Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 55 in total

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  1. Dunn RA, Tan AK
    Breast J, 2011 Jul-Aug;17(4):399-402.
    PMID: 21615819 DOI: 10.1111/j.1524-4741.2011.01098.x
    As is the case in many developing nations, previous studies of breast cancer screening behavior in Malaysia have used relatively small samples that are not nationally representative, thereby limiting the generalizability of results. Therefore, this study uses nationally representative data from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 to investigate the role of socio-economic status on breast cancer screening behavior in Malaysia, particularly differences in screening behaviour between ethnic groups. The decisions of 816 women above age 40 in Malaysia to screen for breast cancer using mammography, clinical breast exams (CBE), and breast self-exams (BSE) are modeled using logistic regression. Results indicate that after adjusting for differences in age, education, household income, marital status, and residential location, Malay women are less likely than Chinese and Indian women to utilize mammography, but more likely to perform BSE. Education level and urban residence are positively associated with utilization of each method, but these relationships vary across ethnicity. Higher education levels are strongly related to using each screening method among Chinese women, but have no statistically significant relationship to screening among Malays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  2. Lim JN, Potrata B, Simonella L, Ng CW, Aw TC, Dahlui M, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2015 Dec 21;5(12):e009863.
    PMID: 26692558 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009863
    OBJECTIVE: To explore and compare barriers to early presentation of self-discovered breast cancer in Singapore and Malaysia.

    DESIGN: A qualitative interview study with thematic analysis of transcripts.

    PARTICIPANTS: 67 patients with self-discovered breast symptoms were included in the analysis. Of these, 36% were of Malay ethnicity, 39% were Chinese and 25% Indian, with an average age of 58 years (range 24-82 years). The number of women diagnosed at early stages of cancer almost equalled those at advanced stages. Approximately three-quarters presented with a painless lump, one-quarter experienced a painful lump and 10% had atypical symptoms.

    SETTING: University hospital setting in Singapore and Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Patients revealed barriers to early presentation not previously reported: the poor quality of online website information about breast symptoms, financial issues and the negative influence of relatives in both countries, while perceived poor quality of care and services in state-run hospitals and misdiagnosis by healthcare professionals were reported in Malaysia. The pattern of presentation by ethnicity remained unchanged where more Malay delayed help-seeking and had more advanced cancer compared to Chinese and Indian patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: There are few differences in the pattern of presentation and in the reported barriers to seek medical care after symptom discovery between Singapore and Malaysia despite their differing economic status. Strategies to reduce delayed presentation are: a need to improve knowledge of disease, symptoms and causes, quality of care and services, and quality of online information; and addressing fear of diagnosis, treatment and hospitalisation, with more effort focused on the Malay ethnic group. Training is needed to avoid missed diagnoses and other factors contributing to delay among health professionals.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology; Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data*
  3. Raja Lexshimi, R. G., Zaleha, M.I., Wahida Daud, Mohd Said Nurumal, Syed Zulkifli, S.Z.
    MyJurnal
    Breast self-examination (BSE) is recommended globally as one of the methods in early detection of breast cancer. Little is known about nurses screening behavior related to BSE. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the knowledge, attitude and practice of Breast Self Examination (BSE) among nurses. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to a total of 114 nurses working in Obstetrics & Gynaecology wards and clinics of two tertiary hospitals. Among the 114 participants, 111(97.4%) practiced BSE. The mean age of the participants was 34.97(±9.104) years. The mean score of knowledge was 11.07(±1.020) and 81.1% had high knowledge of BSE. Majority (98.2%) of respondents showed good attitude towards BSE. Barriers was found to be a significant predictor and self confidence proved to be an influencing factor on BSE performance. Despite practicing BSE, the number of nurses that examined their breast monthly was only 35.1%. Age, working experience and marital status showed no significant relationship with knowledge and practice of BSE. However, BSE taught during their undergraduate programme was found to have a significant relationship with practice of BSE. Majority of nurses in this study were not complying with MOH recommendation for BSE in terms of frequency. Thus, intervention strategies should focus on educating nurses on performing BSE monthly, in accordance with the Ministry of Health guidelines. This is important as nurses play a primary role in promoting health behaviors in BSE practice and breast cancer awareness among women in this country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  4. Che CC, Coomarasamy JD, Suppayah B
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(17):7175-80.
    PMID: 25227810
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia, about one in 19 women being at risk. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination (BSE), as well as knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer amongst female adolescents in Malaysia. Subsequently, relationships between demographic characteristics and knowledge level of BSE, risk factors for breast cancer and BSE practice were assessed.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive, cross sectional survey was conducted using a sample of 500 Malaysian adolescents from the age of 15 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather socio- demographic characteristics, knowledge of BSE, knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer and BSE practices.

    RESULTS: The findings of this study indicated that female adolescents in Malaysia demonstrated an inadequate knowledge level of BSE and risk factors for breast cancer. Only 27.8% of female adolescents performed BSE regularly. BSE practice, knowledge of BSE and knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer showed significant positive relationships.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study highlighted the importance of planning and implementing breast health education programs for female students in secondary schools in Malaysia. It will also provide the health care providers an avenue to stress on the importance of imparting breast health education to adolescents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination*
  5. Kanaga KC, Nithiya J, Shatirah MF
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(8):1965-7.
    PMID: 22292634
    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women globally and early detection increases the survival rate of patients. Therefore, this study was done to determine factors which influence the awareness of breast cancer and practice of screening procedures. A cross-sectional study was performed on 125 women aged 19-60 years in urban and rural areas in Malaysia using a validated questionnaire covering knowledge of breast cancer and screening practices. A total of 99.2% respondents knew that breast cancer is the leading cancer with a mean knowledge of 67.3 ± 15.3% for urban and 50.2 ± 14.7% for rural women Mann Whitney U showed rural women had significantly less awareness compared to urban women (p< 0.05). Spearman correlation test showed a significant positive relationship between education and awareness (p< 0.05). Regarding awareness of the screening methods, 92.8%, 50.4% and 47.2% of respondents correctly answered questions on capability of BSE, CBE and mammography, respectively. In conclusion, the study showed awareness of breast cancer and practice of screening procedures increases with higher education and urban living. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an intensive breast cancer awareness campaign and availablity of screening centres prioritized in rural areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/methods; Breast Self-Examination/psychology
  6. Chee HL, Rashidah S, Shamsuddin K, Sharifah Zainiyah SY
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2003 Aug;58(3):320-9.
    PMID: 14750370
    A total of 486 Malaysian women electronics workers participated in a study of reproductive health knowledge and cancer screening. The practice of Breast Self Examination (BSE) was found to be related to educational attainment; while ever having had a Pap smear was found to be related to being older than 30 years old, being ever married, living with family or relatives, and not staying in hostels. Knowledge on reproductive health was found to be higher for older women, married women, living with family or relatives, not staying in hostels, ever having done BSE and ever having had a Pap smear.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination*
  7. Dunn RA, Tan A, Samad I
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(2):417-21.
    PMID: 20843127
    OBJECTIVES: Breast self-examination (BSE) was evaluated to see if it is a significant predictor of mammography.

    METHODS: The decisions of females above age 40 in Malaysia to test for breast cancer using BSE and mammography are jointly modeled using a bivariate probit so that unobserved attributes affecting mammography usage are also allowed to affect BSE. Data come from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1, which was collected between September 2005 and February 2006.

    RESULTS: Having ever performed BSE is positively associated with having ever undergone mammography among Malay (adjusted OR=7.343, CI=2.686, 20.079) and Chinese (adjusted OR=3.466, CI=1.330, 9.031) females after adjusting for household income, education, marital status and residential location. Neither relationship is affected by jointly modelling the decision problem. Although the association is also positive for Indian females when mammography is modelled separately (adjusted OR=5.959, CI=1.546 - 22.970), the relationship is reversed when both decisions are modelled separately.

    CONCLUSIONS: De-emphasizing BSE in Malaysia may reduce mammography screening among a large proportion of the population. Previous work on the issue in developed countries may not apply to nations with limited resources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination*
  8. Nimir, Amal R., Al-Dubai, Sami A. R., Alshagga, Mustafa A., Saliem, Ahmed M.
    MyJurnal
    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently encountered malignancies among young females in Malaysia, which accounts for 30.4% of newly diagnosed cancers. All women at or above the age of 20 are considered at risk of developing breast cancer. This is a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in a private medical university in Malaysia during year 2012. Two hundred students were recruited in this study using universal sampling. Data collection was done using a selfadministration questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to assess the association between the practice of breast selfexamination and socio-demographic variables. Only 19.5% of the study sample has sufficient knowledge about BSE which is acquired mostly from local media. Having a family history of malignancy other than breast cancer seems to be the only significant variable associated with knowledge about BSE (P=0.002). Other variables such as demographic data, menstrual history and social history were also tested, but found to be not significant. Frequent community-based awareness programs are needed so that all women can know and practice BSE, which in turn helps to alert the women to any abnormal changes in the breasts so that they will be able to seek medical advice immediately.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  9. Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, Mohamed AS, Saladina Jaszle Jasmin
    Breast Self-Examination (BSE) is a process whereby women examine their breasts regularly to detect any abnormal swelling or lumps in order to seek prompt medical attention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and practice of BSE among female non-medical students in UKM, Bangi. A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered and validated questionnaire among 364 students. The results showed that only 37.1% performs BSE and 45% of the students have good knowledge. Age, marital status, using internet and pamphlets as source of information, personal, and family history of BC, were significantly associated with knowledge level of students. Practice of BSE was significantly associated with knowledge level. From multivariate analysis, BSE was more likely to be done among students with family history, students who using internet and pamphlet as sources of information, also among students with good knowledge. As conclusions, the practice of BSE is inadequate among the respondents in spite of most of them had heard about BSE. The results suggest the need of providing continuing educational programs to increase the knowledge level on BSE which in turn will have a positive effect on students to practice and motivate to perform BSE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  10. Ahmadian M, Carmack S, Samah AA, Kreps G, Saidu MB
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(3):1277-84.
    PMID: 27039760
    BACKGROUND: Early detection is a critical part of reducing the burden of breast cancer and breast selfexamination (BSE) has been found to be an especially important early detection strategy in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Although reports indicate that Malaysian women report an increase in BSE activity in recent years, additional research is needed to explore factors that may help to increase this behavior among Southeastern Asian women.

    OBJECTIVE: This study is the first of its kind to explore how the predicting variables of self-efficacy, perceived barriers, and body image factors correlate with self-reports of past BSE, and intention to conduct future breast self-exams among female students in Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through the analysis of data collected from a prior study of female students from nine Malaysian universities (n=842), this study found that self-efficacy, perceived barriers and specific body image sub-constructs (MBSRQ-Appearance Scales) were correlated with, and at times predicted, both the likelihood of past BSE and the intention to conduct breast self-exams in the future.

    RESULTS: Self-efficacy (SE) positively predicted the likelihood of past self-exam behavior, and intention to conduct future breast self-exams. Perceived barriers (BR) negatively predicted past behavior and future intention of breast self-exams. The body image sub-constructs of appearance evaluation (AE) and overweight preoccupation (OWP) predicted the likelihood of past behavior but did not predict intention for future behavior. Appearance orientation (AO) had a somewhat opposite effect: AO did not correlate with or predict past behavior but did correlate with intention to conduct breast self-exams in the future. The body image sub-constructs of body area satisfaction (BASS) and self-classified weight (SCW) showed no correlation with the subjects' past breast self-exam behavior nor with their intention to conduct breast self-exams in the future.

    CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study indicate that both self-efficacy and perceived barriers to BSE are significant psychosocial factors that influence BSE behavior. These results suggest that health promotion interventions that help enhance self-efficacy and reduce perceived barriers have the potential to increase the intentions of Malaysian women to perform breast self-exams, which can promote early detection of breast cancers. Future research should evaluate targeted communication interventions for addressing self-efficacy and perceived barriers to breast self-exams with at-risk Malaysian women. and further explore the relationship between BSE and body image.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology; Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data*
  11. Rosmawati NH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(6):1503-8.
    PMID: 21338188
    INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in Malaysian women, irrespective of age group and ethnicity. The observed low survival rates are related to late stage at presentation despite the availability of breast self examination (BSE) as a reliable screening method for early detection.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice towards BSE amongst women aged 15 years old and above. Systemic random sampling was applied and information gathered through guided interview by using a structured questionnaire.

    RESULTS: A total of 86 respondents were recruited, with a mean age of 40.5 years (SD: 15.51), more than 80% having a secondary or tertiary level of education. The total score was 16.9 (total mean percent: 60.4%) for knowledge, 37.1 (77.3%) for attitude and 9.56 (34.1%) for practice. The proportions of respondents with good score for knowledge, attitude and practice were 38.4%, 73.3% and 7.0%, respectively. Not knowing the correct method of BSE, lack of knowledge on cancer signs and lack of motivational support from parents, spouse or friends appeared to be related with the poor practices.

    CONCLUSION: Enhancement of breast cancer awareness and focusing on recognized barriers by health care professionals with the involvement of spouses, family and community would have a substantial beneficial impact on BSE practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  12. Rosmawati NH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(3):767-71.
    PMID: 21039051
    INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the leading cancer in women today and the major challenge is late presentation then later contributes to poor outcome and high fatality rate. Mammography is effective in early detection of breast cancer and consequently significantly improves the breast cancer survival.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was used to study the knowledge and awareness towards mammogram amongst women aged 15 years old and above. A systemic random sampling was applied and information gathered through guided interview by using a structured questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Eighty-six respondents were recruited. The mean age of respondents was 40.5 years (SD: 15.51) and more than 80% had secondary and tertiary level of education. The percentage of respondents ever performed mammogram was 10.5% (95% CI: 4.0%-17.0%). The rate of correct answers was between 8.1% and 48.8%. Most of the respondents do not sure the answer (45.3%-61.6%) rather than wrongly answer (4.7%-43.0%). Only about 8% truly answer that mammogram should be done once in a life. There are 10.5% of women claimed that mammogram had no serious side effect and not a painful procedure. Nearly half of respondents (48.8%) correctly mentioned that Mammogram can detect breast cancer in early stage.

    CONCLUSION: Only a small percentage of women ever performed mammogram and there are seriously unaware and poor knowledge pertaining to mammography screening for breast cancer among women in sub urban area. A massive health education campaign through multiple methods and agencies are needed to enhance the knowledge and awareness on mammogram.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination*
  13. Parsa P, Kandiah M, Mohd Zulkefli NA, Rahman HA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2008 Apr-Jun;9(2):221-7.
    PMID: 18712963
    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the knowledge and practices of 425 female secondary school teachers from 20 selected secondary schools in Selangor, Malaysia on breast cancer screening (BCS). A self-administered, structured questionnaire was used for data collection. This study showed moderate to low knowledge on breast cancer (BC) and BCS among teachers. Only 19%, 25% and 13.6% eligible women performed breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography respectively, on a regular basis. Level of breast cancer knowledge was significantly associated with BSE (p<0.001). Having heard/ read about BCS, and regular visit with a physician were associated with BCS behaviors (P<0.05). There was no association between BCS behaviors (P>0.05) and age, family history of breast cancer, marital status or having health insurance. Efforts are needed to increase knowledge and remove misconceptions about breast cancer and screening practices among Malaysian women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology
  14. Loh S, Packer TL, Yip CH, Passmore A
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2009 Oct-Dec;10(4):631-6.
    PMID: 19827884
    OBJECTIVE: Poor health literacy is positively associated with poorer quality of health decision-making and health outcomes in women facing a cancer diagnosis. In developing countries, poor access to complete and accurate information continues to pose a challenge for women. This paper describes the knowledge of Malaysian women with regard to breast cancer and how participation in a self-management program can improve the situation.

    METHODS: Secondary analysis of data collected during a clinical trial on women newly diagnosed with breast cancer (n=147) was performed to examine baseline knowledge of breast cancer profile. Knowledge levels of women in the experimental (n= 69) group attending a self-management program were compared to a control group (n= 78) to determine change in the level of knowledge over time.

    RESULTS: At baseline, a high percentage of women were unaware of their breast cancer profile. Not a single woman had knowledge of all six basic characteristics; 83% did not know their HER2 status, type of breast cancer (68%), grade of cancer cell (64%), hormonal receptor status (55%), size of breast cancer (18%) and/or their stage of breast cancer (13%). At post intervention, there was significantly better knowledge within the experimental group.

    CONCLUSION: Malaysian women in this cohort study demonstrated very low levels of knowledge of their cancer profile. Clinical implications for countering treatment-decision difficulties include the need for a shift in the way information and services are delivered to allow women to take a more active role in their own care. Multi-modal efforts including basic information dissemination to increase women's knowledge can contribute to narrowing of the gap in health disparity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/utilization*
  15. Nurly Zahureen, M., Ardi, A., Wan Rosealaiza, W.A.G., Nur Aiza, Z., Suzana, H., Norazemi, A.
    MyJurnal
    The National Health Morbidity Survey 1996 showed only 34.2% of women aged 20 years and above had done breast self examination (BSE). This data showed the practice of BSE is still low despite of various awareness programmes and activities carried out. A cross sectional study through Systematic Random Sampling was done at Out Patient Department, Kuantan Health Office to know the knowledge and practice of BSE among women aged 20~60 years. The results showed 94.9% respondents had received information about BSE, however only 31.6% knew the appropriate time to do BSE, 14.7% knew the purpose of doing at that time and only 29.9% knew how frequent they should do BSE. 74% of respondents did BSE, however 70.2% of them did not do monthly and 67.2% did not do at the suggested time. There was an association between the practice of BSE with the knowledge and sociodemographic characteristics i.e. educational level, income, ethnic group and marital status.
    Key word: Breast self-examination, breast cancer, Kuantan.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination*
  16. Parsa P, Kandiah M, Mohd Nasir MT, Hejar AR, Nor Afiah MZ
    Singapore Med J, 2008 Nov;49(11):897-903.
    PMID: 19037556
    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Malaysian women, and the use of breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography remain low in Malaysia. Therefore, there is a need to develop a valid and reliable tool to measure the beliefs that influence breast cancer screening practices. The Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) is a valid and reliable tool to measure beliefs about breast cancer and screening methods in the Western culture. The purpose of this study was to translate the use of CHBMS into the Malaysian context and validate the scale among Malaysian women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data
  17. Ghazali SM, Othman Z, Cheong KC, Hock LK, Wan Mahiyuddin WR, Kamaluddin MA, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(2):1141-5.
    PMID: 23621202
    Delay in seeking treatment for breast cancer is a barrier to the early diagnosis and management of the disease, resulting in a poorer prognosis. We here estimated the prevalence of delayed presentation for breast cancer and identified possible influential sociodemographic factors in a cross-sectional study of 250 patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer at the Radiotherapy and Oncology Clinic in Kuala Lumpur Hospital. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire and from medical records. We examined associations between delayed presentation (presenting to a physician more than 3 months after self-discovery of a symptom) and sociodemographic characteristics, practice of breast self examination (BSE), history of benign breast disease, family history of breast cancer and type of symptom, symptom disclosure and advice from others to seek treatment using multiple logistic regression. Time from self-discovery of symptom to presentation ranged from tghe same day to 5 years. Prevalence of delayed presentation was 33.1% (95%CI: 27.4, 39.3). A significantly higher proportion of delayers presented with late stages (stage III/IV) (58.3% vs. 26.9%, p<0.001). Divorced or widowed women (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.11, 4.47) had a higher risk of delayed presentation than married women and women who never performed breast self examination were more likely to delay presentation compared to those who regularly performed BSE (OR: 2.74, 95% CI: 1.33, 5.64). Our findings indicate that delayed presentation for breast cancer symptoms among Malaysian women is high and that marital status and breast self examination play major roles in treatment-seeking for breast cancer symptoms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/methods*
  18. Norhaini, M., Norazlanshah, H., Khairil Anuar, M.I., Fazlyla Nadya, M.F., Mashita, M., Mohamad, G.M.
    MyJurnal
    Students in tertiary level education are mostly young adults that are transiting from the teenage years to adulthood. Since there is less restriction as compared to their teenage years, university and college students might involve in risky behaviours that may affect their health, social and academic performance. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate and identify the differences of health risk factors and health promoting behaviour that have been practiced by students in Malaysia. A cross sectional study was conducted using closed-ended questionnaires distributed to university and college students via emails. The results showed that 77.0% students claimed they have no health problem. However 49.0% of the non-medical students did not know whether they have normal BMI. Among the medical students, 62.0% rarely do physical exercise even though most are seriously concern about their fat consumption (95.0%). Only 30.0% of the total students have awareness of wearing seat belt. For health promoting behaviour, 33.0% of female students have never perform breast self examination (BSE), while 65.0% of male students have never perform testicular self examination (TSE). These findings confirmed that there are differences in health risk factors and health promoting behaviour that have been practiced by the students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  19. Yu FQ, Murugiah MK, Khan AH, Mehmood T
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(1):145-52.
    PMID: 25640342
    Barriers to health seeking constitute a challenging issue in the treatment of breast cancer. The current meta- synthesis aimed to explore common barriers to health seeking among Malaysian breast cancer patients. From the systematic search, nine studies were found meeting the inclusion criteria. Data extraction revealed that health behavior towards breast cancer among Malaysia women was influenced by knowledge, psychological, sociocultural and medical system factors. In terms of knowledge, most of the Malaysian patients were observed to have cursory information and the reliance on the information provided by media was limiting. Among psychological factors, stress and sense of denial were some of the common factors leading to delay in treatment seeking. Family member's advice, cultural beliefs towards traditional care were some of the common sociocultural factors hindering immediate access to advanced medical diagnosis and care. Lastly, the delay in referral was one of the most common health system-related problems highlighted in most of the studies. In conclusion, there is an immediate need to improve the knowledge and understanding of Malaysian women towards breast cancer. Mass media should liaise with the cancer specialists to disseminate accurate and up-to-date information for the readers and audience, helping in modification of cultural beliefs that hinder timing health seeking. However, such intervention will not improve or rectify the health system related barriers to treatment seeking. Therefore, there is an immediate need for resource adjustment and training programs among health professional to improve their competency and professionalism required to develop an efficient health system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology
  20. Norlaili AA, Fatihah MA, Daliana NF, Maznah D
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(12):7161-4.
    PMID: 24460269
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally. This study was conducted to compare the awareness of breast cancer and the practice of breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography screening among rural females in Pahang and Perak. A cross-sectional study was carried out in five selected rural districts of Pahang and Perak. Two hundred and fifty households were randomly selected and interviewed face to face using a semi-structured questionnaire. The majority of residents from both states were Malay, aged between 50 and 60 years and had a secondary level of education. Malay women aged 40-49 years and women with a higher level of education were significantly more aware of breast cancer (p<0.05). About half of these women practiced BSE (60.7%) and CBE (56.1%), and 7% had underwent mammography screening. The results of this study suggest that women in Pahang and Perak have good awareness of breast cancer and that more than half practice BSE and CBE. The women's level of education appears to contribute to their level of knowledge and health behaviour. However, more effort is needed to encourage all women in rural areas to acquire further knowledge on breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data*
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