able to use this collagen as a scaffold in skin tissue engineering, a mechanically stronger scaffold is required that can withstand manipulation before transplantation. This study was conducted to improve the mechanical strength of this collagen sponge using chemical crosslinkers, and evaluate their effect on physical, chemical and biocompatible properties. Collagen sponge was crosslinked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and glutaraldehyde (GA). Tensile test, FTIR study and mercury porosimetry were used to evaluate mechanical properties, chemical property and porosity, respectively. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of crosslinked collagen sponge on human dermal fibroblasts. The FTIR study confirmed the successful crosslinking of collagen sponge. Crosslinking with EDC and GA significantly increased the mechanical strength of collagen sponge, with GA being more superior. Crosslinking of collagen sponge significantly reduced the porosity and the effect was predominant in GA-crosslinked collagen sponge. The GA-crosslinked collagen showed significantly lower, 60% cell viability towards human dermal fibroblasts compared to that of EDC-crosslinked collagen, 80% and non-crosslinked collagen, 100%. Although the mechanical strength was better when using GA but the more toxic effect on dermal fibroblast makes EDC a more suitable crosslinker for future skin tissue engineering.
In this study, randomly oriented hydroxyethyl cellulose/polyvinyl alcohol (HEC/PVA) nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning. The blend solutions of HEC/PVA with different weight ratio of HEC to PVA were prepared using water as solvent to fabricate nanofibers. These nanofibrous scaffolds were coated with bone-like apatite by immersing into 10x simulated body fluid (SBF) for different time periods. The morphology and structure of the nanofibers were characterized by SEM, FTIR and DSC. FESEM-EDS and FTIR analysis were used to confirm the deposition of apatite on the surface of nanofibers. The results of this study suggest that this apatite coated nanofibrous scaffolds could be a suitable biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.
In present study, a new composition of glass-ceramic was synthesized based on the Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass system. Heat treatment of glass powder was carried out in 2 stages: 600 °C as the nucleation temperature and different temperature on crystallization at 850, 950 and 1000 °C. The glass-ceramic heat-treated at 950 °C was selected as bioactive filler in commercial PMMA bone cement; (PALACOS® LV) due to its ability to form 2 high crystallization phases in comparison with 850 and 1000 °C. The results of this newly glass-ceramic filled PMMA bone cement at 0-16 wt% of filler loading were compared with those of hydroxyapatite (HA). The effect of different filler loading on the setting properties was evaluated. The peak temperature during the polymerization of bone cement decreased when the liquid to powder (L/P) ratio was reduced. The setting time, however, did not show any trend when filler loading was increased. In contrast, dough time was observed to decrease with increased filler loading. Apatite morphology was observed on the surface of the glass-ceramic and selected cement after bioactivity test.
Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60 min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices.
Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%), longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm), and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm). The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm) and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared with duoderm (0.45 ± 0.11 cm). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression on days 7, 14, and 21 revealed the presence of human hair follicle stem cells and fibroblasts that were incorporated into and surviving in the irradiated wound. We have proven that a chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation.
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanocrystals derived from cockle shells emerge to present a good concert in bone tissue engineering because of their potential to mimic the composition, structure, and properties of native bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response of CaCO3 nanocrystals on hFOB 1.19 and MC3T3 E-1 osteoblast cells in vitro. Cell viability and proliferation were assessed by MTT and BrdU assays, and LDH was measured to determine the effect of CaCO3 nanocrystals on cell membrane integrity. Cellular morphology was examined by SEM and fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that CaCO3 nanocrystals had no toxic effects to some extent. Cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and protein synthesis were enhanced by the nanocrystals when compared to the control. Cellular interactions were improved, as indicated by SEM and fluorescent microscopy. The production of VEGF and TGF-1 was also affected by the CaCO3 nanocrystals. Therefore, bio-based CaCO3 nanocrystals were shown to stimulate osteoblast differentiation and improve the osteointegration process.
Recombinant protein therapeutics have increased in number and frequency since the introduction of human insulin, 25 years ago. Presently, proteins and peptides are commonly used in the clinic. However, the incorporation of peptides into clinically approved nanomedicines has been limited. Reasons for this include the challenges of decorating pharmaceutical-grade nanoparticles with proteins by a process that is robust, scalable, and cost-effective. As an alternative to covalent bioconjugation between a protein and nanoparticle, we report that biologically active proteins may themselves mediate the formation of small multimers through steric stabilization by large protein polymers. Unlike multistep purification and bioconjugation, this approach is completed during biosynthesis. As proof-of-principle, the disintegrin protein called vicrostatin (VCN) was fused to an elastin-like polypeptide (A192). A significant fraction of fusion proteins self-assembled into multimers with a hydrodynamic radius of 15.9 nm. The A192-VCN fusion proteins compete specifically for cell-surface integrins on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435. Confocal microscopy revealed that, unlike linear RGD-containing protein polymers, the disintegrin fusion protein undergoes rapid cellular internalization. To explore their potential clinical applications, fusion proteins were characterized using small animal positron emission tomography (microPET). Passive tumor accumulation was observed for control protein polymers; however, the tumor accumulation of A192-VCN was saturable, which is consistent with integrin-mediated binding. The fusion of a protein polymer and disintegrin results in a higher intratumoral contrast compared to free VCN or A192 alone. Given the diversity of disintegrin proteins with specificity for various cell-surface integrins, disintegrin fusions are a new source of biomaterials with potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
Decellularized native extracellular matrix (ECM) biomaterials are widely used in tissue engineering and have reached clinical application as biomesh implants. To enhance their regenerative properties and postimplantation performance, ECM biomaterials could be functionalized via immobilization of bioactive molecules. To facilitate ECM functionalization, we developed a metabolic glycan labeling approach using physiologic pathways to covalently incorporate click-reactive azide ligands into the native ECM of a wide variety of rodent tissues and organs in vivo, and into the ECM of isolated rodent and porcine lungs cultured ex vivo. The incorporated azides within the ECM were preserved after decellularization and served as chemoselective ligands for subsequent bioconjugation via click chemistry. As proof of principle, we generated alkyne-modified heparin, immobilized it onto azide-incorporated acellular lungs, and demonstrated its bioactivity by Antithrombin III immobilization and Factor Xa inhibition. The herein reported metabolic glycan labeling approach represents a novel platform technology for manufacturing click-reactive native ECM biomaterials, thereby enabling efficient and chemoselective functionalization of these materials to facilitate tissue regeneration and repair.
Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a life changing condition, affecting 20 million women worldwide. In this study, we developed a bioactive, injectable bulking agent that consists of Permacol™ (Medtronic, Switzerland) and recombinant insulin like growth factor-1 conjugated fibrin micro-beads (fib_rIGF-1) for its bulk stability and capacity to induce muscle regeneration. Therefore, Permacol™ formulations were injected in the submucosal space of rabbit bladders. The ability of a bulking material to form a stable and muscle-inducing bulk represents for us a promising therapeutic approach to achieve a long-lasting treatment for SUI. The fib_rIGF-1 showed no adverse effect on human smooth muscle cell metabolic activity and viability in vitro based on AlamarBlue assays and Live/Dead staining. Three months after injection of fib_rIGF-1 together with Permacol™ into the rabbit bladder wall, we observed a smooth muscle tissue like formation within the injected materials. Positive staining for alpha smooth muscle actin, calponin, and caldesmon demonstrated a contractile phenotype of the newly formed smooth muscle tissue. Moreover, the fib_rIGF-1 treated group also improved the neovascularization at the injection site, confirmed by CD31 positive staining compared to bulks made of PermacolTM only. The results of this study encourage us to further develop this injectable, bioactive bulking material towards a future therapeutic approach for a minimal invasive and long-lasting treatment of SUI.