Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 38 in total

  1. Alkhader E, Billa N, Roberts CJ
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2017 May;18(4):1009-1018.
    PMID: 27582072 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-016-0623-y
    In the present study, we report the properties of a mucoadhesive chitosan-pectinate nanoparticulate formulation able to retain its integrity in the milieu of the upper gastrointestinal tract and subsequently, mucoadhere and release curcumin in colon conditions. Using this system, we aimed to deliver curcumin to the colon for the possible management of colorectal cancer. The delivery system comprised of a chitosan-pectinate composite nanopolymeric with a z-average of 206.0 nm (±6.6 nm) and zeta potential of +32.8 mV (±0.5 mV) and encapsulation efficiency of 64%. The nanoparticles mucoadhesiveness was higher at alkaline pH compared to acidic pH. Furthermore, more than 80% release of curcumin was achieved in pectinase-enriched medium (pH 6.4) as opposed to negligible release in acidic and enzyme-restricted media at pH 6.8. SEM images of the nanoparticles after exposure to the various media indicate a retained matrix in acid media as opposed to a distorted/fragmented matrix in pectinase-enriched medium. The data strongly indicates that the system has the potential to be applied as a colon-targeted mucoadhesive curcumin delivery system for the possible treatment of colon cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  2. Janib SM, Gustafson JA, Minea RO, Swenson SD, Liu S, Pastuszka MK, et al.
    Biomacromolecules, 2014 Jul 14;15(7):2347-58.
    PMID: 24871936 DOI: 10.1021/bm401622y
    Recombinant protein therapeutics have increased in number and frequency since the introduction of human insulin, 25 years ago. Presently, proteins and peptides are commonly used in the clinic. However, the incorporation of peptides into clinically approved nanomedicines has been limited. Reasons for this include the challenges of decorating pharmaceutical-grade nanoparticles with proteins by a process that is robust, scalable, and cost-effective. As an alternative to covalent bioconjugation between a protein and nanoparticle, we report that biologically active proteins may themselves mediate the formation of small multimers through steric stabilization by large protein polymers. Unlike multistep purification and bioconjugation, this approach is completed during biosynthesis. As proof-of-principle, the disintegrin protein called vicrostatin (VCN) was fused to an elastin-like polypeptide (A192). A significant fraction of fusion proteins self-assembled into multimers with a hydrodynamic radius of 15.9 nm. The A192-VCN fusion proteins compete specifically for cell-surface integrins on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435. Confocal microscopy revealed that, unlike linear RGD-containing protein polymers, the disintegrin fusion protein undergoes rapid cellular internalization. To explore their potential clinical applications, fusion proteins were characterized using small animal positron emission tomography (microPET). Passive tumor accumulation was observed for control protein polymers; however, the tumor accumulation of A192-VCN was saturable, which is consistent with integrin-mediated binding. The fusion of a protein polymer and disintegrin results in a higher intratumoral contrast compared to free VCN or A192 alone. Given the diversity of disintegrin proteins with specificity for various cell-surface integrins, disintegrin fusions are a new source of biomaterials with potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  3. Pourshahrestani S, Kadri NA, Zeimaran E, Towler MR
    Biomater Sci, 2018 Dec 18;7(1):31-50.
    PMID: 30374499 DOI: 10.1039/c8bm01041b
    Immediate control of uncontrolled bleeding and infection are essential for saving lives in both combat and civilian arenas. Inorganic well-ordered mesoporous silica and bioactive glasses have recently shown great promise for accelerating hemostasis and infection control. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive report assessing their specific mechanism of action in accelerating the hemostasis process and exerting an antibacterial effect. After providing a brief overview of the hemostasis process, this review presents a critical overview of the recently developed inorganic mesoporous silica and bioactive glass-based materials proposed for hemostatic clinical applications and specifically investigates their unique characteristics that render them applicable for hemostatic applications and preventing infections. This article also identifies promising new research directions that should be undertaken to ascertain the effectiveness of these materials for hemostatic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  4. Taguchi K, Chuang VTG, Hashimoto M, Nakayama M, Sakuragi M, Enoki Y, et al.
    Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 2020;68(8):766-772.
    PMID: 32741918 DOI: 10.1248/cpb.c20-00222
    Lactoferrin (Lf) nanoparticles have been developed as a carrier of drugs and gene. Two main methods, desolvation technique and emulsification method, for preparation of protein nanoparticles have been reported so far, but most of the previous reports of Lf nanoparticles preparation are limited to emulsification method. In this study, we investigated the optimal conditions by desolvation technique for the preparation of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked bovine Lf (bLf) nanoparticles within the size range of 100-200 nm, and evaluated their properties as a carrier for oral and intravenous drug delivery. The experimental results of dynamic light scattering and Transmission Electron Microscope suggested that glutaraldehyde-crosslinked bLf nanoparticles with 150 nm in size could be produced by addition of 2-propanol as the desolvating solvent into the bLf solution adjusted to pH 6, followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. These cross-linked bLf nanoparticles were found to be compatible to blood components and resistant against rapid degradation by pepsin. Thus, cross-linked bLf nanoparticles prepared by desolvation technique can be applied as a drug carrier for intravenous administration and oral delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  5. Lee WH, Rohanizadeh R, Loo CY
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2021 Oct;206:111938.
    PMID: 34198233 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2021.111938
    This study developed a novel bioactive bone substitute (hydroxyapatite, HA) with improved anti-biofilm activity by functionalizing with curcumin (anti-biofilm compound) which provide sufficient flux of curcumin concentration for 14 days. The released curcumin acts to inhibit biofilm formation and control the number of viable planktonic cells simultaneously. To prepare curcumin-functionalized HA, different concentrations of curcumin (up to 3% w/v) were added simultaneously during the precipitation process of HA. The highest loading (50 mg/g HA) of curcumin onto HA was achieved with 2% w/v of curcumin. Physicochemical characterizations of curcumin-functionalized HA composites revealed that curcumin was successfully incorporated onto HA. Curcumin was sustainably released over 14 days, while higher curcumin release was observed in acidic condition (pH 4.4) compared to physiological (pH 7.4). The cytotoxicity assays revealed that no significant difference on bone cells growth on curcumin-functionalized HA and non-functionalized HA. Curcumin-functionalized HA was effective to inhibit bacterial cell attachment and subsequent biofilm maturation stages. The anti-biofilm effect was stronger against Staphylococcus aureus compared to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The curcumin-functionalized HA composite significantly delayed the maturation of S. aureus compared to non-functionalized HA in which microcolonies of cells only begin to appear at 96 h. Up to 3.0 log reduction in colony forming unit (CFU)/mL of planktonic cells was noted at 24 h of incubation for both microorganisms. Thus, in this study we have suggested that curcumin loaded HA could be an alternative antimicrobial agent to control the risk of infections in post-surgical implants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  6. Hussain Z, Thu HE, Shuid AN, Katas H, Hussain F
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(5):527-550.
    PMID: 28676002 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170704132523
    BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are the chronic, non-healing complications of diabetic mellitus which compels a significant burden to the patients and the healthcare system. Peripheral vascular disease, diabetic neuropathy, and abnormal cellular and cytokine/chemokine activity are among the prime players which exacerbate the severity and prevent wound repair. Unlike acute wounds, DFUs impose a substantial challenge to the conventional wound dressings and demand the development of novel and advanced wound healing modalities. In general, an ideal wound dressing should provide a moist wound environment, offer protection from secondary infections, eliminate wound exudate and stimulate tissue regeneration.

    OBJECTIVE: To date, numerous conventional wound dressings are employed for the management of DFUs but there is a lack of absolute and versatile choice. The current review was therefore aimed to summarize and critically discuss the available evidences related to pharmaceutical and therapeutic viability of polymer-based dressings for the treatment of DFUs.

    RESULTS: A versatile range of naturally-originated polymers including chitosan (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA), cellulose, alginate, dextran, collagen, gelatin, elastin, fibrin and silk fibroin have been utilized for the treatment of DFUs. These polymers have been used in the form of hydrogels, films, hydrocolloids, foams, membranes, scaffolds, microparticles, and nanoparticles. Moreover, the wound healing viability and clinical applicability of various mutually modified, semi-synthetic or synthetic polymers have also been critically discussed.

    CONCLUSION: In summary, this review enlightens the most recent developments in polymer-based wound dressings with special emphasis on advanced polymeric biomaterials, innovative therapeutic strategies and delivery approaches for the treatment of DFUs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  7. Zulkifli FH, Hussain FSJ, Harun WSW, Yusoff MM
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Feb 01;122:562-571.
    PMID: 30365990 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.10.156
    This study is focusing to develop a porous biocompatible scaffold using hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with improved cellular adhesion profiles and stability. The combination of HEC and PVA were synthesized using freeze-drying technique and characterized using SEM, ATR-FTIR, TGA, DSC, and UTM. Pore size of HEC/PVA (2-40 μm) scaffolds showed diameter in a range of both pure HEC (2-20 μm) and PVA (14-70 μm). All scaffolds revealed high porosity above 85%. The water uptake of HEC was controlled by PVA cooperation in the polymer matrix. After 7 days, all blended scaffolds showed low degradation rate with the increased of PVA composition. The FTIR and TGA results explicit possible chemical interactions and mass loss of blended scaffolds, respectively. The Tg values of DSC curved in range of HEC and PVA represented the miscibility of HEC/PVA blend polymers. Higher Young's modulus was obtained with the increasing of HEC value. Cell-scaffolds interaction demonstrated that human fibroblast (hFB) cells adhered to polymer matrices with better cell proliferation observed after 7 days of cultivation. These results suggested that biocompatible of HEC/PVA scaffolds fabricated by freeze-drying method might be suitable for skin tissue engineering applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  8. Ullah S, Zainol I, Idrus RH
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 Nov;104(Pt A):1020-1029.
    PMID: 28668615 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.06.080
    The zinc oxide nanoparticles (particles size <50nm) incorporated into chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds and investigated the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation on microstructure, mechanical properties, biodegradation and cytocompatibility of 3D porous scaffolds. The 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 4.0% zinc oxide nanoparticles chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds were fabricated via freeze-drying technique. The zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation effects consisting in chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds were investigated by mechanical and swelling tests, and effect on the morphology of scaffolds examined microscopically. The biodegradation and cytocompatibility tests were used to investigate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation on the ability of scaffolds to use for tissue engineering application. The mean pore size and swelling ratio of scaffolds were decreased upon incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles however, the porosity, tensile modulus and biodegradation rate were increased upon incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles. In vitro culture of human fibroblasts and keratinocytes showed that the zinc oxide nanoparticles facilitated cell adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds. It was found that the zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation enhanced porosity, tensile modulus and cytocompatibility of chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  9. Keong LC, Halim AS
    Int J Mol Sci, 2009 Mar;10(3):1300-13.
    PMID: 19399250 DOI: 10.3390/ijms10031300
    One of the ultimate goals of wound healing research is to find effective healing techniques that utilize the regeneration of similar tissues. This involves the modification of various wound dressing biomaterials for proper wound management. The biopolymer chitosan (beta-1,4-D-glucosamine) has natural biocompatibility and biodegradability that render it suitable for wound management. By definition, a biocompatible biomaterial does not have toxic or injurious effects on biological systems. Chemical and physical modifications of chitosan influence its biocompatibility and biodegradability to an uncertain degree. Hence, the modified biomedical-grade of chitosan derivatives should be pre-examined in vitro in order to produce high-quality, biocompatible dressings. In vitro toxicity examinations are more favorable than those performed in vivo, as the results are more reproducible and predictive. In this paper, basic in vitro tools were used to evaluate cellular and molecular responses with regard to the biocompatibility of biomedical-grade chitosan. Three paramount experimental parameters of biocompatibility in vitro namely cytocompatibility, genotoxicity and skin pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, were generally reviewed for biomedical-grade chitosan as wound dressing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  10. Wu XH, Liew YK, Mai CW, Then YY
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Mar 24;22(7).
    PMID: 33805207 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22073341
    Medical devices are indispensable in the healthcare setting, ranging from diagnostic tools to therapeutic instruments, and even supporting equipment. However, these medical devices may be associated with life-threatening complications when exposed to blood. To date, medical device-related infections have been a major drawback causing high mortality. Device-induced hemolysis, albeit often neglected, results in negative impacts, including thrombotic events. Various strategies have been approached to overcome these issues, but the outcomes are yet to be considered as successful. Recently, superhydrophobic materials or coatings have been brought to attention in various fields. Superhydrophobic surfaces are proposed to be ideal blood-compatible biomaterials attributed to their beneficial characteristics. Reports have substantiated the blood repellence of a superhydrophobic surface, which helps to prevent damage on blood cells upon cell-surface interaction, thereby alleviating subsequent complications. The anti-biofouling effect of superhydrophobic surfaces is also desired in medical devices as it resists the adhesion of organic substances, such as blood cells and microorganisms. In this review, we will focus on the discussion about the potential contribution of superhydrophobic surfaces on enhancing the hemocompatibility of blood-contacting medical devices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  11. Mohammadi H, Sepantafar M
    Iran. Biomed. J., 2016 Sep;20(4):189-200.
    PMID: 26979401
    Titanium and its alloy are known as important load-bearing biomaterials. The major drawbacks of these metals are fibrous formation and low corrosion rate after implantation. The surface modification of biomedical implants through various methods such as plasma spray improves their osseointegration and clinical lifetime. Different materials have been already used as coatings on biomedical implant, including calcium phosphates and bioglass. However, these materials have been reported to have limited clinical success. The excellent bioactivity of calcium silicate (Ca-Si) has been also regarded as coating material. However, their high degradation rate and low mechanical strength limit their further coating application. Trace element modification of (Ca-Si) bioceramics is a promising method, which improves their mechanical strength and chemical stability. In this review, the potential of trace element-modified silicate coatings on better bone formation of titanium implant is investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  12. Ujang Z, Abdul Rashid AH, Suboh SK, Halim AS, Lim CK
    J Appl Biomater Funct Mater, 2014 Dec 30;12(3):155-62.
    PMID: 24700269 DOI: 10.5301/jabfm.5000190
    BACKGROUND: The physical and biological characteristics of oligochitosan (O-C) film, including its barrier and mechanical properties, in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility, were studied to assess its potential use as a wound dressing.

    METHODS: Membrane films were prepared from water-soluble O-C solution blended with various concentrations of glycerol to modify the physical properties of the films. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility evaluations were performed using primary human skin fibroblast cultures and subcutaneous implantation in a rat model, respectively.

    RESULTS: Addition of glycerol significantly influenced the barrier and mechanical properties of the films. Water absorption capacity was in the range of 80%-160%, whereas water vapor transmission rate varied from 1,180 to 1,618 g/m2 per day. Both properties increased with increasing glycerol concentration. Tensile strength decreased while elongation at break increased with the addition of glycerol. O-C films were found to be noncytotoxic to human fibroblast cultures and histological examination proved that films are biocompatible.

    CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the membrane film from O-C has potential application as a wound-dressing material.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  13. Boukari Y, Qutachi O, Scurr DJ, Morris AP, Doughty SW, Billa N
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2017 Nov;28(16):1966-1983.
    PMID: 28777694 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2017.1364100
    The development of patient-friendly alternatives to bone-graft procedures is the driving force for new frontiers in bone tissue engineering. Poly (dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and chitosan are well-studied and easy-to-process polymers from which scaffolds can be fabricated. In this study, a novel dual-application scaffold system was formulated from porous PLGA and protein-loaded PLGA/chitosan microspheres. Physicochemical and in vitro protein release attributes were established. The therapeutic relevance, cytocompatibility with primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and osteogenic properties were tested. There was a significant reduction in burst release from the composite PLGA/chitosan microspheres compared with PLGA alone. Scaffolds sintered from porous microspheres at 37 °C were significantly stronger than the PLGA control, with compressive strengths of 0.846 ± 0.272 MPa and 0.406 ± 0.265 MPa, respectively (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  14. Chahal S, Kumar A, Hussian FSJ
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2019 10;30(14):1308-1355.
    PMID: 31181982 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2019.1630699
    Electrospinning is a promising and versatile technique that is used to fabricate polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Ideal scaffolds should be biocompatible and bioactive with appropriate surface chemistry, good mechanical properties and should mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone. Selection of the most appropriate material to produce a scaffold is an important step towards the construction of a tissue engineered product. Bone tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field, where the principles of engineering are applied on bone-related biochemical reactions. Scaffolds, cells, growth factors, and their interrelation in microenvironment are the major concerns in bone tissue engineering. This review covers the latest development of biomimetic electrospun polymeric biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. It includes the brief details to bone tissue engineering along with bone structure and ideal bone scaffolds requirements. Details about various engineered materials and methodologies used for bone scaffolds development were discussed. Description of electrospinning technique and its parameters relating their fabrication, advantages, and applications in bone tissue engineering were also presented. The use of synthetic and natural polymers based electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and their biomineralization processes were discussed and reviewed comprehensively. Finally, we give conclusion along with perspectives and challenges of biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering based on electrospun nanofibers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  15. Mehrali M, Shirazi FS, Mehrali M, Metselaar HS, Kadri NA, Osman NA
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2013 Oct;101(10):3046-57.
    PMID: 23754641 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.34588
    Functionally graded material (FGM) is a heterogeneous composite material including a number of constituents that exhibit a compositional gradient from one surface of the material to the other subsequently, resulting in a material with continuously varying properties in the thickness direction. FGMs are gaining attention for biomedical applications, especially for implants, owing to their reported superior composition. Dental implants can be functionally graded to create an optimized mechanical behavior and achieve the intended biocompatibility and osseointegration improvement. This review presents a comprehensive summary of biomaterials and manufacturing techniques researchers employ throughout the world. Generally, FGM and FGM porous biomaterials are more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous biomaterials. Therefore, our discussion is intended to give the readers about successful and obstacles fabrication of FGM and porous FGM in dental implants that will bring state-of-the-art technology to the bedside and develop quality of life and present standards of care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  16. Siew EL, Rajab NF, Osman AB, Sudesh K, Inayat-Hussain SH
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2007 May;81(2):317-25.
    PMID: 17120221
    Among the various biomaterials available for tissue engineering and therapeutic applications, microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates offer the most diverse range of thermal and mechanical properties. In this study, the biocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB); containing 50 mol % of 4-hydroxybutyrate] copolymer produced by Delftia acidovorans was evaluated. The cytotoxicity, mode of cell death, and genotoxicity of P(3HB-co-4HB) extract against V79 and L929 fibroblast cells were assessed using MTT assay, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and alkaline comet assay, respectively. Our results demonstrate that P(3HB-co-4HB) treated on both cell lines were comparable with clinically-used Polyglactin 910, where more than 60% of viable cells were observed following 72-h treatment at 200 mg/mL. Further morphological investigation on the mode of cell death showed an increase in apoptotic cells in a time-dependent manner in both cell lines. On the other hand, P(3HB-co-4HB) at 200 mg/mL showed no genotoxic effects as determined by alkaline comet assay following 72-h treatment. In conclusion, our study indicated that P(3HB-co-4HB) compounds showed good biocompatibility in fibroblast cells suggesting that it has potential to be used for future medical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  17. Lim CK, Halim AS, Yaacob NS, Zainol I, Noorsal K
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2013 Apr;115(4):453-8.
    PMID: 23177217 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2012.10.010
    The effects of locally produced chitosan (CPSRT-NC-bicarbonate) in the intervention of keloid pathogenesis were investigated in vitro. A human keratinocyte-fibroblast co-culture model was established to investigate the protein levels of human collagen type-I, III and V in a western blotting analysis, the secreted transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the mRNA levels of TGF-β1's intracellular signaling molecules (SMAD2, 3, 4 and 7) in a real-time PCR analysis. Keratinocyte-fibroblast co-cultures were maintained in DKSFM:DMEM:F12 (2:2:1) medium. Collagen type-I was found to be the dominant form in primary normal human dermal fibroblast (pNHDF) co-cultures, whereas collagen type-III was more abundant in primary keloid-derived human dermal fibroblast (pKHDF) co-cultures. Collagen type-V was present as a minor component in the skin. TGF-β1, SMAD2 and SMAD4 were expressed more in the pKHDF than the pNHDF co-cultures. Co-cultures with normal keratinocytes suppressed collagen type-III, SMAD2, SMAD4 and TGF-β1 expressions and CPSRT-NC-bicarbonate enhanced this effect. In conclusion, the CPSRT-NC-bicarbonate in association with normal-derived keratinocytes demonstrated an ability to reduce TGF-β1, SMAD2 and SMAD4 expressions in keloid-derived fibroblast cultures, which may be useful in keloid intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  18. Thomas B, Gupta K
    J Esthet Restor Dent, 2017 Nov 12;29(6):435-441.
    PMID: 28703476 DOI: 10.1111/jerd.12317
    OBJECTIVE: Nano-hydroxyapatite-added GIC has been developed to improve the physical properties of conventional GIC. However, biological response of periodontal cells to this potentially useful cervical restorative material has been unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro response of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts to hydroxyapatite-added GIC.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three categories of materials, namely, test group 1 (cGIC or type IX GIC), test group 2 (HA-GIC or hydroxyapatite-added GIC), and positive control (glass cover slips) were incubated with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. The samples were viewed under scanning electron microscope to study the morphological characteristics of fibroblasts. Additionally, elemental analysis was performed to differentiate between the two test groups based on surface chemical composition.

    RESULTS: Test group 1 (cGIC) exhibited cells with curled up morphology, indicative of poor attachment to the substrate. Test group 2 (Ha-GIC) exhibited cells with flattened morphology and numerous cellular extensions such as lamellipodia and blebs, indicative of good attachment to the substrate. The test group 2 (Ha-GIC) demonstrated higher surface elemental percentages of calcium and phosphorus.

    CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, it may be concluded that hydroxyapatite-added GIC is more biocompatible than conventional GIC (type IX), probably attributed to high elemental percentages of calcium and phosphorus.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The search for an ideal cervical restorative dental material has been ever elusive. Hydroxyapatite-added GIC is a simple and economical dental material to fabricate from basic conventional GIC. The results from this study strengthen its candidature for cervical and root surface restorations which may later require soft tissue augmentation. The possibility of connective tissue adhesion to this material is an exciting prospect in the field of periorestorative dentistry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  19. Ngadiman NH, Idris A, Irfan M, Kurniawan D, Yusof NM, Nasiri R
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2015 Sep;49:90-104.
    PMID: 26002419 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2015.04.029
    Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticle with its unique magnetic properties is recently known to enhance the cell growth rate. In this study, γ-Fe2O3 is mixed into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix and then electrospun to form nanofibers. Design of experiments was used to determine the optimum parameter settings for the electrospinning process so as to produce elctrospun mats with the preferred characteristics such as good morphology, Young's modulus and porosity. The input factors of the electrospinnning process were nanoparticles content (1-5%), voltage (25-35 kV), and flow rate (1-3 ml/h) while the responses considered were Young's modulus and porosity. Empirical models for both responses as a function of the input factors were developed and the optimum input factors setting were determined, and found to be at 5% nanoparticle content, 35 kV voltage, and 1 ml/h volume flow rate. The characteristics and performance of the optimum PVA/γ-Fe2O3 nanofiber mats were compared with those of neat PVA nanofiber mats in terms of morphology, thermal properties, and hydrophilicity. The PVA/γ-Fe2O3 nanofiber mats exhibited higher fiber diameter and surface roughness yet similar thermal properties and hydrophilicity compared to neat PVA PVA/γ-Fe2O3 nanofiber mats. Biocompatibility test by exposing the nanofiber mats with human blood cells was performed. In terms of clotting time, the PVA/γ-Fe2O3 nanofibers exhibited similar behavior with neat PVA. The PVA/γ-Fe2O3 nanofibers also showed higher cells proliferation rate when MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was done using human skin fibroblast cells. Thus, the PVA/γ-Fe2O3 electrospun nanofibers can be a promising biomaterial for tissue engineering scaffolds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  20. Khan MUA, Raza MA, Razak SIA, Abdul Kadir MR, Haider A, Shah SA, et al.
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2020 10;14(10):1488-1501.
    PMID: 32761978 DOI: 10.1002/term.3115
    It is a challenging task to develop active biomacromolecular wound dressing materials that are biocompatible and possesses antibacterial properties against the bacterial strains that cause severe skin disease. This work is focused on the preparation of a biocompatible and degradable hydrogel for wound dressing application using arabinoxylan (ARX) and guar gum (GG) natural polymers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed that both ARX and GG interacted well with each other, and their interactions further increased with the addition of crosslinker tetraethyl orthosilicate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs showed uniform porous morphologies of the hydrogels. The porous morphologies and uniform interconnected pores are attributed to the increased crosslinking of the hydrogel. Elastic modulus, tensile strength, and fracture strain of the hydrogels significantly improved (from ATG-1 to ATG-4) with crosslinking. Degradability tests showed that hydrogels lost maximum weight in 7 days. All the samples showed variation in swelling with pH. Maximum swelling was observed at pH 7. The hydrogel samples showed good antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) in PBS, good drug release profile (92% drug release), and nontoxic cellular behavior. The cells not only retained their cylindrical morphologies onto the hydrogel but were also performing their normal activities. It is, therefore, believed that as-developed hydrogel could be a potential material for wound dressing application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
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