METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using breast cancer data from the Kelantan Cancer Registry between 2007 and 2011, and Kelantan general population mortality data. The breast cancer cases were followed up for 5 years until 2016. Out of 598 cases, 549 cases met the study criteria and were included in the analysis. Modelling of excess mortality was conducted using Poisson regression.
RESULTS: Excess mortality of breast cancer varied according to age group (50 years old and below vs above 50 years old, Adj. EHR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.31, 4.09; P = 0.004), ethnicity (Malay vs non-Malay, Adj. EHR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.96; P = 0.008), and stage (stage III and IV vs. stage I and II, Adj. EHR: 5.75; 95% CI: 4.24, 7.81; P
METHODS: A prospective, non-randomised longitudinal study was conducted in two government integrated hospitals over an 8-month period. Early-stage breast cancer patients who were (1) either already using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) or not and (2) who were on a regime of 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide were included in the study. Patients who agreed to receive CHM were assigned to receive individualised CHM prescriptions deemed suitable for the individual at a particular time. Those who were not willing to take Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) were assigned to the non-CHM control group. Blood profile and chemotherapy-induced AE were recorded whilst HRQOL assessment was done using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire on first, third, and sixth cycles.
RESULTS: Forty-seven patients [32 female vs. 1 male, p = 0.31; mean year of age: 52.2(SD = 7.6), p = 0.28)}] were recruited during the study period. Demographics of both groups were comparable. Fifty percent of respondents reported using some kind of CAM before chemotherapy. Diet supplements (40.6%) were the most common CAM used by the respondents. The study showed that patients using CHM had significantly less fatigue (p = 0.012), nausea (p = 0.04), and anorexia (p = 0.005) during chemotherapy. There were no significant differences in patients' HRQOL (p = 0.79). There were no AEs reported during the study.
CONCLUSION: The use of CHM as an adjunct treatment with conventional chemotherapy have been shown to reduce fatigue, nausea, and anorexia in breast cancer patients but did not reduce chemotherapy-associated hematologic toxicity. The sample size of this study was not powered to assess the significance of HRQOL between two groups of patients.
METHODS: The cytotoxicity activity was measured using MTS assay. The mode of cell death was analysed by early (phosphatidylserine externalization) and late apoptosis (DNA fragmentation). The caspases 8, 9, 3/7 and apoptotic proteins bax, bcl-2 study were done by western blot and ELISA method.
RESULTS: The methanol extract was found to inhibit 50% growth of T-47D cells at the concentration of 79.43µg/ml respectively after 72hr. From seven fractions, fraction F1, F2 and F3 produced cytotoxicity effects in T-47D cell line with IC50 (72hr) < 30µg/ml. The results obtained by Annexin V/PI apoptosis detection assay and TUNEL assay suggest that active fractions of Vitex rotundifolia induced early and late apoptosis (DNA fragmentation) in T-47D cell line. Moreover, western blot analysis and Caspase GloTM luminescent assay demonstrated that fractions F2 and F3 triggered apoptotic cell death via activation of caspases -8, -9 and -3/7 and up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein. Furthermore, chemical profiling confirms the presence of potential metabolites (vitexicarpin) in fractions of Vitex rotundifolia.
CONCLUSION: Thus, the present study suggests the remarkable potential of active metabolites in fractions of Vitex rotundifolia as future cancer therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.
METHODS: Of these 279 variants, data were obtained for 228 from GWAS conducted within the Asian Breast Cancer Consortium (24,206 cases and 24,775 controls) and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry). Meta-analyses were conducted to combine the results from these two datasets.
FINDINGS: Of those 228 variants, an association was observed for 12 variants in 10 genes at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P breast cancer risk, we found 14 variants showing an association. Our findings warrant further functional investigation of these variants. FUND: National Institutes of Health.