Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 54 in total

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  1. Subramanian P, Oranye NO, Masri AM, Taib NA, Ahmad N
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(11):6783-90.
    PMID: 24377606
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the commonest type of cancer among women, and in Malaysia 50-60% of the new cases are being detected at late stages. Do age, education level, income, ethnicity, relationship with breast cancer patients and knowledge of breast cancer risk factors influence breast screening practices? This study revealed interesting but significant differences.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors and early detection measures among women in a high risk group.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional survey of one hundred and thirty one women relatives of breast cancer patients was carried out. Participants were selected through purposive sampling, during hospital visits. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection.

    RESULTS: The majority of the respondents (71%) had poor knowledge of the risk factors for breast cancer. Income, relationship with a patient and practise of breast cancer screening predicted performance of mammography, R2=0.467, F=12.568, p<0.0001.

    CONCLUSIONS: The finding shows inadequate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors and poor cancer screening practise among women with family history of breast cancer. Poor knowledge and practise of breast screening are likely to lead to late stage presentation of breast cancer disease. Some important predictors of breast cancer screening behaviour among women with positive family history of breast cancer were identified. An understanding of the strengths and significance of the association between these factors and breast screening behaviour is vital for developing more targeted breast health promotion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  2. Samah AA, Ahmadian M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(21):9499-503.
    PMID: 25422246
    This study aimed to examine the relationship between body image satisfaction and breast self-screening behavior and intentions. The sample for this cross-sectional study consisted of 842 female university students who were recruited from a number of public and private universities. Data were obtained between the months of November and December, 2013, using multistage random cluster sampling. Main research variables were breast cancer screening behavior and intentions, demographic factors, and the total scores on each of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ-Appearance Scales) subscales. Results of multivariate analysis showed that having higher satisfaction and more positive evaluation of appearance were related to having performed breast self-examination more frequently in the last year and intending to perform breast self-examination more frequently in the next year. Longitudinal research can potentially provide detailed information about overall body image satisfaction and breast cancer screening behavior among various communities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/methods; Breast Self-Examination/psychology*
  3. Aishah Knight, A.S.
    MyJurnal
    Cancer screening is an important part of any cancer control program and the success of any screening program is partly dependent on having large numbers of the high risk population availing themselves of the service. The purpose of this study was to assess the cancer screening behavior of fulbtime employed women staff of an institute of higher learning using the Health Belief Model (HBM) construct. The results showed that the rate of reported regular cancer screening behavior (Pap smear screening, breast self examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography screening) were low. The rates for regular screening were 42.5% (Pap smear), 20.9% (BSE), 15.5% (CBE) and 9.4% (mammography). There were differences in the dimensions of the HBM between the women who reported regular screening and those that did not. The perceived barriers", "perceived benefits” and “motivation” dimensions were different in Pap smear screening, whereas the "confidence” dimension was different in BSE. Recommendations were made for a health education program targeting both women and men to increase uptake of cancer screening services by women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  4. Al-Naggar RA, Bobryshev YV, Al-Jashamy K
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(8):3829-33.
    PMID: 23098479
    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the practice and associated factors of breast self- examination (BSE) among Malaysian women.

    METHODS: For this cross-sectional study 250 women were selected by a simple random sampling technique. The questionnaire was consisted of three parts: socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about BSE, and practice of BSE. Obtained data was analyzed using SPSS version 13. T-test and ANOVA test were used to explore the relation between socio-demographic characteristics and the practice of BSE.

    RESULTS: About 32% of the participants reported that they have had family history of cancer and about 20% of the participants reported that they have had family history of breast cancer. The majority of the participants (88.8%) have heard about breast cancer and 78.4% of the participants have heard about BSE. Race, marital status, residency, regular exercise, awareness about breast cancer, belief that breast cancer can be detected early, belief that early detection improves the chance of survival, family history of cancer, family history of breast cancer, awareness about BSE, and belief that BSE is necessary, significantly influenced the practice of BSE among women. Practice of BSE on monthly basis was found to be 47.2% among the study participants.

    CONCLUSION: The socio-demographic characteristics significantly influence the practice of BSA among women in Malaysia. The findings of this study might not only influence the planning of specific screening interventions and strategies in Malaysia but might also be important for the relevant international communities, interested in the peculiarities of BSE incidence in different countries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/trends*; Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data
  5. Al-Naggar RA, Al-Naggar DH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(1):243-6.
    PMID: 22502677
    OBJECTIVE: While the relatively common nature of female breast cancer has resulted in a high level of general awareness, male breast cancer is still comparatively unknown to the general public and to healthcare professionals. The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions and opinions about male breast cancer and male breast self-examination among male university students.

    METHODOLOGY: In-depth interviews were conducted among 36 male university students from the Management and Science University, Malaysia, selected by simple random sampling. The themes of the interview were: knowledge of male breast cancer and male breast self-examination, sources of knowledge and attitudes towards male BSE. The data obtained were classified into various categories and analyzed manually.

    RESULTS: The majority of participants mentioned that there is a low possibility for males to get breast cancer. They also believed that the cause of breast cancer among men is due to the carcinogens from cigarettes. The majority of participants mentioned that they know about breast self-examination from the mass media and that the presence of a lump in the breast is the main symptom of breast cancer in men. The majority of participants mentioned that they encourage their family members to practice breast self-examination but considered that BSE is not important for men because they have a low probability of getting breast cancer.

    CONCLUSIONS: Misconceptions regarding male breast cancer and breast self-examination among men still exist among male university students. Therefore special attention should be given to educate men about male breast cancer and male BSE.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination*
  6. Al-Naggar RA, Al-Naggar DH, Bobryshev YV, Chen R, Assabri A
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(5):1173-8.
    PMID: 21875261
    INTRODUCTION: The etiology of breast cancer is still unknown and adequate primary prevention strategies or interventions are still not possible. Therefore, early detection remains the first priority and regular practice of breast self-examination (BSE) influences treatment, quality of life, survival, and prognosis of breast cancer patients.
    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the practices and barriers towards breast self-examination among young Malaysian women.
    METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional study was conducted among 251 female students at the Management and Science University, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. Questionnaires were distributed at gathering places such as the university cafeteria, the university plaza, the Islamic center, and at the library. In addition, questionnaires were distributed in the lecture halls. The proposal of this study was approved by the Ethics and Research Committee of Management and Science University. Data was analysis using SPSS version 13, t-test was used to analyze the associated factors toward the practice of BSE.
    RESULTS: A total number of 251 students participated in this study. The majority of them were older than 20 years old,of Malay racial origin, single and from urban areas (66.5%; 63.7%; 96%; 70.9% respectively). Regarding their lifestyle practices, the majority of participants do exercise, are non-smokers and do not drink alcohol (71.3%; 98.4%; 94.4% respectively). More than half of the study participants mentioned that they have practiced BSE (55.4%). Regarding the sources of information about BSE, the majority mentioned that radio and TV were their main sources of information (38.2%). Age, exercise and family history of cancer significantly influenced the practice of BSE (p = 0.045; p=0.002; p=0.017 respectively). Regarding the barriers to BSE, the majority who never practiced BSE mentioned that lack of knowledge, not having any symptoms, and being afraid of being diagnosed with breast cancer were the main barriers to practicing BSE (20.3%; 14.3%; 4.4% respectively).
    CONCLUSION: More than half of the participants practiced BSE. Age, exercise and family history of cancer significantly influenced the practice of the BSE. Lack of knowledge, not having any symptoms and being afraid of being diagnosed with breast cancer were the main barriers to practicing BSE. There is an urgent need to develop a continuous awareness campaign among university students on the importance of performing BSE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/trends; Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data*
  7. Akhtari-Zavare M, Juni MH, Said SM, Ismail IZ, Latiff LA, Ataollahi Eshkoor S
    BMC Public Health, 2016 08 08;16:738.
    PMID: 27502284 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3414-1
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second principal cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide as well as in Malaysia. Breast self-examination (BSE) has a role in raising breast cancer awareness among women and educational programs play an important role in breast cancer preventive behavior. The aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of Breast Health Awareness program based on health belief model on knowledge of breast cancer and breast-selfexamination and BSE practice among female students in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A single-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out among 370 female undergraduate students from January 2011 to April 2012 in two selected public universities in Malaysia. Participants were randomized to either the intervention group or the control group. The educational program was delivered to the intervention group. The outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months after implementing the health educational program. Chi-square, independent samples t-test and two-way repeated measures ANOVA (GLM) were conducted in the course of the data analyses.

    RESULTS: Mean scores of knowledge on breast cancer (p<0.003), knowledge on breast self examination (p<0.001), benefits of BSE (p<0.00), barrier of BSE (0.01) and confidence of BSE practice (p<0.00) in the intervention group had significant differences in comparison with those of the control group 6 and 12 months after the intervention. Also, among those who never practiced BSE at baseline, frequency of BSE practice increased 6 and 12 months after the intervention (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: The Breast Health Awareness program based on health the belief model had a positive effect on knowledge of breast cancer and breast self-examination and practice of BSE among females in Malaysia.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The ANZCTR clinical trial registry ( ACTRN12616000831482 ), retrospectively registered on Jun 23, 2016 in ANZCTR.org.au.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology; Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data*
  8. Leelavathi, M., Yasmin, S.A.K., Gomez, P.A., Aznida, F.A.A.
    Medicine & Health, 2006;1(1):1-4.
    MyJurnal
    This is a retrospective descriptive study done to look at common presentation and method of detection of breast cancer. A total of 366 case records of patients attending the Breast and Endocrine Clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur were reviewed. The peak age of breast cancer presentation was 40 to 49 years (39.6%). Most (81.4%) patients presented with a lump in the breast and the lump was mainly self-detected (97.3%). The mean tumour diameter on presentation was 4.7± 3 cm. Medical staff detected the disease in 1.6% cases and 1.1% of cases were detected by mammogram. Most women detected the lump themselves, suggesting that Breast Self Examination (BSE) can be used for detection of the disease in places where there is cost and availability constrains for mammogram. Early detection with BSE can possibly offer better treatment options and quality of life despite the evidence that it does not reduce the mortality due to breast cancer.
     
    Study site: Breast and Endocrine Clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  9. Azeem E, Gillani SW, Siddiqui A, Shammary H A A, Poh V, Syed Sulaiman SA, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(13):5233-5.
    PMID: 26225658
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia. Therefore, it is highly important for the public to be educated on breast cancer and to know the steps to detect it early on. Healthcare providers are in the prime position to provide such education to the public due to their high knowledge regarding health and their roles in healthcare. The present systematic review involved studies conducted in recent years to analyze the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of Malaysian healthcare providers regarding breast cancer, in attempts to obtain an overall picture of how well equipped our healthcare providers are to provide optimal breast cancer education, and to see their perceptions and actual involvement in said education. The systematic review was conducted via a primary search of various databases and journal websites, and a secondary search of references used by eligible studies. Criteria for eligibility included being published from the year 2008 till present, being conducted in Malaysia, and being written in the English language. A total of two studies were eligible for this review. Findings show that Malaysian future and current healthcare providers have moderate knowledge on breast cancer, have a positive towards involvement of breast cancer education, but have poor actual involvement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology*
  10. Al-Naggar RA, Bobryshev YV
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(8):3595-600.
    PMID: 23098439
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the practice and barriers of mammography and associated factors among Malaysian women in the general population.

    METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 women in Shah Alam, Selangor; Malaysia. The questionnaire contained 27 questions and was comprised of two sections; socio-demographic characteristics and practices, knowledge and barriers of mammography. All the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 13.0.

    RESULTS: Of the 200 Malaysian women who participated in this study, the majority were under the age of 50 years (65.5%), Malay (86%), and married (94.5%). Regarding any family history of cancer in general, the majority of the participants had none (78%). However, some did report a close relative with breast cancer (16.5%). While the majority of them knew about mammography (68%), 15% had had a mammogram once in their life and only 2% had the procedure every two or three years. Univariate analysis showed that age, family history of cancer, family history of breast cancer, regular supplement intake, regular medical check-up and knowledge about mammogram were significantly associated with mammogram practice among the general population (p=0.007, p=0.043, P=0.015, p=0.01, p=0.001, p<0.001; respectively). Multivariate analysis using multiple linear regression test showed that age, regular medical check-up and knowledge about mammography testing were statistically associated with the practice of mammography among the general population in Malaysia (p=0.035, p=0.015 and p<0.001; respectively). Lack of time, lack of knowledge, not knowing where to go for the test and a fear of the test result were the most important barriers (42.5%, 32%, 21%, 20%; respectively).

    CONCLUSION: The practice of mammogram screening is low among Malaysian women.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/trends; Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data*
  11. Dahlui M, Ng C, Al-Sadat N, Ismail S, Bulgiba A
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(2):369-72.
    PMID: 21545196
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the rate of breast self examination (BSE) among the female staff of University of Malaya and to determine the role of BSE in detecting breast abnormalities.

    METHODS: A total of 1598 questionnaires were posted to all female staff, aged 35 years and above. Their knowledge on breast cancer, practice of BSE and detection rate of breast abnormality as confirmed by CBE was determined.

    RESULTS: The response rate for this study was 45 percent (714 respondents). The rate of respondents having awareness on breast cancer was 98.7 percent. Eighty four percent (598) of the respondents had performed BSE in their lifetime. However, in only 41% was it regular at the recommended time. Forty seven percent (334) had undergone CBE at least once in a lifetime but only 26% (185) had CBE at least once in the past 3 years, while 23% (165) had had a mammogram. There was a significant relationship between CBE and BSE whereby those who had CBE were twice more likely to do BSE. Nineteen percent (84 respondents) of those who did BSE claimed they had detected a breast lump. Of these, 87% (73) had gone for CBE and all were confirmed as such.

    CONCLUSION: BSE is still relevant as a screening tool of breast cancer since those who detect breast lump by BSE will most probably go for further check up. CBE should be done to all women, especially those at highest risk of breast cancer, to encourage and train for BSE.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data*
  12. Dahlui M, Ramli S, Bulgiba AM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1631-4.
    PMID: 22126511
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Malaysian females. The National Cancer Registry in 2003 and 2006 reported that the age standardized incidence of breast cancer was 46.2 and 39.3 per 100,000 populations, respectively. With the cumulative risk at 5.0; a woman in Malaysia had a 1 in 20 chance of developing breast cancer in her lifetime. The incidence of cancer in general, and for breast cancer specifically was highest in the Chinese, followed by Indians and Malays. Most of the patients with breast cancers presented at late stages (stage I: 15.45%, stage II: 46.9%, stage III: 22.2% and stage IV: 15.5%). The Healthy Lifestyles Campaign which started in the early nineties had created awareness on breast cancer and after a decade the effort was enhanced with the Breast Health Awareness program to promote breast self examination (BSE) to all women, to perform annual clinical breast examination (CBE) on women above 40 and mammogram on women above 50. The National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 showed that the prevalence rate of 70.35% by any of three methods of breast screening; 57.1% by BSE, 51.8% by CBE and 7.6% by mammogram. The current screening policy for breast cancer focuses on CBE whereby all women at the age of 20 years and above must undergo breast examination by trained health care providers every 3 years for age between 20-39 years, and annually for age 40 and above. Several breast cancer preventive programs had been developed by various ministries in Malaysia; among which are the RM50 subsidy for mammogram by the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development and the SIPPS program (a call-recall system for women to do PAP smear and CBE) by the Ministry of Health. Measures to increase uptake of breast cancer screening and factors as to why women with breast cancer present late should be studied to assist in more development of policy on the prevention of breast cancer in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  13. Chan SC
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1999 Dec;54(4):433-7.
    PMID: 11072459
    The practice of breast self-examination (BSE) amongst 1,303 women registered with the Well Person's Clinic, Outpatient Department, Hospital Ipoh between April 1995 and March 1997 were assessed through a questionnaire. Majority (98.2%) were never taught and did not practise BSE, 17(1.3%) practised BSE while 6 (0.5%) were taught BSE but failed to put it into practice. Only 5.8% of 52 women with past/family history of breast cancer/lump and 2.9% of 207 women with past/family history of other cancers were practising BSE regularly. Three out of 64 women with breast lumps found on clinical breast examination discovered the lumps themselves. Five of the 64 women were subsequently confirmed to have breast carcinoma.
    Study site: Outpatient clinic, Hospital Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination*
  14. Loh SY, Chew SL
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(1):199-202.
    PMID: 21517257
    Breast self-examination (BSE) is a self-generated, non-invasive and non-irradiative method of breast cancer detection. This paper documents Malaysian women's awareness and practice of regular BSE as a potent breast cancer detection tool. A pre-test post-test questionnaire survey on women diagnosed with breast cancer (n=66) was conducted. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were performed to correlate demographic variables, knowledge and regular practice of BSE. Findings showed that 80% of the breast cancer survivors self-detected the breast lumps, despite a high 85% of these women reporting they were never taught about BSE. More than 70% of the women maintained that lack of knowledge/skill on the proper practice of BSE was the key barrier to a more regular BSE practice. After an educational intervention on BSE and breast awareness, we found an increase report from 17% (at pre-test) to 67% (at post-test) of self reported monthly BSE practices. Provision of self-management education incorporating BSE, a readily available cheap method, should be introduced at primary care and breast clinics. This strategy promotes women's self-efficacy which contributes towards cancer control agenda in less resource available countries around Asia Pacific. Longer follow up may be crucial to examine the adherence to positive BSE behaviour.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/methods*; Breast Self-Examination/psychology*
  15. Devi BC, Tang TS, Corbex M
    Ann. Oncol., 2007 Jul;18(7):1172-6.
    PMID: 17434897
    The registry of the Oncology Departmental in Sarawak General Hospital showed that 79% of nasopharyngeal, 77% of breast and 70% of cervix cancer patients were diagnosed at an advanced stage (stages III and IV) for year 1993. Hence, a low cost Early Cancer Surveillance Program was started in 1994, with the intent of downstaging these three most common cancers in Sarawak.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  16. Swami V, Furnham A
    Body Image, 2018 Mar;24:76-81.
    PMID: 29304438 DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.12.004
    Studies examining associations between body image and breast self-examination (BSE) have returned mixed findings, but this may be a function of focusing on global body image. Here, we examined the impact of breast size dissatisfaction specifically on BSE and behaviours in relation to breast change detection. A total of 384 British women completed measures of breast size dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, BSE frequency, confidence in detecting breast change, and delay in contacting their doctor upon detecting a breast change. Regression analyses indicated that greater breast size dissatisfaction, but not body dissatisfaction, was significantly associated with less frequent BSE and lower confidence in detecting breast change. Both breast size and body dissatisfaction were significantly associated with greater delay in consulting a doctor following breast change, but the former was the stronger predictor. These findings suggest that improving breast size satisfaction may be a useful means of promoting improved breast awareness and self-examination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology*
  17. Hasan TN, Shah SA, Hassan MR, Safian N, Azhar ZI, Syed Abdul Rahim SS, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(15):6669-72.
    PMID: 26434892
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among females worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice about breast cancer and its related factors among women in Baghdad city, Iraq.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 508 women aged 18 to 55 years from four non-governmental organizations (NGO) in Baghdad city, Iraq. A self-administered questionnaire on breast cancer knowledge and practice was distributed to participants during weekly activity of the NGO.

    RESULTS: A total of 61.2% of the respondents had poor knowledge, only 30.3% performed breast self-examination (BSE) and 41.8% said that they did not know the technique to perform BSE. Associations between knowledge and marital status and age were significant. For practice, working status, education, age and family income were significant. After controlling for cofounders, the most important contributing factors for poor knowledge among respondents were marital status and not performing BSE, with adjusted odds ratio of 1.6 and 1.8 respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer knowledge and practice of BSE are poor among women in Baghdad city, Iraq. More promotion regarding breast cancer signs and symptoms and also how to perform BSE should be conducted using media such as television and internet as these constituted the main sources of information for most women in our study.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data*
  18. Al-Dubai SA, Qureshi AM, Saif-Ali R, Ganasegeran K, Alwan MR, Hadi JI
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(10):2531-8.
    PMID: 22320951
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess awareness and knowledge of breast cancer and mammography among Malaysian women in Shah Alam.

    METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted among 250 Malaysian women. Data were collected using a self administrated questionnaire which included questions on socio-demographic data, knowledge of breast cancer and awareness of mammography.

    RESULTS: Mean age of respondents was 28 ± 9.2 with 69.2% aged 18 to 29 years. The majority had heard about breast cancer (81.2%) and indicated books, magazines and brochures as their source of information (55.2%). However, most did not know about signs and symptoms of breast cancer and many of its risk factors. On multivariate analysis, significant predictors of breast cancer knowledge were age, race, marital status, level of education, occupation, family size and family history of other cancers (p<0.05). Fifty percent of women were aware of mammography, significant predictors being age, occupation, marital status and knowledge of breast cancer (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Most women were aware of breast cancer. However, the knowledge about signs and symptoms of breast cancer and awareness of mammography were inadequate. It is recommended that the level of knowledge should be raised among Malaysian women, particularly in the less educated young.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  19. Yusof A, Chia YC, Hasni YM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(19):8095-9.
    PMID: 25338990
    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, over half a million women died of breast cancer in 2011 alone. Mammography screening is associated with a reduction of 20 to 35% in breast cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the awareness and practice of mammography screening and predictors of its uptake in Malaysian women attending a primary care clinic.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among women aged 40 to 74 years attending a primary care clinic in Selangor, Malaysia. An assisted structured questionnaire included questions on socio-demography, source of information and level of knowledge. An adapted version of the revised Champion Health Belief Model Scale plus other associated factors for mammography screening up-take were also included as part of the questionnaire. Predictors for mammography screening uptake were only determined in those who were aware about mammography screening. Significant predictors were determined by logistic regression.

    RESULTS: 447 women were recruited for this study; 99.1% of them (n: 411) were aware about breast cancer. Only 50.1% (n: 206) had knowledge about mammography screening. Prevalence of clinical breast-examination (CBE) was 23.3% (n: 104) and mammography screening up-take was 13.2% (n: 59). The predictors for the latter were those who have had clinical breast-examination (aOR=17.58, 95%CI: 7.68-39.82) and those aged between 50 to 59 years (aOR=3.94, 95%CI: 1.61-9.66) as well as those aged 60 years and above (aOR=6.91, 95%CI: 2.28-20.94). Good knowledge and positive beliefs about mammography screening were not associated with mammography screening uptake.

    CONCLUSIONS: Half of our Malaysian women were aware about mammography screening. However, the uptake of mammography was low. Previous CBE and older age were significant predictors of mammography screening uptake. Increasing CBE services may increase compliance with guidelines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  20. Akhtari-Zavare M, Ghanbari-Baghestan A, Latiff LA, Matinnia N, Hoseini M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(16):6531-4.
    PMID: 25169482
    BACKGROUND: In Iran, breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women and a major public health problem.

    METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out to determine knowledge on breast cancer and breast self- examination (BSE) practices of 384 females living in the city of Hamadan, Iran. A purposive sampling method was adopted and data were collected via face-to-face interviews based on a validated questionnaire developed for this study.

    RESULTS: Among respondents 268 (69.8%) were married and 144 (37.5%) of the respondents reported having a family history of breast cancer. One hundred respondents (26.0%) claimed they practiced BSE. Level of breast cancer knowledge was significantly associated with BSE practice (p=0.000). There was no association with demographic details (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: The findings showed that Iranian women's knowledge regarding breast cancer and the practice of BSE is inadequate. Targeted education should be implemented to improve early detection of breast cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination*
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