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  1. Ibrahim MY, Hashim NM, Mohan S, Abdulla MA, Kamalidehghan B, Ghaderian M, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014;8:1629-47.
    PMID: 25302018 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S66105
    Cratoxylum arborescens is an equatorial plant belonging to the family Guttiferae. In the current study, α-Mangostin (AM) was isolated and its cell death mechanism was studied. HCS was undertaken to detect the nuclear condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and the release of cytochrome c. An investigation for reactive oxygen species formation was conducted using fluorescent analysis. To determine the mechanism of cell death, human apoptosis proteome profiler assay was conducted. In addition, using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting, the levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 proteins were also tested. Caspaces such as 3/7, 8, and 9 were assessed during treatment. Using HCS and Western blot, the contribution of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) was investigated. AM had showed a selective cytotoxicity toward the cancer cells with no toxicity toward the normal cells even at 30 μg/mL, thereby indicating that AM has the attributes to induce cell death in tumor cells. The treatment of MCF-7 cells with AM prompted apoptosis with cell death-transducing signals. This regulated the mitochondrial membrane potential by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax, thereby causing the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. The liberation of cytochrome c activated caspace-9, which, in turn, activated the downstream executioner caspace-3/7 with the cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein, thereby leading to apoptotic alterations. Increase of caspace 8 had showed the involvement of an extrinsic pathway. This type of apoptosis was suggested to occur through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways and prevention of translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Our results revealed AM prompt apoptosis of MCF-7 cells through NF-κB, Bax/Bcl-2 and heat shock protein 70 modulation with the contribution of caspaces. Moreover, ingestion of AM at (30 and 60 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor size in an animal model of breast cancer. Our results suggest that AM is a potentially useful agent for the treatment of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*; Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  2. Ahmad ZA, Yeap SK, Ali AM, Ho WY, Alitheen NB, Hamid M
    Clin. Dev. Immunol., 2012;2012:980250.
    PMID: 22474489 DOI: 10.1155/2012/980250
    To date, generation of single-chain fragment variable (scFv) has become an established technique used to produce a completely functional antigen-binding fragment in bacterial systems. The advances in antibody engineering have now facilitated a more efficient and generally applicable method to produce Fv fragments. Basically, scFv antibodies produced from phage display can be genetically fused to the marker proteins, such as fluorescent proteins or alkaline phosphatase. These bifunctional proteins having both antigen-binding capacity and marker activity can be obtained from transformed bacteria and used for one-step immunodetection of biological agents. Alternatively, antibody fragments could also be applied in the construction of immunotoxins, therapeutic gene delivery, and anticancer intrabodies for therapeutic purposes. This paper provides an overview of the current studies on the principle, generation, and application of scFv. The potential of scFv in breast cancer research is also discussed in this paper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis; Breast Neoplasms/immunology; Breast Neoplasms/therapy*
  3. Liu J, Lončar I, Collée JM, Bolla MK, Dennis J, Michailidou K, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 11 15;6:36874.
    PMID: 27845421 DOI: 10.1038/srep36874
    NBS1, also known as NBN, plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability. Interestingly, rs2735383 G > C, located in a microRNA binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of NBS1, was shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to lung and colorectal cancer. However, the relation between rs2735383 and susceptibility to breast cancer is not yet clear. Therefore, we genotyped rs2735383 in 1,170 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 1,077 controls using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) analysis, but found no association between rs2735383CC and breast cancer risk (OR = 1.214, 95% CI = 0.936-1.574, P = 0.144). Because we could not exclude a small effect size due to a limited sample size, we further analyzed imputed rs2735383 genotypes (r2 > 0.999) of 47,640 breast cancer cases and 46,656 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). However, rs2735383CC was not associated with overall breast cancer risk in European (OR = 1.014, 95% CI = 0.969-1.060, P = 0.556) nor in Asian women (OR = 0.998, 95% CI = 0.905-1.100, P = 0.961). Subgroup analyses by age, age at menarche, age at menopause, menopausal status, number of pregnancies, breast feeding, family history and receptor status also did not reveal a significant association. This study therefore does not support the involvement of the genotype at NBS1 rs2735383 in breast cancer susceptibility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*; Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  4. Looi LM, Azura WW, Cheah PL, Ng MH
    Pathology, 2001 Aug;33(3):283-6.
    PMID: 11523925
    This investigation was carried out to gain insight into the prevalence of pS2 expression in invasive ductal breast carcinoma in the Malaysian population and its correlation with oestrogen receptor (ER) protein expression and tumour aggressiveness. Seventy consecutive infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas treated with mastectomy and axillary lymph node clearance were investigated, using the standard avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase method with microwave antigen retrieval and commercial monoclonal antibodies (Dako), for expression of pS2 and human ER. This was correlated against histological grade (modified Bloom and Richardson) and the presence of axillary lymph node metastasis of these carcinomas. Four (5.7%) were grade 1, 40 (57.1%) grade 2 and 26 (37.1%) grade 3 tumours. A total of 45 (64%) showed histological evidence of axillary lymph node metastasis. Forty (57%) were ER-positive, while 31 (44%) were pS2-positive. There was a statistically significant correlation between pS2 and ER expressions (chi2-test with Yates correction: P<0.005). There was no correlation between pS2 expression and histological grade (P>0.1) and the presence of lymph node metastasis (P>0.1). Our findings support the views that pS2 may be a co-marker of endocrine responsiveness in invasive breast cancer and that it does not influence breast cancer biology in terms of potential for metastatic spread.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*; Breast Neoplasms/pathology; Breast Neoplasms/chemistry
  5. Yu F, Bracken CP, Pillman KA, Lawrence DM, Goodall GJ, Callen DF, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(6):e0129190.
    PMID: 26061048 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129190
    p53 is a master tumour repressor that participates in vast regulatory networks, including feedback loops involving microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate p53 and that themselves are direct p53 transcriptional targets. We show here that a group of polycistronic miRNA-like non-coding RNAs derived from small nucleolar RNAs (sno-miRNAs) are transcriptionally repressed by p53 through their host gene, SNHG1. The most abundant of these, sno-miR-28, directly targets the p53-stabilizing gene, TAF9B. Collectively, p53, SNHG1, sno-miR-28 and TAF9B form a regulatory loop which affects p53 stability and downstream p53-regulated pathways. In addition, SNHG1, SNORD28 and sno-miR-28 are all significantly upregulated in breast tumours and the overexpression of sno-miR-28 promotes breast epithelial cell proliferation. This research has broadened our knowledge of the crosstalk between small non-coding RNA pathways and roles of sno-miRNAs in p53 regulation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*; Breast Neoplasms/metabolism; Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  6. Manvati S, Mangalhara KC, Kalaiarasan P, Chopra R, Agarwal G, Kumar R, et al.
    Cancer Cell Int., 2019;19:230.
    PMID: 31516387 DOI: 10.1186/s12935-019-0933-8
    Background: Despite several reports describing the dual role of miR-145 as an oncogene and a tumor suppressor in cancer, not much has been resolved and understood.

    Method: In this study, the potential targets of miR-145 were identified bio-informatically using different target prediction tools. The identified target genes were validated in vitro by dual luciferase assay. Wound healing and soft agar colony assay assessed cell proliferation and migration. miR-145 expression level was measured quantitatively by RT-PCR at different stages of breast tumor. Western blot was used to verify the role of miR-145 in EMT transition using key marker proteins.

    Result: Wound healing and soft agar colony assays, using miR-145 over-expressing stably transfected MCF7 cells, unraveled its role as a pro-proliferation candidate in cancerous cells. The association between miR-145 over-expression and differential methylation patterns in representative target genes (DR5, BCL2, TP53, RNF8, TIP60, CHK2, and DCR2) supported the inference drawn. These in vitro observations were validated in a representative set of nodal positive tumors of stage 3 and 4 depicting higher miR-145 expression as compared to early stages. Further, the role of miR-145 in epithelial-mesenchymal (EMT) transition found support through the observation of two key markers, Vimentin and ALDL, where a positive correlation with Vimentin protein and a negative correlation with ALDL mRNA expression were observed.

    Conclusion: Our results demonstrate miR-145 as a pro-cancerous candidate, evident from the phenotypes of aggressive cellular proliferation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, hypermethylation of CpG sites in DDR and apoptotic genes and upregulation of miR-145 in later stages of tumor tissues.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  7. Famurewa AC, Ekeleme-Egedigwe CA, David EE, Eleazu CO, Folawiyo AM, Obasi NA
    PMID: 31532279 DOI: 10.1080/15376516.2019.1669243
    Tamoxifen (TAM) is used in breast cancer chemotherapy since its approval by the Food and Drug Administration in 1977. However, TAM therapy is accompanied with hepatotoxicity - a source of worry to clinicians. Oxidative stress and inflammation are the major implicated mechanisms contributing to TAM hepatotoxicity. In this study, we explored whether zinc (Zn) supplementation could prevent TAM-induced hepatotoxicity in female Wistar rats. Rats were subjected to oral pretreatment of Zn (100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day) for 14 days against hepatic toxicity induced by single intraperitoneal administration of TAM (50 mg/kg b.w.) on day 13. TAM markedly elevated serum liver enzymes, whereas total protein and albumin considerably reduced. TAM caused prominent depletion of hepatic-reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Also, TAM significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Further, it raised liver levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β, (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide (NO) confirmed by the liver histopathological alterations. The mechanistic inflammatory expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB), and expression of caspase-3 protein prominently increased. Zinc supplementation significantly modulated serum liver function markers, antioxidant enzymes, and GSH and MDA levels. Zinc downregulated the expression of cytokines, NO, iNOS, NF-ĸB and caspase-3, and ameliorated histopathological changes. Zinc protects against TAM-induced hepatotoxicity; it may serve as an adjuvant supplement for female patients undergoing TAM chemotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  8. E M Eid E, S Alanazi A, Koosha S, A Alrasheedy A, Azam F, M Taban I, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 13;24(14).
    PMID: 31337024 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24142554
    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are highly promising tools to deliver therapeutic molecules into tumours. αVβ3 integrins are cell-matrix adhesion receptors, and are considered as an attractive target for anticancer therapies owing to their roles in the process of metastasis and angiogenesis. Therefore, this study aims to assess the effect of co-administration of zerumbone (ZER) and ZERencapsulated in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin with TP5-iRGD peptide towards cell cytotoxicity, apoptosis induction, and proliferation of normal and cancerous breast cells utilizing in vitro assays, as well as to study the molecular docking of ZER in complex with TP5-iRGD peptide. Cell viability assay findings indicated that ZER and ZERencapsulated in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (ZER-HPβCD) inhibited the growth of estrogen receptor positivebreast cancer cells (ER+ MCF-7) at 72 h treatment with an inhibitory concentration (IC)50 of 7.51 ± 0.2 and 5.08 ± 0.2 µg/mL, respectively, and inhibited the growth of triple negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) with an IC50 of 14.96 ± 1.52 µg/mL and 12.18 ± 0.7 µg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, TP5-iRGD peptide showed no significant cytotoxicity on both cancer and normal cells. Interestingly, co-administration of TP5-iRGD peptide in MCF-7 cells reduced the IC50 of ZER from 7.51 ± 0.2 µg/mL to 3.13 ± 0.7 µg/mL and reduced the IC50 of ZER-HPβCD from 5.08 ± 0.2 µg/mL to 0.49 ± 0.004 µg/mL, indicating that the co-administration enhances the potency and increases the efficacy of ZER and ZER-HPβCD compounds. Acridine orange (AO)/propidium iodide (PI) staining under fluorescence microscopy showed evidence of early apoptosis after 72 h from the co-administration of ZER or ZER-HPβCD with TP5-iRGD peptide in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The findings of the computational modelling experiment provide novel insights into the ZER interaction with integrin αvβ3 in the presence of TP5-iRGD, and this could explain why ZER has better antitumor activities when co-administered with TP5-iRGD peptide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
  9. Cheah YH, Azimahtol HL, Abdullah NR
    Anticancer Res., 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6B):4527-34.
    PMID: 17201174
    Xanthorrhizol is a natural sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb (Zingiberaceae). Xanthorrhizol was tested for a variety of important pharmacological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. An antiproliferation assay using the MTT method indicated that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, with an EC50 value of 1.71 microg/ml. Three parameters including annexin-V binding assay, Hoechst 33258 staining and accumulation of sub-G1 population in DNA histogram confirmed the apoptosis induction in response to xanthorrhizol treatment. Western-blotting revealed down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein expression. However, xanthorrhizol did not affect the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, bax, at a concentration of 1 microg/ml, 2.5 microg/ml and 5 microg/ml. The level of p53 was greatly increased, whilst PARP-1 was cleaved to 85 kDa subunits, following the treatment with xanthorrhizol at a dose-dependent manner. These results, thereby, suggest that xanthorrhizol has antiproliferative effects on MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis through the modulation of bcl-2, p53 and PARP-1 protein levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics; Breast Neoplasms/pathology*
  10. Zoharah Omar, Roohangiz Karimi, Nor Azida Nayan, Najwa Haneem Mohamad, Nor Aina Emran
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):457-464.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction This study investigates work engagement of employed breast cancer
    survivors in comparison to unmatched control samples of healthy working
    women without cancer and any other chronic diseases from the general
    population.

    Methods A case-control study design using unmatched controls was adopted in this
    study. The case comprised of 80 female breast cancer survivors who have
    returned to full-time employment selected using purposive sampling
    technique. Meanwhile, controls were 88 healthy female working women in
    full time paid employment, selected using quota sampling. Questionnaire
    covering socio-demographic characteristics and self-rated work engagement
    measured using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) was distributed to
    the cancer survivors through face-to-face meeting during their hospital visits.
    For the healthy controls the questionnaires were distributed using drop-andcollect
    method through the human resource personnel of the participating
    organization.

    Results The results revealed, after controlling for age, marital status, ethnic group and
    tenure with organization, no significant differences in the overall work
    engagement was found between the breast cancer survivors [mean (SD) =
    4.66 (0.92)] and the healthy controls [mean (SD) = 4.75 (0.85)]; F(1, 163)
    =1.70. In comparison to the work engagement domains, only the Vigor
    domain was found to be significantly lower for the survivors, survivors [F (1,
    163) =14.94; p
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  11. Hung TH, Hsu SC, Cheng CY, Choo KB, Tseng CP, Chen TC, et al.
    Oncotarget, 2014 Dec 15;5(23):12273-90.
    PMID: 25401518
    Multidrug resistance in cancer cells arises from altered drug permeability of the cell. We previously reported activation of the Wnt pathway in ABCB1-overexpressed human uterus sarcoma drug-resistant MES-SA/Dx5 cells through active β-catenin and associated transactivation activities, and upregulation of Wnt-targeting genes. In this study, Wnt5A was found to be significantly upregulated in MES-SA/Dx5 and MCF7/ADR2 cells, suggesting an important role for the Wnt5A signaling pathway in cancer drug resistance. Higher cAMP response elements and Tcf/Lef transcription activities were shown in the drug-resistant cancer cells. However, expression of Wnt target genes and CRE activities was downregulated in Wnt5A shRNA stably-transfected MES-SA/Dx5 cells. Cell viability of the drug-resistant cancer cells was also reduced by doxorubicin treatment and Wnt5A shRNA transfection, or by Wnt5A depletion. The in vitro data were supported by immunohistochemical analysis of 24 paired breast cancer biopsies obtained pre- and post-chemotherapeutic treatment. Wnt5A, VEGF and/or ABCB1 were significantly overexpressed after treatment, consistent with clinical chemoresistance. Taken together, the Wnt5A signaling pathway was shown to contribute to regulating the drug-resistance protein ABCB1 and β-catenin-related genes in antagonizing the toxic effects of doxorubicin in the MDR cell lines and in clinical breast cancer samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy; Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  12. Ibrahim NI, Dahlui M, Aina EN, Al-Sadat N
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(5):2213-8.
    PMID: 22901196
    INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, breast cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in women. However, the survival rate varies across regions at averages of 73%and 57% in the developed and developing countries, respectively.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the survival rate of breast cancer among the women of Malaysia and characteristics of the survivors.

    METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on secondary data obtained from the Breast Cancer Registry and medical records of breast cancer patients admitted to Hospital Kuala Lumpur from 2005 to 2009. Survival data were validated with National Birth and Death Registry. Statistical analysis applied logistic regression, the Cox proportional hazard model, the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test.

    RESULTS: A total of 868 women were diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2005 and December 2009, comprising 58%, 25% and 17% Malays, Chinese and Indians, respectively. The overall survival rate was 43.5% (CI 0.573-0.597), with Chinese, Indians and Malays having 5 year survival rates of 48.2% (CI 0.444-0.520), 47.2% (CI 0.432-0.512) and 39.7% (CI 0.373-0.421), respectively (p<0.05). The survival rate was lower as the stages increased, with the late stages were mostly seen among the Malays (46%), followed by Chinese (36%) and Indians (34%). Size of tumor>3.0cm; lymph node involvement, ERPR, and HER 2 status, delayed presentation and involvement of both breasts were among other factors that were associated with poor survival.

    CONCLUSIONS: The overall survival rate of Malaysian women with breast cancer was lower than the western figures with Malays having the lowest because they presented at late stage, after a long duration of symptoms, had larger tumor size, and had more lymph nodes affected. There is an urgent need to conduct studies on why there is delay in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer women in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/mortality*; Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology; Breast Neoplasms/therapy
  13. Yaw YH, Shariff ZM, Kandiah M, Mun CY, Yusof RM, Othman Z, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2011;11:309.
    PMID: 21569467 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-309
    Weight gain rather than weight loss often occurs after breast cancer diagnosis despite breast cancer survivors frequently reported making healthful lifestyle changes. This study describes the prevalence and magnitude of changes in weight before and after breast cancer diagnosis and examines lifestyle behaviors of breast cancer survivors with stable weight, weight gain or weight loss.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*
  14. Tan GJS, Tan AGS, Peh WCG
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Jun;63(2):164-5.
    PMID: 18942311
    A 74-year-old woman was incidentally found to have a left breast mass. The mass could not be adequately compressed to be visualized on mammography. Ultrasonography showed a heavily-calcified rounded mass in the left axillary tail of the left breast. Chest radiograph confirmed that the mass was a migrated humeral head. Remotely-displaced fracture-dislocations of the humeral head are very rare and to our knowledge, displacement into the breast, clinically mimicking a breast mass, has not been previously described.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*
  15. Chaudhry GE, Jan R, Mohamad H, Tengku Muhammad TS
    Res Pharm Sci, 2019 Jun;14(3):273-285.
    PMID: 31160905 DOI: 10.4103/1735-5362.258496
    Breast cancer is amongst frequently diagnosed cancer type throughout the world. Due to reduced efficacy of current chemotherapeutics, several natural products have been screened for better alternatives. The cytotoxic activity of fractions prepared from leaves extract of Vitex rotundifolia (V. rotundifolia) on human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 was studied. The fractions F1, F2, F3, and F5 of V. rotundifolia produced concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 cell line. The relative potential of cytotoxicity of the fractions on MCF-7 cell line was found to be F3 > F2 > F5 > F1. The active fractions induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cell line determined by annexin V base assay. The phosphatidylserine externalization and the presence of DNA fragmentation in treated cells confirms the early and late apoptosis in treated cells. The V. rotundifolia fractions induced apoptosis by both pathways; extrinsic pathways via activation of caspase-8 and intrinsic pathways through enhanced bax/bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 proapoptotic proteins. Furthermore, chemical profiling indicates various phenolic, flavonoids, and terpenoids compounds in the active fractions. Thus, V. rotundifolia might be a suitable candidate to investigate further and develop molecular targeted cancer therapeutics by understanding the fundamental mechanisms involved in the regulation of cell death in cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  16. Ng KH, Lau S
    Med Phys, 2015 Dec;42(12):7059-77.
    PMID: 26632060 DOI: 10.1118/1.4935141
    Breast density is a strong predictor of the failure of mammography screening to detect breast cancer and is a strong predictor of the risk of developing breast cancer. The many imaging options that are now available for imaging dense breasts show great promise, but there is still the question of determining which women are "dense" and what imaging modality is suitable for individual women. To date, mammographic breast density has been classified according to the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories from visual assessment, but this is known to be very subjective. Despite many research reports, the authors believe there has been a lack of physics-led and evidence-based arguments about what breast density actually is, how it should be measured, and how it should be used. In this paper, the authors attempt to start correcting this situation by reviewing the history of breast density research and the debates generated by the advocacy movement. The authors review the development of breast density estimation from pattern analysis to area-based analysis, and the current automated volumetric breast density (VBD) analysis. This is followed by a discussion on seeking the ground truth of VBD and mapping volumetric methods to BI-RADS density categories. The authors expect great improvement in VBD measurements that will satisfy the needs of radiologists, epidemiologists, surgeons, and physicists. The authors believe that they are now witnessing a paradigm shift toward personalized breast screening, which is going to see many more cancers being detected early, with the use of automated density measurement tools as an important component.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis; Breast Neoplasms/physiopathology
  17. Emaus MJ, Peeters PH, Bakker MF, Overvad K, Tjønneland A, Olsen A, et al.
    Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2016 Jan;103(1):168-77.
    PMID: 26607934 DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.114.101436
    BACKGROUND: The recent literature indicates that a high vegetable intake and not a high fruit intake could be associated with decreased steroid hormone receptor-negative breast cancer risk.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between vegetable and fruit intake and steroid hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk.

    DESIGN: A total of 335,054 female participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort were included in this study (mean ± SD age: 50.8 ± 9.8 y). Vegetable and fruit intake was measured by country-specific questionnaires filled out at recruitment between 1992 and 2000 with the use of standardized procedures. Cox proportional hazards models were stratified by age at recruitment and study center and were adjusted for breast cancer risk factors.

    RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 11.5 y (IQR: 10.1-12.3 y), 10,197 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed [3479 estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (ER+PR+); 1021 ER and PR negative (ER-PR-)]. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of vegetable intake was associated with a lower risk of overall breast cancer (HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94). Although the inverse association was most apparent for ER-PR- breast cancer (ER-PR-: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.96; P-trend = 0.03; ER+PR+: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.05; P-trend = 0.14), the test for heterogeneity by hormone receptor status was not significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.09). Fruit intake was not significantly associated with total and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk.

    CONCLUSION: This study supports evidence that a high vegetable intake is associated with lower (mainly hormone receptor-negative) breast cancer risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism; Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control*
  18. Che Mohamed N, Moey SF, Lim BC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 09 01;20(9):2865-2873.
    PMID: 31554389 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.9.2865
    Background: Early detection of breast cancer is essential in improving overall women’s health. The researchers
    sought to develop a comprehensive measure that combined the basic components of the health belief model (HBM)
    with a focus on breast self-examination (BSE) and screening mammogram amongst women. Methods: Questionnaire
    items were developed following a review of relevant literature of HBM on BSE and screening mammogram. The
    sampling frame for the study was Malaysian women aged 35 to 70 years old, living in Kuantan, Pahang and able to
    read or write in Bahasa Malaysia or English. As such, 103 women were randomly selected to participate in the study.
    Tests of validity using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and reliability were subsequently performed to determine the
    psychometric properties of the questionnaire. Results: The EFA revealed nine factors (self-efficacy of mammogram,
    perceived barriers of BSE and mammogram, perceived susceptibility of breast cancer, perceived severity of breast
    cancer, cues to action for mammogram screening, perceived benefits of BSE, health motivation, perceived benefits
    of mammogram and self-efficacy of BSE) containing 54 items that jointly accounted for 74.2% of the observed
    variance. All nine factors have good internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha ≥ 0.8. Fifty-four items remained in
    the final questionnaire after deleting 13 problematic items. The scale also showed good convergent and discriminant
    validity. Conclusion: The findings showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable instrument for the
    study involving women in Kuantan, Pahang. The instrument can help to assess women’s beliefs on BSE adoption and
    mammogram screening in health care practice and research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  19. Miao H, Hartman M, Verkooijen HM, Taib NA, Wong HS, Subramaniam S, et al.
    BMC Cancer, 2016 10 21;16(1):820.
    PMID: 27769212
    BACKGROUND: CancerMath is a set of web-based prognostic tools which predict nodal status and survival up to 15 years after diagnosis of breast cancer. This study validated its performance in a Southeast Asian setting.

    METHODS: Using Singapore Malaysia Hospital-Based Breast Cancer Registry, clinical information was retrieved from 7064 stage I to III breast cancer patients who were diagnosed between 1990 and 2011 and underwent surgery. Predicted and observed probabilities of positive nodes and survival were compared for each subgroup. Calibration was assessed by plotting observed value against predicted value for each decile of the predicted value. Discrimination was evaluated by area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with 95 % confidence interval (CI).

    RESULTS: The median predicted probability of positive lymph nodes is 40.6 % which was lower than the observed 43.6 % (95 % CI, 42.5 %-44.8 %). The calibration plot showed underestimation for most of the groups. The AUC was 0.71 (95 % CI, 0.70-0.72). Cancermath predicted and observed overall survival probabilities were 87.3 % vs 83.4 % at 5 years after diagnosis and 75.3 % vs 70.4 % at 10 years after diagnosis. The difference was smaller for patients from Singapore, patients diagnosed more recently and patients with favorable tumor characteristics. Calibration plot also illustrated overprediction of survival for patients with poor prognosis. The AUC for 5-year and 10-year overall survival was 0.77 (95 % CI: 0.75-0.79) and 0.74 (95 % CI: 0.71-0.76).

    CONCLUSIONS: The discrimination and calibration of CancerMath were modest. The results suggest that clinical application of CancerMath should be limited to patients with better prognostic profile.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis; Breast Neoplasms/mortality; Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology*; Breast Neoplasms/therapy
  20. Juliana N, Shahar S, Chelliah KK, Ghazali AR, Osman F, Sahar MA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(14):5759-65.
    PMID: 25081698
    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a potential supplement for mammogram screening. This study aimed to evaluate and feasibility of EIT as opposed to mammography and to determine pain perception with both imaging methods. Women undergoing screening mammography at the Radiology Department of National University of Malaysia Medical Centre were randomly selected for EIT imaging. All women were requested to give a pain score after each imaging session. Two independent raters were chosen to define the image findings of EIT. A total of 164 women in the age range from 40 to 65-year-old participated and were divided into two groups; normal and abnormal. EIT sensitivity and specificity for rater 1 were 69.4% and 63.3, whereas for rater 2 they were 55.3% and 57.0% respectively. The reliability for each rater ranged between good to very good (p<0.05). Quantitative values of EIT showed there were significant differences in all values between groups (ANCOVA, p<0.05). Interestingly, EIT scored a median pain score of 1.51±0.75 whereas mammography scored 4.15±0.87 (Mann Whitney U test, p<0.05). From these quantitative values, EIT has the potential as a health discriminating index. Its ability to replace image findings from mammography needs further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis
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