Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 56 in total

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  1. Akhtari-Zavare M, Lattif LA, Juni MH, Md Said S, Ismail IZ
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 2015 Dec;41(12):1982-7.
    PMID: 26554636 DOI: 10.1111/jog.12819
    Abstract
    AIM:
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, including Malaysia. In developing countries, predictors affecting breast self-examination (BSE) practice are different. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of BSE practice and the predictors affecting BSE practice among undergraduate female students in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS:
    A cross-sectional study was conducted among 820 female undergraduate students to assess the BSE performance and related determinants of BSE practice in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Data were collected via a self-administered structured questionnaire that was developed for this study.

    RESULTS:
    The mean age of the respondents was 21.7 ± 1.2 years old. Most of them were single (96.8%), Malay (91.9%) and 19.6% of the participants performed BSE regularly. Multivariate logistic regression modeling revealed that BSE performance was more likely among women who have checked their breast with a doctor (odds ratio = 2.04, P = 0.00), and women who have personal history of breast disease (odds ratio = 4.43, P = 0.03).

    CONCLUSION:
    The findings showed a low BSE practice rate among young Malaysian women. Hence, the community's breast health awareness is needed to improve breast cancer prevention among young Malaysian women.

    KEYWORDS:
    Malaysia; breast self-examination; predictors
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  2. Dunn RA, Tan AK
    Breast J, 2011 Jul-Aug;17(4):399-402.
    PMID: 21615819 DOI: 10.1111/j.1524-4741.2011.01098.x
    As is the case in many developing nations, previous studies of breast cancer screening behavior in Malaysia have used relatively small samples that are not nationally representative, thereby limiting the generalizability of results. Therefore, this study uses nationally representative data from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 to investigate the role of socio-economic status on breast cancer screening behavior in Malaysia, particularly differences in screening behaviour between ethnic groups. The decisions of 816 women above age 40 in Malaysia to screen for breast cancer using mammography, clinical breast exams (CBE), and breast self-exams (BSE) are modeled using logistic regression. Results indicate that after adjusting for differences in age, education, household income, marital status, and residential location, Malay women are less likely than Chinese and Indian women to utilize mammography, but more likely to perform BSE. Education level and urban residence are positively associated with utilization of each method, but these relationships vary across ethnicity. Higher education levels are strongly related to using each screening method among Chinese women, but have no statistically significant relationship to screening among Malays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  3. Chan SC
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1999 Dec;54(4):433-7.
    PMID: 11072459
    The practice of breast self-examination (BSE) amongst 1,303 women registered with the Well Person's Clinic, Outpatient Department, Hospital Ipoh between April 1995 and March 1997 were assessed through a questionnaire. Majority (98.2%) were never taught and did not practise BSE, 17(1.3%) practised BSE while 6 (0.5%) were taught BSE but failed to put it into practice. Only 5.8% of 52 women with past/family history of breast cancer/lump and 2.9% of 207 women with past/family history of other cancers were practising BSE regularly. Three out of 64 women with breast lumps found on clinical breast examination discovered the lumps themselves. Five of the 64 women were subsequently confirmed to have breast carcinoma.
    Study site: Outpatient clinic, Hospital Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination*
  4. Chee HL, Rashidah S, Shamsuddin K, Sharifah Zainiyah SY
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2003 Aug;58(3):320-9.
    PMID: 14750370
    A total of 486 Malaysian women electronics workers participated in a study of reproductive health knowledge and cancer screening. The practice of Breast Self Examination (BSE) was found to be related to educational attainment; while ever having had a Pap smear was found to be related to being older than 30 years old, being ever married, living with family or relatives, and not staying in hostels. Knowledge on reproductive health was found to be higher for older women, married women, living with family or relatives, not staying in hostels, ever having done BSE and ever having had a Pap smear.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination*
  5. Akhtari-Zavare M, Juni MH, Ismail IZ, Said SM, Latiff LA
    Springerplus, 2015;4:692.
    PMID: 26587360 DOI: 10.1186/s40064-015-1491-8
    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer and the second reason of cancer deaths among woman worldwide, including Malaysia. The objective of this paper is to assess the practice of breast self-examination (BSE) and identify the barriers of BSE practice among undergraduate female students in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  6. Parsa P, Kandiah M, Mohd Nasir MT, Hejar AR, Nor Afiah MZ
    Singapore Med J, 2008 Nov;49(11):897-903.
    PMID: 19037556
    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Malaysian women, and the use of breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography remain low in Malaysia. Therefore, there is a need to develop a valid and reliable tool to measure the beliefs that influence breast cancer screening practices. The Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) is a valid and reliable tool to measure beliefs about breast cancer and screening methods in the Western culture. The purpose of this study was to translate the use of CHBMS into the Malaysian context and validate the scale among Malaysian women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data
  7. Dahlui M, Gan DE, Taib NA, Lim JN
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S18-20.
    PMID: 23276776 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.12.010
    OBJECTIVE:
    This study investigated rural women's knowledge of breast cancer and screening methods by ethnicity and examined the predictors of breast screening methods.

    METHODS:
    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 in five rural districts of Perak; 959 women were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. ANOVA and regression analysis were used in data analysis.

    RESULTS:
    Women below 50 years old, of Malay ethnicity and who had secondary education scored better than those older, of Chinese ethnicity and had primary education (p<0.001). The uptake of breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammogram was 59%, 51% and 6.8%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed knowledge of breast cancer and CBE as top predictors of BSE, being married and knowledge of breast cancer as top predictors for CBE; and CBE as the top predictor of mammography uptake. Support from husbands and family members for breast cancer screening was a predictor for CBE and BSE.

    CONCLUSION:
    Knowledge of breast cancer and its screening uptake varies by ethnicity, location and the type of support received. Efforts and approaches to improve the women's knowledge of breast cancer and its screening uptake therefore should be customized to address the different influencing factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology; Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data
  8. Hadi MA, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Awaisu A
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2010 Jan;8(1):29-34.
    PMID: 25152790
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women of all ethnic and age groups in Malaysia.

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms and methods of screening among female university students and their perception towards the disease treatment outcomes.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2008 at Universiti Sains Malaysia. Two hundred participants from 10 randomly selected faculties were interviewed face to face by a trained pharmacist using a validated questionnaire. In addition to their demographic characteristics, participants were required to answer 22 questions concerning knowledge of breast cancer and five questions related to their perception of breast cancer management and treatment outcomes. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.

    RESULTS: The mean age of the respondents was 26.7 (SD=1.9) years. The results showed that the vast majority of the female university students had inadequate knowledge of breast cancer. The mean total knowledge score of the students was 60.7%. Indian students had significantly less knowledge of breast cancer compared to their Chinese and Malay counterparts (p<0.05). However, more than two third of the students were aware of breast self examination (BSE) and clinical breast examination (CBE) recommendations. Furthermore, the students had positive perceptions towards the treatment outcomes of breast cancer.

    CONCLUSION: This study has highlighted the need of a breast cancer awareness campaign, which should also stress the importance of early detection and reporting of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  9. Leelavathi, M., Yasmin, S.A.K., Gomez, P.A., Aznida, F.A.A.
    Medicine & Health, 2006;1(1):1-4.
    MyJurnal
    This is a retrospective descriptive study done to look at common presentation and method of detection of breast cancer. A total of 366 case records of patients attending the Breast and Endocrine Clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur were reviewed. The peak age of breast cancer presentation was 40 to 49 years (39.6%). Most (81.4%) patients presented with a lump in the breast and the lump was mainly self-detected (97.3%). The mean tumour diameter on presentation was 4.7± 3 cm. Medical staff detected the disease in 1.6% cases and 1.1% of cases were detected by mammogram. Most women detected the lump themselves, suggesting that Breast Self Examination (BSE) can be used for detection of the disease in places where there is cost and availability constrains for mammogram. Early detection with BSE can possibly offer better treatment options and quality of life despite the evidence that it does not reduce the mortality due to breast cancer.
     
    Study site: Breast and Endocrine Clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  10. Raja Lexshimi, R. G., Zaleha, M.I., Wahida Daud, Mohd Said Nurumal, Syed Zulkifli, S.Z.
    MyJurnal
    Breast self-examination (BSE) is recommended globally as one of the methods in early detection of breast cancer. Little is known about nurses screening behavior related to BSE. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the knowledge, attitude and practice of Breast Self Examination (BSE) among nurses. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to a total of 114 nurses working in Obstetrics & Gynaecology wards and clinics of two tertiary hospitals. Among the 114 participants, 111(97.4%) practiced BSE. The mean age of the participants was 34.97(±9.104) years. The mean score of knowledge was 11.07(±1.020) and 81.1% had high knowledge of BSE. Majority (98.2%) of respondents showed good attitude towards BSE. Barriers was found to be a significant predictor and self confidence proved to be an influencing factor on BSE performance. Despite practicing BSE, the number of nurses that examined their breast monthly was only 35.1%. Age, working experience and marital status showed no significant relationship with knowledge and practice of BSE. However, BSE taught during their undergraduate programme was found to have a significant relationship with practice of BSE. Majority of nurses in this study were not complying with MOH recommendation for BSE in terms of frequency. Thus, intervention strategies should focus on educating nurses on performing BSE monthly, in accordance with the Ministry of Health guidelines. This is important as nurses play a primary role in promoting health behaviors in BSE practice and breast cancer awareness among women in this country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  11. Norhaini, M., Norazlanshah, H., Khairil Anuar, M.I., Fazlyla Nadya, M.F., Mashita, M., Mohamad, G.M.
    MyJurnal
    Students in tertiary level education are mostly young adults that are transiting from the teenage years to adulthood. Since there is less restriction as compared to their teenage years, university and college students might involve in risky behaviours that may affect their health, social and academic performance. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate and identify the differences of health risk factors and health promoting behaviour that have been practiced by students in Malaysia. A cross sectional study was conducted using closed-ended questionnaires distributed to university and college students via emails. The results showed that 77.0% students claimed they have no health problem. However 49.0% of the non-medical students did not know whether they have normal BMI. Among the medical students, 62.0% rarely do physical exercise even though most are seriously concern about their fat consumption (95.0%). Only 30.0% of the total students have awareness of wearing seat belt. For health promoting behaviour, 33.0% of female students have never perform breast self examination (BSE), while 65.0% of male students have never perform testicular self examination (TSE). These findings confirmed that there are differences in health risk factors and health promoting behaviour that have been practiced by the students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  12. Nimir, Amal R., Al-Dubai, Sami A. R., Alshagga, Mustafa A., Saliem, Ahmed M.
    MyJurnal
    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently encountered malignancies among young females in Malaysia, which accounts for 30.4% of newly diagnosed cancers. All women at or above the age of 20 are considered at risk of developing breast cancer. This is a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in a private medical university in Malaysia during year 2012. Two hundred students were recruited in this study using universal sampling. Data collection was done using a selfadministration questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to assess the association between the practice of breast selfexamination and socio-demographic variables. Only 19.5% of the study sample has sufficient knowledge about BSE which is acquired mostly from local media. Having a family history of malignancy other than breast cancer seems to be the only significant variable associated with knowledge about BSE (P=0.002). Other variables such as demographic data, menstrual history and social history were also tested, but found to be not significant. Frequent community-based awareness programs are needed so that all women can know and practice BSE, which in turn helps to alert the women to any abnormal changes in the breasts so that they will be able to seek medical advice immediately.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  13. Aishah Knight, A.S.
    MyJurnal
    Cancer screening is an important part of any cancer control program and the success of any screening program is partly dependent on having large numbers of the high risk population availing themselves of the service. The purpose of this study was to assess the cancer screening behavior of fulbtime employed women staff of an institute of higher learning using the Health Belief Model (HBM) construct. The results showed that the rate of reported regular cancer screening behavior (Pap smear screening, breast self examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography screening) were low. The rates for regular screening were 42.5% (Pap smear), 20.9% (BSE), 15.5% (CBE) and 9.4% (mammography). There were differences in the dimensions of the HBM between the women who reported regular screening and those that did not. The perceived barriers", "perceived benefits” and “motivation” dimensions were different in Pap smear screening, whereas the "confidence” dimension was different in BSE. Recommendations were made for a health education program targeting both women and men to increase uptake of cancer screening services by women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  14. Nurly Zahureen, M., Ardi, A., Wan Rosealaiza, W.A.G., Nur Aiza, Z., Suzana, H., Norazemi, A.
    MyJurnal
    The National Health Morbidity Survey 1996 showed only 34.2% of women aged 20 years and above had done breast self examination (BSE). This data showed the practice of BSE is still low despite of various awareness programmes and activities carried out. A cross sectional study through Systematic Random Sampling was done at Out Patient Department, Kuantan Health Office to know the knowledge and practice of BSE among women aged 20~60 years. The results showed 94.9% respondents had received information about BSE, however only 31.6% knew the appropriate time to do BSE, 14.7% knew the purpose of doing at that time and only 29.9% knew how frequent they should do BSE. 74% of respondents did BSE, however 70.2% of them did not do monthly and 67.2% did not do at the suggested time. There was an association between the practice of BSE with the knowledge and sociodemographic characteristics i.e. educational level, income, ethnic group and marital status.
    Key word: Breast self-examination, breast cancer, Kuantan.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination*
  15. Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, Mohamed AS, Saladina Jaszle Jasmin
    Breast Self-Examination (BSE) is a process whereby women examine their breasts regularly to detect any abnormal swelling or lumps in order to seek prompt medical attention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and practice of BSE among female non-medical students in UKM, Bangi. A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered and validated questionnaire among 364 students. The results showed that only 37.1% performs BSE and 45% of the students have good knowledge. Age, marital status, using internet and pamphlets as source of information, personal, and family history of BC, were significantly associated with knowledge level of students. Practice of BSE was significantly associated with knowledge level. From multivariate analysis, BSE was more likely to be done among students with family history, students who using internet and pamphlet as sources of information, also among students with good knowledge. As conclusions, the practice of BSE is inadequate among the respondents in spite of most of them had heard about BSE. The results suggest the need of providing continuing educational programs to increase the knowledge level on BSE which in turn will have a positive effect on students to practice and motivate to perform BSE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  16. Aaina Mardhiah Binti Abdul Mutalib, Soo-Foon Moey, Nur Nadira Aiza Binti Kamarudin
    MyJurnal
    In Malaysia, breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women indicating that early diagnosis and screening practice is important to increase the survival rate. Breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography are the main screening practices for breast cancer. Knowledge and awareness of breast cancer can play an important role in aiding early detection of breast cancer. Little is known about the knowledge of breast cancer and screening practices among the non-academic staff in IIUM, Kuantan. As such this study aims to determine the knowledge and screening practices of breast cancer amongst the non-academic staff at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Kuantan Campus. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 nonacademic staff from ten different departments in IIUM, Kuantan from March to April 2017. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire on knowledge of breast cancer and screening practices. The relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge of breast cancer and breast cancer screening practices were carried out using chi-square. No significance difference was found between knowledge of breast cancer and socio-demographic factors. However significant relationships were found between the age of respondents and BSE as well as the level of education of respondents and CBE. Most non-academic staff possessed an average level of knowledge on breast cancer and screening practices due to possibly ease of access to information. Low performance of breast screening practices was indicated possibly due to lack of awareness, misconception of the need and benefits derived from such screening practices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  17. Abu Samah A, Ahmadian M, Latiff LA
    Glob J Health Sci, 2016;8(1):277-85.
    PMID: 26234996 DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v8n1p277
    Despite continuous argument about the efficacy of breast self-examination; it still could be a life-saving technique through inspiring and empowering women to take better control over their body/breast and health. This study investigated Malaysian female university students' knowledge about breast cancer risk factors, signs, and symptoms and assessed breast self-examination frequency among students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data
  18. Swami V, Furnham A
    Body Image, 2018 Mar;24:76-81.
    PMID: 29304438 DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.12.004
    Studies examining associations between body image and breast self-examination (BSE) have returned mixed findings, but this may be a function of focusing on global body image. Here, we examined the impact of breast size dissatisfaction specifically on BSE and behaviours in relation to breast change detection. A total of 384 British women completed measures of breast size dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, BSE frequency, confidence in detecting breast change, and delay in contacting their doctor upon detecting a breast change. Regression analyses indicated that greater breast size dissatisfaction, but not body dissatisfaction, was significantly associated with less frequent BSE and lower confidence in detecting breast change. Both breast size and body dissatisfaction were significantly associated with greater delay in consulting a doctor following breast change, but the former was the stronger predictor. These findings suggest that improving breast size satisfaction may be a useful means of promoting improved breast awareness and self-examination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology*
  19. Lim JN, Potrata B, Simonella L, Ng CW, Aw TC, Dahlui M, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2015 Dec 21;5(12):e009863.
    PMID: 26692558 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009863
    OBJECTIVE: To explore and compare barriers to early presentation of self-discovered breast cancer in Singapore and Malaysia.

    DESIGN: A qualitative interview study with thematic analysis of transcripts.

    PARTICIPANTS: 67 patients with self-discovered breast symptoms were included in the analysis. Of these, 36% were of Malay ethnicity, 39% were Chinese and 25% Indian, with an average age of 58 years (range 24-82 years). The number of women diagnosed at early stages of cancer almost equalled those at advanced stages. Approximately three-quarters presented with a painless lump, one-quarter experienced a painful lump and 10% had atypical symptoms.

    SETTING: University hospital setting in Singapore and Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Patients revealed barriers to early presentation not previously reported: the poor quality of online website information about breast symptoms, financial issues and the negative influence of relatives in both countries, while perceived poor quality of care and services in state-run hospitals and misdiagnosis by healthcare professionals were reported in Malaysia. The pattern of presentation by ethnicity remained unchanged where more Malay delayed help-seeking and had more advanced cancer compared to Chinese and Indian patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: There are few differences in the pattern of presentation and in the reported barriers to seek medical care after symptom discovery between Singapore and Malaysia despite their differing economic status. Strategies to reduce delayed presentation are: a need to improve knowledge of disease, symptoms and causes, quality of care and services, and quality of online information; and addressing fear of diagnosis, treatment and hospitalisation, with more effort focused on the Malay ethnic group. Training is needed to avoid missed diagnoses and other factors contributing to delay among health professionals.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology; Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data*
  20. Akhtari-Zavare M, Juni MH, Said SM, Ismail IZ, Latiff LA, Ataollahi Eshkoor S
    BMC Public Health, 2016 08 08;16:738.
    PMID: 27502284 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3414-1
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second principal cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide as well as in Malaysia. Breast self-examination (BSE) has a role in raising breast cancer awareness among women and educational programs play an important role in breast cancer preventive behavior. The aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of Breast Health Awareness program based on health belief model on knowledge of breast cancer and breast-selfexamination and BSE practice among female students in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A single-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out among 370 female undergraduate students from January 2011 to April 2012 in two selected public universities in Malaysia. Participants were randomized to either the intervention group or the control group. The educational program was delivered to the intervention group. The outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months after implementing the health educational program. Chi-square, independent samples t-test and two-way repeated measures ANOVA (GLM) were conducted in the course of the data analyses.

    RESULTS: Mean scores of knowledge on breast cancer (p<0.003), knowledge on breast self examination (p<0.001), benefits of BSE (p<0.00), barrier of BSE (0.01) and confidence of BSE practice (p<0.00) in the intervention group had significant differences in comparison with those of the control group 6 and 12 months after the intervention. Also, among those who never practiced BSE at baseline, frequency of BSE practice increased 6 and 12 months after the intervention (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: The Breast Health Awareness program based on health the belief model had a positive effect on knowledge of breast cancer and breast self-examination and practice of BSE among females in Malaysia.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The ANZCTR clinical trial registry ( ACTRN12616000831482 ), retrospectively registered on Jun 23, 2016 in ANZCTR.org.au.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology; Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data*
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