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  1. E M Eid E, S Alanazi A, Koosha S, A Alrasheedy A, Azam F, M Taban I, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 13;24(14).
    PMID: 31337024 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24142554
    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are highly promising tools to deliver therapeutic molecules into tumours. αVβ3 integrins are cell-matrix adhesion receptors, and are considered as an attractive target for anticancer therapies owing to their roles in the process of metastasis and angiogenesis. Therefore, this study aims to assess the effect of co-administration of zerumbone (ZER) and ZERencapsulated in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin with TP5-iRGD peptide towards cell cytotoxicity, apoptosis induction, and proliferation of normal and cancerous breast cells utilizing in vitro assays, as well as to study the molecular docking of ZER in complex with TP5-iRGD peptide. Cell viability assay findings indicated that ZER and ZERencapsulated in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (ZER-HPβCD) inhibited the growth of estrogen receptor positivebreast cancer cells (ER+ MCF-7) at 72 h treatment with an inhibitory concentration (IC)50 of 7.51 ± 0.2 and 5.08 ± 0.2 µg/mL, respectively, and inhibited the growth of triple negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) with an IC50 of 14.96 ± 1.52 µg/mL and 12.18 ± 0.7 µg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, TP5-iRGD peptide showed no significant cytotoxicity on both cancer and normal cells. Interestingly, co-administration of TP5-iRGD peptide in MCF-7 cells reduced the IC50 of ZER from 7.51 ± 0.2 µg/mL to 3.13 ± 0.7 µg/mL and reduced the IC50 of ZER-HPβCD from 5.08 ± 0.2 µg/mL to 0.49 ± 0.004 µg/mL, indicating that the co-administration enhances the potency and increases the efficacy of ZER and ZER-HPβCD compounds. Acridine orange (AO)/propidium iodide (PI) staining under fluorescence microscopy showed evidence of early apoptosis after 72 h from the co-administration of ZER or ZER-HPβCD with TP5-iRGD peptide in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The findings of the computational modelling experiment provide novel insights into the ZER interaction with integrin αvβ3 in the presence of TP5-iRGD, and this could explain why ZER has better antitumor activities when co-administered with TP5-iRGD peptide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
  2. Mahaletchumy T, AbAziz A
    World J Nucl Med, 2017 Oct-Dec;16(4):303-310.
    PMID: 29033679 DOI: 10.4103/1450-1147.215496
    The incremental value of single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) over planar bone scintigraphy and SPECT in detecting skeletal lesions in breast cancer patients and its effect on patient management is assessed in this study. This is a prospective study which was conducted over 1-year duration. Whole-body planar scintigraphy, SPECT, and SPECT-CT were performed in 85 breast cancer patients with total of 128 lesions. Correlative imaging and clinical follow-up was used as the reference standard. McNemar's multistep analysis was performed for each patient and each lesion. On patient-wise analysis, 47 patients had equivocal diagnosis on planar bone scintigraphy, 28 on SPECT, and eight on SPECT-CT. On lesion-wise analysis, there were 72 equivocal lesions on planar bone scintigraphy, 48 on SPECT, and 15 on SPECT-CT. Overall, SPECT-CT resulted in a significant reduction in the proportion of equivocal diagnosis on both patient-wise (P < 0.004) and lesion-wise basis (P < 0.004), irrespective of the skeletal region involved. The sensitivity on a per-patient basis was 43%, 58%, and 78% for planar bone scintigraphy, SPECT, and SPECT-CT, respectively. Similarly, the specificity was 85%, 92%, and 94% for planar bone scintigraphy, SPECT, and SPECT-CT, respectively. Patient management was correctly altered in 32% of the patients based on SPECT-CT interpretation. Our data suggest that adding SPECT-CT to whole-body imaging significantly improves sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing bone metastases and significantly reduces the proportion of equivocal diagnosis in all regions of the skeleton. The most important outcome is derived from the accurate alteration in patient management clinically by down- and up-staging of patients and a more precise identification of metastatic extent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  3. Ahmed Hamdi OA, Syed Abdul Rahman SN, Awang K, Abdul Wahab N, Looi CY, Thomas NF, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:321943.
    PMID: 25126594 DOI: 10.1155/2014/321943
    Curcuma zedoaria also known as Temu putih is traditionally used in food preparations and treatment of various ailments including cancer. The cytotoxic activity of hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and the methanol-soxhlet extracts of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes was tested on two human cancer cell lines (Ca Ski and MCF-7) and a noncancer cell line (HUVEC) using MTT assay. Investigation on the chemical components in the hexane and dichloromethane fractions gave 19 compounds, namely, labda-8(17),12 diene-15,16 dial (1), dehydrocurdione (2), curcumenone (3), comosone II (4), curcumenol (5), procurcumenol (6), germacrone (7), zerumbone epoxide (8), zederone (9), 9-isopropylidene-2,6-dimethyl-11-oxatricyclo[6.2.1.0(1,5)]undec-6-en-8-ol (10), furanodiene (11), germacrone-4,5-epoxide (12), calcaratarin A (13), isoprocurcumenol (14), germacrone-1,10-epoxide (15), zerumin A (16), curcumanolide A (17), curcuzedoalide (18), and gweicurculactone (19). Compounds (1-19) were evaluated for their antiproliferative effect using MTT assay against four cancer cell lines (Ca Ski, MCF-7, PC-3, and HT-29). Curcumenone (3) and curcumenol (5) displayed strong antiproliferative activity (IC50 = 8.3 ± 1.0 and 9.3 ± 0.3 μg/mL, resp.) and were found to induce apoptotic cell death on MCF-7 cells using phase contrast and Hoechst 33342/PI double-staining assay. Thus, the present study provides basis for the ethnomedical application of Curcuma zedoaria in the treatment of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*
  4. Khoo JJ, Alwi RI, Abd-Rahman I
    Malays J Pathol, 2009 Jun;31(1):77-80.
    PMID: 19694319 MyJurnal
    Breast hamartoma is an uncommon poorly recognised benign breast neoplasm. Hamartoma displaying marked smooth muscle components known as myoid hamartoma of the breast is a much rarer entity. We present a case of myoid hamartoma of breast with chondroid differentiation in a 46-year-old woman. The painless breast lump was circumscribed and mammography showed a well-encapsulated large, dense mass with no calcification. Core needle biopsy was reported as fibroadenoma. The lesion was excised. Microscopically, it composed of many groups of mammary glandular components with dense fibrous stroma, adipose tissue and marked groups of smooth muscle fibres. Foci of chondroid differentiation were noted in the lesion. The smooth muscle cells showed strong and diffuse immunoreactivity for vimentin, myogloblin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, desmin and CD34 and failed to express pan-cytokeratin or S100 protein. The ducts lined by epithelial cells were reactive to pan-cytokeratin while the myoepithelial cells were reactive to S100 protein. The various immuno-histochemical staining as well as the cyto-histological changes encountered in myoid hamartomas are discussed with clinical, radiological and pathological correlation to differentiate it from other benign and malignant breast lesions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis
  5. Norhaizan ME, Ng SK, Norashareena MS, Abdah MA
    Malays J Nutr, 2011 Dec;17(3):367-75.
    PMID: 22655458 MyJurnal
    Phytic acid (PA) has been shown to have positive nutritional benefits. There are also claims that it is able to prevent cancer through its antioxidant capability. This study investigated antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effect of PA extracted from rice bran against selected cancer cell lines (i.e. ovarian, breast and liver cancer).
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  6. Firoozinia M, Zareian Jahromi M, Moghadamtousi SZ, Nikzad S, Abdul Kadir H
    Int J Med Sci, 2014;11(6):620-5.
    PMID: 24782652 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.8251
    A family of PI3Ks is the lipid kinases, which enhance intracellular pools of phosphatidyl inositol 3,4,5-tri-phosphate (PIP3) through phosphorylating its precursor. Amplifications and deletions of genes, as well as somatic missense of the PIK3CA gene have been described in many human cancer varieties, including of the brain, colon, liver, lung and stomach. Immunohistochemistry and Real-time quantitative PCR tests were used to determine the PIK3CA gene amplification (gene copy number) and to detect protein expression, respectively. The results obtained were analysed and the ratio of PIK3CA to β-actin gene copy number was calculated. Positive gene amplification of PIK3CA was appointed as a copy number of ≥4. Also, PI3K p110α protein expression was scored from 0 to 3+ and the scores of 2+ and 3+ were considered as positive for PI3K p110α protein expression. We studied 50 breast carcinoma samples for PI3K p110α protein expression and PIK3CA gene copy numbers. In general, 36 out of 50 (72%) breast carcinoma samples showed a significant increase in PIK3CA gene amplification. 12 out of 50 (24%) showed positive staining, and 38 out of 50 (76%) showed negative staining for PI3K p110α expression. We have identified no significant relationship between PIK3CA amplification, race (p= 0.630) and histological type (p=0. 731) in breast carcinoma, but correlation of PIK3CA amplification and age showed a significant relationship (p=0. 003) between them. No significant relationship has been identified in correlation of PI3K p110α protein expression compared to age (p=0. 284), race (p=0. 546) and histological type (p=0. 285). Amplification of PIK3CA was frequent in breast carcinoma and occurs in stages of breast carcinoma. Our result shows that there is a relationship between gene amplification and age in breast carcinoma. We suggest that PIK3CA is significant in breast tumorigenesis serve as a prevalent mechanism contributes to the oncogenic activation pathway of PIK3CA in breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*; Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  7. Seifaddinipour M, Farghadani R, Namvar F, Mohamad J, Abdul Kadir H
    Molecules, 2018 Jan 05;23(1).
    PMID: 29303970 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23010110
    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hulls (PVLH) represents a significant by-product of industrial pistachio processing that contains high amounta of phenolic and flavonoid compounds known to act as antioxidants. The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic potentials of PVLH extracts. The cytotoxic effects of hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water PVLH extracts toward human colon cancer (HT-29 and HCT-116), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), lung adenocarcinoma (H23), liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), cervical cancer (Ca Ski), and normal fibroblast (BJ-5ta) cells were assessed using a MTT cell viability assay. Apoptosis induction was evaluated through the different nuclear staining assays and confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. Anti-angiogenic activities were also determined using chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. PVLH ethyl acetate extracts (PVLH-EAE) demonstrated a suppressive effect with an IC50 value of 21.20 ± 1.35, 23.00 ± 1.2 and 25.15 ± 1.85 µg/mL against MCF-7, HT-29 and HCT-116, respectively, after 72 h of treatment. Morphological assessment and flow cytometry analysis showed the potential of PVLH-EAE to induce apoptosis. PVLH-EAE at the highest concentration demonstrated significant inhibition of angiogenesis as comparing with control group. Also the expression of Bax increased and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased in treated MCF-7 cells. Thus, the apoptosis induction and angiogenesis potential of PVLH-EAE make it to be the most suitable for further cancer research study to deal with selective antitumor active substances to human cancers especially breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy
  8. Nassar ZD, Aisha AF, Al Suede FS, Abdul Majid AS, Abdul Majid AM
    Biol. Pharm. Bull., 2012;35(4):503-8.
    PMID: 22466553
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and it can metastasize very rapidly. Tumor metastasis is the primary cause of cancer deaths. In the present study, we investigated the capability of koetjapic acid, a natural triterpene, in the induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of metastasis in the breast cancer cell line (MCF 7). The effects of koetjapic acid against 4 steps of metastasis have been assessed, including cell survival, clonogenicity, migration and invasion. Koetjapic acid exhibited cytotoxic activity against MCF 7 cells with an IC(50) of 68.88±6.075 μg/mL. The mechanism of cell death was confirmed due to the induction of apoptosis machineries; early and late apoptosis-related changes were detected, including the stimulation of caspase 3/7 activities, apoptosis-related morphological changes such as membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. A mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was found to be involved in koetjapic acid-induced cell death induction. Moreover, at a sub-toxic dose (15 μg/mL), Koetjapic acid inhibited cell migration and invasion significantly. Finally, koetjapic acid inhibited the colony formation properties of MCF 7 significantly. These results indicate that koetjapic acid possesses significant antitumor and antimetastatic effects, and warrants further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*; Breast Neoplasms/metabolism; Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  9. Mohd Firdaus CA, Norjazliney AJ, Abdul Rashid NF
    Ci Ji Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2017 10 5;29(3):177-179.
    PMID: 28974914 DOI: 10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_64_17
    Breast lesions are rare prepubescents. The majority of breast lesions in this age group are benign. The most common of these rare lesions is juvenile fibroadenoma, which accounts for only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas. It is uncommon to have a palpable lesion in juveniles as very small lesions show obvious asymmetry. Fibroadenomas can grow to a large size, and surgical intervention is cosmetically challenging, especially in achieving symmetry in a developing breast. A 12-year-old girl presented with right breast swelling associated with tenderness. The mass had initially been small on self-discovery 1 year previously and grew with time. There was no overlying skin changes or any significant risk factors for breast malignancy. Triple assessment showed features of fibroadenoma, but we were unable to rule out a phyllodes tumor. She subsequently underwent excision biopsy of the right breast lesion for symptomatic control and histopathology examination (HPE) of the lesion. The HPE report confirmed the diagnosis of fibroadenoma. The patient recovered well postoperatively with no complications. Juvenile breast lesions are rare, and it is a challenge to provide an adolescent with the best treatment in terms of clinical and psychological care. A surgical approach requires meticulous planning to ensure a fine balance between adequate resection and the best cosmetic outcome for a developing breast.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  10. Dinesh BJ, Hayati F, Azizan N, Abdul Rashid NF
    BMJ Case Rep, 2019 Sep 18;12(9).
    PMID: 31537599 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2019-231516
    Florid papillomatosis (FP) of the nipple, or nipple adenoma, is a rare breast tumour, affecting middle-aged group population. A 46-year-old woman presented to us with a cauliflower-like FP of the right nipple with no blood stained discharge or breast lump. FP can be mistaken clinically for Paget's disease and occasionally misinterpreted as invasive ductal or intraductal carcinoma. Extensive intervention, correct diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential. Any breast pathology requires triple assessment including FP of the nipple. Once the diagnosis of ductal carcinoma is excluded, simple complete excision can be undertaken. This is to ensure complete obliteration of disease recurrence and preservation of cosmetic result. We discuss the pathology and psychosocial aspects of FP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  11. Abrahim NN, Kanthimathi MS, Abdul-Aziz A
    PMID: 23153283 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-220
    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy; Breast Neoplasms/enzymology*; Breast Neoplasms/physiopathology
  12. Ramdas P, Radhakrishnan AK, Abdu Sani AA, Abdul-Rahman PS
    Nutr Cancer, 2019;71(8):1263-1271.
    PMID: 31084432 DOI: 10.1080/01635581.2019.1607407
    Tocotrienols (T3), a family of vitamin E, are reported to possess potent anti-cancer effects but the molecular mechanisms behind these effects still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate how T3 exert anti-cancer effects on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. The MDA-MB-231 cells were chosen for this study as they are triple-negative and highly metastatic cells, which form aggressive tumors in experimental models. The MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with varying concentrations (0-20 µg mL-1) of gamma (γ) or delta (δ) T3 and the secretome profiles of these cells treated with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of γT3 (5.8 µg mL-1) or δT3 (4.0 µg mL-1) were determined using label-free quantitative proteomic strategy. A total of 103, 174 and 141 proteins were identified with ProteinLynx Global Server (PLGS) score of more than 200 and above 25% sequence coverage in the untreated control and T3-treated cell culture supernatant respectively. A total of 18 proteins were dysregulated between untreated control and T3 (δT3 or γT3) treated conditions. The results showed that T3 treatment downregulated the exogenous Cathepsin D and Serpine1 proteins but upregulated Profilin-1 protein, which play a key role in breast cancer in the MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings strongly suggest that T3 may induce differential expression of secreted proteins involved in the cytoskeletal regulation of RHO GTPase signaling pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  13. Ibrahim MD, Kntayya SB, Mohd Ain N, Iori R, Ioannides C, Abdull Razis AF
    Molecules, 2018 Nov 27;23(12).
    PMID: 30486382 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23123092
    Glucoraphasatin (GRH), a glucosinolate present abundantly in the plants of the Brassicaceae family, is hydrolyzed by myrosinase to raphasatin, which is considered responsible for its cancer chemopreventive activity; however, the underlying mechanisms of action have not been investigated, particularly in human cell lines. The aims of this study are to determine the cytotoxicity of raphasatin, and to evaluate its potential to cause apoptosis and modulate cell cycle arrest in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. The cytotoxicity was determined following incubation of the cells with glucoraphasatin or raphasatin (0⁻100 µM), for 24, 48, and 72 h. GRH displayed no cytotoxicity as exemplified by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. When myrosinase was added to the incubation system to convert GRH to raphasatin, cytotoxicity was evident. Exposure of the cells to raphasatin stimulated apoptosis, as was exemplified by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation. Moreover, using Annexin V-FITC assay, raphasatin induced apoptosis, as witnessed by changes in cellular distribution of cells, at different stages of apoptosis; in addition, raphasatin caused the arrest of the MCF-7 cells at the G₂ + M phase. In conclusion, raphasatin demonstrated cancer chemopreventive potential against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells, through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy; Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*; Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  14. Ahmad F, Muhammad Mb, Abdullah AA
    J Relig Health, 2011 Mar;50(1):36-45.
    PMID: 20924683 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-010-9401-4
    This article is part of a larger study on the role of spirituality in coping with breast cancer among Malaysian Muslim women. The study seeks to reveal the meaning of the experience through the stories of three Muslim women surviving advanced breast cancer, to better understand the deep meanings that inform their experiences with spirituality and transformation as they cope with the challenges of breast cancer. Data were gathered using in-depth interview. Qualitative methods were used in identifying two themes--illness as an awakening and hope and freedom comes from surrendering to God. The themes were discussed in the context of two broad areas: (1) what are the new meanings these women discovered in their experiences with cancer; and (2) how did the new meanings change their lives? The study suggests that cancer survivors' experiences with cancer and their learning processes must be understood within the appropriate cultural context. This is especially so for spirituality. The common emphasis of spirituality on relationship with God, self and others, may significantly influence how people learn to live with cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/ethnology*; Breast Neoplasms/psychology
  15. Balraj P, Khoo AS, Volpi L, Tan JA, Nair S, Abdullah H
    Singapore Med J, 2002 Apr;43(4):194-7.
    PMID: 12188064
    Thirty patients with early onset breast cancer or familial breast cancer from Malaysia were analysed for germline mutation in the early onset breast cancer I gene (BRCA1). Direct sequencing of the entire coding region of BRCA1 identified a frameshift mutation, c.5447-5448insC (insC5447) (codon 1776 of exon 21) in a patient aged 32 of the Malay ethnic origin, who had no family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer. Eight polymorphisms (2201C > T, 2430T > C, P871L, E1038G, K1183R, 4427T > C, S1613G and IVS8-57delT) were identified in the samples tested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/ethnology; Breast Neoplasms/genetics*
  16. Lei CP, Har YC, Abdullah KL
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(3):797-802.
    PMID: 21627386
    BACKGROUND: Cancer and chemotherapy are sources of anxiety and worry for cancer patients. Information provision is therefore very important to empower them to overcome and adjust to the stressful experience. Thus, nurses should be aware of the informational needs of the patients throughout the course of their care.
    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to identify the important information required by breast cancer patients during the first and fourth cycles of chemotherapy from both the patients' and nurses' perceptions.
    METHODOLOGY: This is a longitudinal study used a questionnaire adapted from the Toronto Informational Needs Questionnaires-Breast Cancer (TINQ-BC). Some modifications were made to meet the specific objectives of the study. The study was conducted in the Chemotherapy Day Care at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia. A total of 169 breast cancer patients who met the inclusion criteria, and 39 nurses who were involved in their care were recruited into the study.
    RESULTS: The overall mean scores at first and fourth cycle of chemotherapy were 3.91 and 3.85 respectively: i.e., between 3 (or important) and 4 (or very important), which indicated a high level of informational needs. There was no significant difference in information needed by the breast cancer patients between the two cycles of chemotherapy (p=0.402). The most important information was from the subscale of disease, followed closely by treatment, physical care, investigative tests and psychosocial needs. Nurses had different views on the important information needed by breast cancer patients at both time points (p = 0.023).
    CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer patients on chemotherapy have high levels of informational needs with no significant differences in information needed at first cycle as opposed to fourth cycle. There were differences between the perceptions of the breast cancer patients and the nurses on important information needed. A paradigm shift, with an emphasis on patients as the central focus, is needed to enhance the information giving sessions conducted by nurses based on the perceptions of the patients themselves.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*; Breast Neoplasms/nursing; Breast Neoplasms/psychology*
  17. Nordin ML, Abdul Kadir A, Zakaria ZA, Abdullah R, Abdullah MNH
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 Mar 12;18(1):87.
    PMID: 29530022 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2153-5
    BACKGROUND: Ardisia crispa Thunb. D.C is used mostly in some parts of the Asian region by traditional practitioners to treat certain diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation including cancer and rheumatism. In Malaysia, it is popularly known as 'Mata Ayam' and local traditional practitioners believed that the root of the plant is therapeutically beneficial.

    METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of hydromethanolic extract of A. crispa and its solvents partitions (ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts) against breast cancer cells were evaluated by using MTT assay. The cells were treated with concentration of extracts ranging from 15.63 μg/mL- 1000 μg/mL for 72 h. The quantification of phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts were carried out to determine the relationship between of phytochemical compounds responsible for cytotoxic and antioxidative activities. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assay and expressed as milligram (mg) Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per 1 g (g) of tested extract.

    RESULTS: The hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts showed moderate cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 with IC50 values of 57.35 ± 19.33 μg/mL, and 54.98 ± 14.10 μg/mL, respectively but aqueous extract was inactive against MCF-7. For MDA-MB-231, hydromethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts exhibited weak cytotoxic effects against MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values more than 100 μg/mL. The plant revealed high total phenolic content, total flavonoid and antioxidant capacity.

    CONCLUSION: The response of different type of breast cancer cell lines towards A. crispa extract and its partitions varied. Accordingly, hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts appear to be more cytotoxic to oestrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer than oestrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer. However, aqueous extract appears to have poor activity to both types of breast cancer. Besides that, hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts exhibit higher TPC, TFC and antioxidant capacity compared to aqueous extract. Synergistic effect of anticancer and antioxidant bioactives compounds of A. crispa plausibly contributed to the cytotoxic effects of the extract.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*; Breast Neoplasms/metabolism; Breast Neoplasms/physiopathology
  18. Cheah YH, Azimahtol HL, Abdullah NR
    Anticancer Res., 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6B):4527-34.
    PMID: 17201174
    Xanthorrhizol is a natural sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb (Zingiberaceae). Xanthorrhizol was tested for a variety of important pharmacological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. An antiproliferation assay using the MTT method indicated that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, with an EC50 value of 1.71 microg/ml. Three parameters including annexin-V binding assay, Hoechst 33258 staining and accumulation of sub-G1 population in DNA histogram confirmed the apoptosis induction in response to xanthorrhizol treatment. Western-blotting revealed down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein expression. However, xanthorrhizol did not affect the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, bax, at a concentration of 1 microg/ml, 2.5 microg/ml and 5 microg/ml. The level of p53 was greatly increased, whilst PARP-1 was cleaved to 85 kDa subunits, following the treatment with xanthorrhizol at a dose-dependent manner. These results, thereby, suggest that xanthorrhizol has antiproliferative effects on MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis through the modulation of bcl-2, p53 and PARP-1 protein levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics; Breast Neoplasms/pathology*
  19. Foo JB, Saiful Yazan L, Tor YS, Wibowo A, Ismail N, Armania N, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Jul 1;187:195-204.
    PMID: 27131434 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.04.048
    Dillenia suffruticosa is traditionally used for treatment of cancerous growth including breast cancer in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  20. Salih, G.A., Ahmad-Raus, R., Shaban, M.N., Abdullah, N.
    MyJurnal
    Breast cancer is considered as one of the most common cancers all over the world. A huge effort has been made to create a safe and cost effective breast cancer treatment. All of these features exist in the plants sources. In this study, the effect of local vegetable salad, Premna serratifolia (Bebuas) against MCF-7 cells (human breast adenocarcinoma) was determined. The optimum condition to extract breast cancer cytotoxic compound from the plant was investigated and the exact cytotoxic compound was identified as well. To determine the plant cytotoxicity effect against MCF-7 cells, MTT assay was used. Two important parameters in the sonication extraction method which are duration of time and temperature were optimized by carrying out a series of experiments which were designed by Face Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD). The extraction efficiency of each experiment was determined by measuring the yield of extract and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the extract against MCF-7 cells. The results obtained from the experiments were fitted to the second order polynomial model to generate equation that was used to determine best extraction processing condition. Based on the generated equation, the best sonication processing condition to extract the cytotoxic compound is at 30oC for 67 min. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the duration of extraction time has great influence (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
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