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  1. Škalamera D, Dahmer-Heath M, Stevenson AJ, Pinto C, Shah ET, Daignault SM, et al.
    Oncotarget, 2016 09 20;7(38):61000-61020.
    PMID: 27876705 DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.11314
    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program that has been implicated in progression, metastasis and therapeutic resistance of some carcinomas. To identify genes whose overexpression drives EMT, we screened a lentiviral expression library of 17000 human open reading frames (ORFs) using high-content imaging to quantitate cytoplasmic vimentin. Hits capable of increasing vimentin in the mammary carcinoma-derived cell line MDA-MB-468 were confirmed in the non-tumorigenic breast-epithelial cell line MCF10A. When overexpressed in this model, they increased the rate of cell invasion through Matrigel™, induced mesenchymal marker expression and reduced expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin. In gene-expression datasets derived from breast cancer patients, the expression of several novel genes correlated with expression of known EMT marker genes, indicating their in vivo relevance. As EMT-associated properties are thought to contribute in several ways to cancer progression, genes identified in this study may represent novel targets for anti-cancer therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*; Breast Neoplasms/pathology*
  2. Zunura'in Z, Almardhiyah AR, Gan SH, Arifin WN, Sirajudeen K, Bhavaraju V, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(9):4439-4444.
    PMID: 27797258
    The objective of this case-control study was to determine anthropometric and reproductive factors associated with the development of breast cancer among women. Fifty-six newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were recruited from the Oncology Clinic, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), and 56 healthy female hospital employees were recruited as controls. Socio-demographic and reproductive data were obtained using a standard questionnaire. Anthropometric factors (body weight, height, body fat percentage, visceral fat and waist and hip circumference) were assessed. A high waist circumference (adjusted OR= 1.04, [95% CI: 1.00, 1.09]) and being more than 30 years of age at rst full-term pregnancy (adjusted OR=3.77, [95% CI: 1.10, 12.90]) were predictors of breast cancer development. The results of this study indicate that weight and reproductive health management should be emphasized for breast cancer prevention in Malaysia.

    Study site: Oncology clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*; Breast Neoplasms/physiopathology*
  3. Zulkipli AF, Islam T, Mohd Taib NA, Dahlui M, Bhoo-Pathy N, Al-Sadat N, et al.
    Integr Cancer Ther, 2018 06;17(2):312-321.
    PMID: 29218996 DOI: 10.1177/1534735417745248
    BACKGROUND: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased and little is known on CAM use during the initial period. Therefore, the aim was to determine prevalence of CAM use among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients prior to seeking conventional treatment.

    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involved interviewing newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) using a structured questionnaire. Eligible respondents were interviewedduring a routine clinical visit.

    RESULTS: A total of 400 patients were interviewed, of whom 139 (34.8%) were CAM users. Dietary supplementation (n = 107, 77.0%) was the most frequently used type of CAM, followed by spiritual healing (n = 40, 28.8%) and traditional Chinese medicine (n = 32, 23.0%). Malay ethnic group (n = 61, 43.9%) was the largest group of CAM users, followed by Chinese (n = 57, 41.0%) and Indian (n = 20, 14.4%). Majority of these CAM users (n = 87, 73.1%) did not disclose the use of CAM to their doctors. Most of them used remedies based on the recommendation of family and friends. Malay ethnicity and patients with 3 or more comorbidities were more likely to use CAM.

    CONCLUSION: There is substantial use of CAM among breast cancer patients in UMMC prior to seeking hospital treatment, and the most popular CAM modality is dietary supplements. Since, the majority of CAM users do not disclose the use of CAM to their physicians, therefore health care providers should ensure that those patients who are likely to use CAM are appropriately counseled and advised.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*
  4. Zulfiqar A, Param V, Meah FA, Nair S, Siti-Aishah MA, Norizan A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1993 Sep;48(3):317-24.
    PMID: 8183145
    Radiologically guided localization procedures are indicated pre-operatively when breast lesions are nonpalpable. The results of 42 percutaneous hookwire localizations over a period of 3 years are described. Of the total, 7 (17%) were found to be malignant. Biopsy was indicated by mammographically detected mass in 48%, by microcalcifications in 40% and by microcalcifications with an associated mass in 12%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*
  5. Zuhaida AA, Ali AM, Tamilselvan S, Alitheen NB, Hamid M, Noor AM, et al.
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2013;12(4):5547-59.
    PMID: 24301925 DOI: 10.4238/2013.November.18.5
    A phage display library of single chain variable fragment (scFv) against MCF-7 breast cancer cells was constructed from C3A8 hybridoma cells. RNA from the C3A8 was isolated, cDNA was constructed, and variable heavy and light immunoglobulin chain gene region were amplified using PCR. The variable heavy and light chain gene regions were combined with flexible linker, linked to a pCANTAB 5E phagemid vector and electrophoresed into supE strain of Escherichia coli TG1 cells. Forty-eight clones demonstrated positive binding activity to MCF-7 breast cancer cell membrane fragments and the strongest of 48 clones was selected for analysis. The anti-MCF-7 library evaluated by SfiI and NotI digests demonstrated that anti-MCF-7 scFv antibodies possess individual patterns that should be able to recognize distinct human breast cancer cells. The C3A8 scFv, with an apparent molecular weight of 32 kDa, showed high homology (99%) with single chain antibody against rice stripe virus protein P20. In summary, the anti MCF-7 scFv antibody can be used for pretargeting breast cancer for clinical diagnosis of patients; it also has potential for therapeutic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/immunology*
  6. Zubaidah, J.O., Hejar, A.R., Lim, Y.W., Chin, K.T., Muhd Aizuddin, Z., Mud Hazeman, Z.
    MyJurnal
    Cancer pain is a complex experience and is one of the most common and distressing symptom of breast cancer which affects patients’ functioning in daily activities, their quality of life (QOL), and mood. Yet, there is a great lack of data on breast cancer and pain in Malaysia.
    Methods: A cross-sectional study using the Breast Cancer Patient Version of Quality of Life (QOL) Instrument (translated into Malay) and Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were conducted on 87 female breast cancer patients to investigate the impact of pain interference level on their quality of life and depressive level.
    Results: The patients were divided into 4 groups based on their rating of how pain and aches have been a problem to them (i.e not a problem [n=18 (20.7%)], mild[n=29 (33.3%)], moderate [n=18 (20.7%)] and severe [n=22(25.3%). Pain and aches ware reported to be the most severe interference problems in QOL physical domain by patients (mean=5.8, SD=2.8), followed by fatigue (mean=6.0, SD=3.1) and sleep changes (mean=6.2, SD=3.5). Patients who reported that pain and aches had severely affected them showed significantly lower score on many aspects of quality of life (Fs > 5, p < 0.005; p < 0.0001) and patients reported pain was not a problem at all demonstrated highest score on all aspects of QOL. Patients with most severe pain interference level showed highest depressive score [F (3, 84) =3, p < 0.05].
    Conclusion: The study underscores the impact of pain interference on patients’ quality of life and depressive level. The pain assessment deserves significant attention and therefore a comprehensive biopsychosocial assessment of pain to rule out any related underlying issues is warranted in the management of breast cancer to ensure appropriate intervention given to the patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  7. Zoharah Omar, Roohangiz Karimi, Nor Azida Nayan, Najwa Haneem Mohamad, Nor Aina Emran
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):457-464.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction This study investigates work engagement of employed breast cancer
    survivors in comparison to unmatched control samples of healthy working
    women without cancer and any other chronic diseases from the general
    population.

    Methods A case-control study design using unmatched controls was adopted in this
    study. The case comprised of 80 female breast cancer survivors who have
    returned to full-time employment selected using purposive sampling
    technique. Meanwhile, controls were 88 healthy female working women in
    full time paid employment, selected using quota sampling. Questionnaire
    covering socio-demographic characteristics and self-rated work engagement
    measured using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) was distributed to
    the cancer survivors through face-to-face meeting during their hospital visits.
    For the healthy controls the questionnaires were distributed using drop-andcollect
    method through the human resource personnel of the participating
    organization.

    Results The results revealed, after controlling for age, marital status, ethnic group and
    tenure with organization, no significant differences in the overall work
    engagement was found between the breast cancer survivors [mean (SD) =
    4.66 (0.92)] and the healthy controls [mean (SD) = 4.75 (0.85)]; F(1, 163)
    =1.70. In comparison to the work engagement domains, only the Vigor
    domain was found to be significantly lower for the survivors, survivors [F (1,
    163) =14.94; p
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  8. Zhou Q, Cheung YB, Jada SR, Lim WT, Kuo WL, Gray JW, et al.
    Cancer Biol. Ther., 2006 Nov;5(11):1445-9.
    PMID: 17102595
    AIM: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis if longer CA dinucleotide repeats are more common in the Asian population and also to gain insights into the interplay between the CA dinucleotide repeats and the frequencies of EGFR gene expression and amplifications as this might have therapeutic implications with regards to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The EGFR intron 1 polymorphism was analysed in three distinct healthy Asian subjects, namely, Chinese (N = 96), Malays (N = 98) and Indians (N = 100). Comparative genomic hybridisation was performed to investigate for changes in DNA copy number in relation to the polymorphic CA dinucleotide repeats in breast tumor tissues (N = 22).

    RESULTS: The frequency of short alleles with 14 and 15 CA repeats were most common in the Asian populations and significantly higher than those reported for Caucasians. The frequency of 20 CA repeats was 5%, almost 13-fold lower than previous reports. EGFR amplifications were detected in 23% and 11% of breast tumor tissues harboring short and long CA repeats, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Our results show that the frequency of alleles encoding for short CA dinucleotide repeats is common in Asian populations. EGFR expression and amplification levels were also higher in Asian breast tumor tissues with short CA dinucleotide repeats. These findings suggest that the EGFR intron 1 polymorphism may influence response to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in breast cancer patients and further studies are warranted.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy; Breast Neoplasms/genetics*
  9. Zheng WQ, Zhan RZ
    Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol., 1998 Feb;20(1):1-6.
    PMID: 9513685
    To clarify the correlation between apoptosis and tumor cell proliferative activity in human breast cancer and to investigate their relevance to p53 protein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology*
  10. Zeng C, Guo X, Long J, Kuchenbaecker KB, Droit A, Michailidou K, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res., 2016 06 21;18(1):64.
    PMID: 27459855 DOI: 10.1186/s13058-016-0718-0
    BACKGROUND: Multiple recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs10771399, at 12p11 that is associated with breast cancer risk.

    METHOD: We performed a fine-scale mapping study of a 700 kb region including 441 genotyped and more than 1300 imputed genetic variants in 48,155 cases and 43,612 controls of European descent, 6269 cases and 6624 controls of East Asian descent and 1116 cases and 932 controls of African descent in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC; http://bcac.ccge.medschl.cam.ac.uk/ ), and in 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Stepwise regression analyses were performed to identify independent association signals. Data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project (ENCODE) and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used for functional annotation.

    RESULTS: Analysis of data from European descendants found evidence for four independent association signals at 12p11, represented by rs7297051 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.12; P = 3 × 10(-9)), rs805510 (OR = 1.08, 95 % CI = 1.04-1.12, P = 2 × 10(-5)), and rs1871152 (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.06; P = 2 × 10(-4)) identified in the general populations, and rs113824616 (P = 7 × 10(-5)) identified in the meta-analysis of BCAC ER-negative cases and BRCA1 mutation carriers. SNPs rs7297051, rs805510 and rs113824616 were also associated with breast cancer risk at P breast cancer risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*; Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology*
  11. Zarinah, Z., Maaruf, A.G., Nazaruddin, R., Wong, W.W.W., Xuebing, X.
    MyJurnal
    Some vegetable oils contain natural antioxidants such as beta carotene and vitamin E namely alpha tocopherol. The objective of this study was to screening the value of α-tocopherol, β-carotene, antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity and toxicological properties of roasted pili nut oil (RPNO) and unroasted pili nut oil (UPNO). The result showed that RPNO contained higher amount of vitamin E and less amount of beta carotene compared to UPNO. RPNO and UPNO scavenged DPPH radicals by 24.66% and 9.52% at concentration of 140 μg/ml. The total phenolic compound (TPC) in UPNO and RPNO were about 19.96 ± 0.52 mg/kg and 12.43 ± 0.69 mg/kg respectively. It was observed that bacteria species exhibited different sensitivities towards RPNO, UPNO, Gentamycin, Ampicillin and Chloramphenicol. Bacillus cereus 14570 was the most sensitive bacterium and all strains of Staphylococcus aureus tested were resistant against both samples RPNO and UPNO. An in vitro toxicological study based on the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) cytotoxicity assay was also performed. In vitro cytotoxicity indicated that both RPNO and UPNO had no effect against HeLa (cervical cancer cell), MCF-7 (breast cancer cell) and HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma cell) cell lines tested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  12. Zakaria Z, Zulkifle MF, Wan Hasan WAN, Azhari AK, Abdul Raub SH, Eswaran J, et al.
    Onco Targets Ther, 2019;12:7749-7756.
    PMID: 31571924 DOI: 10.2147/OTT.S214611
    Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the ErbB family of tyrosine kinase receptor proteins that plays important roles in tumour cell survival and proliferation. EGFR has been reported to be overexpressed in up to 78% of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cases suggesting it as a potential therapeutic target. The clinical trials of anti-EGFR agents in breast cancer showed low response rates. However, a subgroup of patients demonstrated response to EGFR inhibitors highlighting the necessity to stratify patients, who might benefit from effective combination therapy that could include anti EGFR-agents. Population variability in EGFR expression warrants systematic evaluation in specific populations.

    Purpose: To study EGFR alterations and expressions in a multi ethnic Malaysian TNBC patient cohort to determine the possibility of using anti-EGFR combinatorial therapy for this population.

    Patients and methods: In this study, we evaluated 58 cases of Malaysian TNBC patient samples for EGFR gene copy number alteration and EGFR protein overexpression using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods, respectively.

    Results: EGFR protein overexpression was observed in about 30% while 15.5% displayed high EGFR copy number including 5.17% gene amplification and over 10% high polysomy. There is a positive correlation between EGFR protein overexpression and gene copy number and over expression of EGFR is observed in ten out of the 48 low copy number cases (20.9%) without gene amplification.

    Conclusion: This study provides the first glimpse of EGFR alterations and expressions in a multi ethnic Malaysian TNBC patient cohort emphasising the need for the nationwide large scale EGFR expression evaluation in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
  13. Zakaria Z, Zainal Abidin ZF, Gan SH, Wan Abdul Hamid WZ, Mohamed M
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2018 Dec;13(6):535-540.
    PMID: 31435374 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2018.04.013
    Objectives: In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of honey supplementation on the safety profiles of postmenopausal breast cancer patients.

    Methods: Seventy-two postmenopausal women with stage I, II, or III breast cancer from the Oncology Clinic, Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital were treated with anastrozole (1 mg/day). Patients were randomly assigned to one of the two groups (n = 36/group): a control group (no honey) and a honey group (20 g/day of honey for 12 weeks). Fasting blood samples were obtained pre- and post-intervention to investigate differences in the haematological, renal, and liver profiles of patients in both the groups.

    Results: Post-intervention, alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly higher in the control group than in the honey group. In the honey group, white blood cell counts, platelet counts, and creatinine levels were significantly higher following honey supplementation for 12 weeks. Nevertheless, the values were still within normal ranges.

    Conclusions: The present study suggests that honey supplementation of 20 g/day for 12 weeks is safe and beneficial for postmenopausal breast cancer patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  14. Zainur Rashid, Z., S. Sulaiha S.A., Lew, K.G., Nurhana, S.
    MyJurnal
    Gestational breast cancer (GBC) or pregnancy-associated breast cancer was defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and within 1 year of delivery. Breast cancer is the second commonest cancer after cervical seen in pregnancy and lactation. Nevertheless, the incidence is low and accounts for approximately 1 in 3000 of pregnancies. A delay in diagnosis is common and 70% to 89% of patients with operable primary lesions already have positive axillary lymph nodes. Breast cancer identified during pregnancy can be extremely distressing for the mother despite it has similar course of disease and prognosis seen in non-pregnant women of the same age and stage of disease. Diagnostic and treatment options should be carefully decided to prevent further harm to the mother or any potential risk to the developing fetus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  15. Zainal NZ, Shuib N, Bustam AZ, Sabki ZA, Guan NC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(1):463-8.
    PMID: 23534774
    BACKGROUND: Body image dissatisfaction among breast cancer survivors has been associated with psychological stress resultant from breast cancer and resultant surgery. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Malay Version of the Breast-Impact of Treatment Scale (MVBITS) and to investigate the associations of retained factors with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MVBITS was 'forward-backward' translated from English to Malay and then administered to 70 female breast cancer patients who came to the Oncology Clinic of University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia to undergo chemotherapy. Principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation was performed to explore the factor structure of the MVBITS. Associations of retained factors were estimated with reference to Spearman correlation coefficients.

    RESULTS: The internal consistency reliability of MVBITS was good (Cronbach's alpha 0.945) and showed temporal stability over a 3-week period. Principal component analysis suggested two factors termed as 'Intrusion' and 'Avoidance' domains. These factors explained 70.3% of the variance. Factor 1 comprised the effects of breast cancer treatment on the emotion and thought, while Factor 2 informed attempts to limit exposure of the body to self or others. The Factor 1 of MVBITS was positively correlated with total, depression and anxiety sub-scores of HADS. Factor 2 was positively correlated with total and anxiety sub-scores of HADS. MVBITS was also positively correlated with the RSES scores.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the Malay Version of Breast-Impact of Treatment Scale possesses satisfactory psychometric properties suggesting that this instrument is appropriate for assessment of body change stress among female breast cancer patients in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy; Breast Neoplasms/psychology*; Breast Neoplasms/surgery*
  16. Zainal NZ, Nik-Jaafar NR, Baharudin A, Sabki ZA, Ng CG
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(4):2649-56.
    PMID: 23725190
    BACKGROUND: Depression is common in breast cancer patients. The aim of this paper was to make a systematic review of its prevalence and associated factors oin breast cancer survivors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: An extensive systematic electronic review (PUBMED, CINAHL, PsyINFO and Ovid) and handsearch were carried out to retrieve published articles up to November 2012, using Depression OR Dysthymia AND (Cancer OR Tumor OR Neoplasms as the keywords. Information about the design of the studies, measuring scale, characteristics of the participants, prevalence of depression and its associated factors from the included studies were extracted and summarized.

    RESULTS: We identified 32 eligible studies that recruited 10,826 breast cancer survivors. Most were cross-sectional or prospective designed. The most frequent instrument used to screen depression was the Center for Epidemiological Studies for Depression (CES-D, n=11 studies) followed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, n=6 studies) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, n=6 studies). CES-D returned about similar prevalence of depression (median=22%, range=13-56%) with BDI (median=22%, range=17-48%) but higher than HADS (median=10%, range=1-22%). Depression was associated with several socio-demographic variables, cancer-related factors, treatment-related factors, subject psychological factors, lifestyle factors, social support and quality of life.

    CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer survivors are at risk for depression so that detection of associated factors is important in clinical practice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/etiology; Breast Neoplasms/mortality*; Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  17. Zainal NZ, Booth S, Huppert FA
    Psychooncology, 2013 Jul;22(7):1457-65.
    PMID: 22961994 DOI: 10.1002/pon.3171
    This study aims to investigate the evidence of the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in improving stress, depression and anxiety in breast cancer patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/psychology*
  18. Zain NM, Chelliah KK
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(3):1327-31.
    PMID: 24606460
    BACKGROUND: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a new non-invasive, mobile screening method which does not use ionizing radiation to the human breast; allows conducting quantitative assessment of the images besides the visual interpretation. The aim of this study was to correlate the quantitative assessment and visual interpretation of breast electrical impedance tomographs and associated factors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty mammography patients above 40 years and undergoing EIT were chosen using convenient sampling. Visual interpretation of the images was carried out by a radiologist with minimum of three years experience using the breast imaging - electrical impedance (BI-EIM) classification for detection of abnormalities. A set of thirty blinded EIT images were reinterpreted to determine the intra-rater reliability using kappa. Quantitative assessment was by comparison of the breast average electric conductivity with the norm and correlations with visual interpretation of the images were determined using Chi-square. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the mean electrical conductivity between groups and t-test was used for comparisons with pre-existing Caucasians statistics. Independent t-tests were applied to compare the mean electrical conductivity of women with factors like exogenous hormone use and family history of breast cancer.

    RESULTS: The mean electrical conductivity of Malaysian women was significantly lower than that of Caucasians (p<0.05). Quantitative assessment of electrical impedance tomography was significantly related with visual interpretation of images of the breast (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative assessment of electrical impedance tomography images was significantly related with visual interpretation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control
  19. Zain NM, Seriramulu VP, Chelliah KK
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(7):3229-34.
    PMID: 27509955
    BACKGROUND: Bone mineral density (BMD) is a lifetime marker of estrogen in a woman's body and has been associated with increased breast cancer risk. Nonetheless the actual association is still debatable. Furthermore, estrogen is very crucial in maintaining human bone density and gradually decreases over age. A systematic search was conducted to assess any association of BMD with breast cancer risk factors among premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review identification was performed through databases searching on MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS and 19 qualified studies were elected. The keywords used were "bone mineral density", "breast cancer", and "breast density".

    RESULTS: A total of 19 articles showed variation with the majority of the studies focused on postmenopausal and a few focused on premenopausal women. Overall there was no concensus on effects.

    CONCLUSIONS: An enormous effort is being undertaken by researchers to prove that BMD might be one of the significant risk factors for breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/etiology*; Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  20. Zahedifard M, Faraj FL, Paydar M, Looi CY, Hasandarvish P, Hajrezaie M, et al.
    Curr. Pharm. Des., 2015;21(23):3417-26.
    PMID: 25808938
    The anti-carcinogenic effect of the new quinazolinone compound, named MMD, was tested on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. The synthesis of quinazolinone-based compounds attracted strong attention over the past few decades as an alternative mean to produce analogues of natural products. Quinazolinone compounds sharing the main principal core structures are currently introduced in the clinical trials and pharmaceutical markets as anti-cancer agents. Thus, it is of high clinical interest to identify a new drug that could be used to control the growth and expansion of cancer cells. Quinazolinone is a metabolite derivative resulting from the conjugation of 2-aminobenzoyhydrazide and 5-methoxy-2- hydroxybenzaldehyde based on condensation reactions. In the present study, we analysed the influence of MMD on breast cancer adenoma cell morphology, cell cycle arrest, DNA fragmentation, cytochrome c release and caspases activity. MCF-7 is a type of cell line representing the breast cancer adenoma cells that can be expanded and differentiated in culture. Using different in vitro strategies and specific antibodies, we demonstrate a novel role for MMD in the inhibition of cell proliferation and initiation of the programmed cell death. MMD was found to increase cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol and this effect was enhanced over time with effective IC50 value of 5.85 ± 0.71 μg/mL detected in a 72-hours treatment. Additionally, MMD induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and caused DNA fragmentation with obvious activation of caspase-9 and caspases-3/7. Our results demonstrate a novel role of MMD as an anti-proliferative agent and imply the involvement of mitochondrial intrinsic pathway in the observed apoptosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*; Breast Neoplasms/metabolism; Breast Neoplasms/pathology
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