Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 55 in total

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  1. Khan TM, Leong JP, Ming LC, Khan AH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(13):5349-57.
    PMID: 26225677
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer mortality among women of all ethnic and age groups in Malaysia. Delay in seeking help for breast cancer symptoms is preventable and by identifying possible factors for delayed diagnosis, patient prognosis and survival rates could be improved.

    OBJECTIVES: This narrative review aimed to understand and evaluate the level of in-depth breast cancer knowledge in terms of clinical breast examination and breast self-examination, and other important aspects such as side-effects and risk factors in Malaysian females. Since Malaysia is multicultural, this review assessed social perceptions, cultural beliefs and help-seeking behaviour in respect to breast cancer among different ethnic groups, since these may impinge on efforts to 'avoid' the disease.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of seven databases was performed from December 2015 to January 2015. Screening of relevant published journals was also undertaken to identify available information related to the knowledge, perception and help-seeking behaviour of Malaysian women in relation to breast cancer.

    RESULTS: A total of 42 articles were appraised and included in this review. Generally, women in Malaysia had good awareness of breast cancer and its screening tools, particularly breast self-examination, but only superficial in-depth knowledge about the disease. Women in rural areas had lower levels of knowledge than those in urban areas. It was also shown that books, magazines, brochures and television were among the most common sources of breast cancer information. Delay in presentation was attributed mainly to a negative social perception of the disease, poverty, cultural and religion practices, and a strong influence of complementary and alternative medicine, rather than a lack of knowledge.

    CONCLUSIONS: This review highlighted the need for an intensive and in-depth breast cancer education campaigns using media and community health programmes, even with the existing good awareness of breast cancer. This is essential in order to avoid misconceptions and to frame the correct mind-set about breast cancer among women in Malaysia. Socio-cultural differences and religious practices should be taken into account by health care professionals when advising on breast cancer. Women need to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of breast cancer so that early diagnosis can take place and the chances of survival improved.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology*
  2. Al-Dubai SA, Qureshi AM, Saif-Ali R, Ganasegeran K, Alwan MR, Hadi JI
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(10):2531-8.
    PMID: 22320951
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess awareness and knowledge of breast cancer and mammography among Malaysian women in Shah Alam.

    METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted among 250 Malaysian women. Data were collected using a self administrated questionnaire which included questions on socio-demographic data, knowledge of breast cancer and awareness of mammography.

    RESULTS: Mean age of respondents was 28 ± 9.2 with 69.2% aged 18 to 29 years. The majority had heard about breast cancer (81.2%) and indicated books, magazines and brochures as their source of information (55.2%). However, most did not know about signs and symptoms of breast cancer and many of its risk factors. On multivariate analysis, significant predictors of breast cancer knowledge were age, race, marital status, level of education, occupation, family size and family history of other cancers (p<0.05). Fifty percent of women were aware of mammography, significant predictors being age, occupation, marital status and knowledge of breast cancer (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Most women were aware of breast cancer. However, the knowledge about signs and symptoms of breast cancer and awareness of mammography were inadequate. It is recommended that the level of knowledge should be raised among Malaysian women, particularly in the less educated young.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  3. Loh SY, Chew SL
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(1):199-202.
    PMID: 21517257
    Breast self-examination (BSE) is a self-generated, non-invasive and non-irradiative method of breast cancer detection. This paper documents Malaysian women's awareness and practice of regular BSE as a potent breast cancer detection tool. A pre-test post-test questionnaire survey on women diagnosed with breast cancer (n=66) was conducted. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were performed to correlate demographic variables, knowledge and regular practice of BSE. Findings showed that 80% of the breast cancer survivors self-detected the breast lumps, despite a high 85% of these women reporting they were never taught about BSE. More than 70% of the women maintained that lack of knowledge/skill on the proper practice of BSE was the key barrier to a more regular BSE practice. After an educational intervention on BSE and breast awareness, we found an increase report from 17% (at pre-test) to 67% (at post-test) of self reported monthly BSE practices. Provision of self-management education incorporating BSE, a readily available cheap method, should be introduced at primary care and breast clinics. This strategy promotes women's self-efficacy which contributes towards cancer control agenda in less resource available countries around Asia Pacific. Longer follow up may be crucial to examine the adherence to positive BSE behaviour.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/methods*; Breast Self-Examination/psychology*
  4. Yusof A, Chia YC, Hasni YM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(19):8095-9.
    PMID: 25338990
    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, over half a million women died of breast cancer in 2011 alone. Mammography screening is associated with a reduction of 20 to 35% in breast cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the awareness and practice of mammography screening and predictors of its uptake in Malaysian women attending a primary care clinic.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among women aged 40 to 74 years attending a primary care clinic in Selangor, Malaysia. An assisted structured questionnaire included questions on socio-demography, source of information and level of knowledge. An adapted version of the revised Champion Health Belief Model Scale plus other associated factors for mammography screening up-take were also included as part of the questionnaire. Predictors for mammography screening uptake were only determined in those who were aware about mammography screening. Significant predictors were determined by logistic regression.

    RESULTS: 447 women were recruited for this study; 99.1% of them (n: 411) were aware about breast cancer. Only 50.1% (n: 206) had knowledge about mammography screening. Prevalence of clinical breast-examination (CBE) was 23.3% (n: 104) and mammography screening up-take was 13.2% (n: 59). The predictors for the latter were those who have had clinical breast-examination (aOR=17.58, 95%CI: 7.68-39.82) and those aged between 50 to 59 years (aOR=3.94, 95%CI: 1.61-9.66) as well as those aged 60 years and above (aOR=6.91, 95%CI: 2.28-20.94). Good knowledge and positive beliefs about mammography screening were not associated with mammography screening uptake.

    CONCLUSIONS: Half of our Malaysian women were aware about mammography screening. However, the uptake of mammography was low. Previous CBE and older age were significant predictors of mammography screening uptake. Increasing CBE services may increase compliance with guidelines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  5. Kanaga KC, Nithiya J, Shatirah MF
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(8):1965-7.
    PMID: 22292634
    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women globally and early detection increases the survival rate of patients. Therefore, this study was done to determine factors which influence the awareness of breast cancer and practice of screening procedures. A cross-sectional study was performed on 125 women aged 19-60 years in urban and rural areas in Malaysia using a validated questionnaire covering knowledge of breast cancer and screening practices. A total of 99.2% respondents knew that breast cancer is the leading cancer with a mean knowledge of 67.3 ± 15.3% for urban and 50.2 ± 14.7% for rural women Mann Whitney U showed rural women had significantly less awareness compared to urban women (p< 0.05). Spearman correlation test showed a significant positive relationship between education and awareness (p< 0.05). Regarding awareness of the screening methods, 92.8%, 50.4% and 47.2% of respondents correctly answered questions on capability of BSE, CBE and mammography, respectively. In conclusion, the study showed awareness of breast cancer and practice of screening procedures increases with higher education and urban living. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an intensive breast cancer awareness campaign and availablity of screening centres prioritized in rural areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/methods; Breast Self-Examination/psychology
  6. Akhtari-Zavare M, Juni MH, Ismail IZ, Said SM, Latiff LA
    Springerplus, 2015;4:692.
    PMID: 26587360 DOI: 10.1186/s40064-015-1491-8
    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer and the second reason of cancer deaths among woman worldwide, including Malaysia. The objective of this paper is to assess the practice of breast self-examination (BSE) and identify the barriers of BSE practice among undergraduate female students in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  7. Lim JN, Potrata B, Simonella L, Ng CW, Aw TC, Dahlui M, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2015 Dec 21;5(12):e009863.
    PMID: 26692558 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009863
    OBJECTIVE: To explore and compare barriers to early presentation of self-discovered breast cancer in Singapore and Malaysia.

    DESIGN: A qualitative interview study with thematic analysis of transcripts.

    PARTICIPANTS: 67 patients with self-discovered breast symptoms were included in the analysis. Of these, 36% were of Malay ethnicity, 39% were Chinese and 25% Indian, with an average age of 58 years (range 24-82 years). The number of women diagnosed at early stages of cancer almost equalled those at advanced stages. Approximately three-quarters presented with a painless lump, one-quarter experienced a painful lump and 10% had atypical symptoms.

    SETTING: University hospital setting in Singapore and Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Patients revealed barriers to early presentation not previously reported: the poor quality of online website information about breast symptoms, financial issues and the negative influence of relatives in both countries, while perceived poor quality of care and services in state-run hospitals and misdiagnosis by healthcare professionals were reported in Malaysia. The pattern of presentation by ethnicity remained unchanged where more Malay delayed help-seeking and had more advanced cancer compared to Chinese and Indian patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: There are few differences in the pattern of presentation and in the reported barriers to seek medical care after symptom discovery between Singapore and Malaysia despite their differing economic status. Strategies to reduce delayed presentation are: a need to improve knowledge of disease, symptoms and causes, quality of care and services, and quality of online information; and addressing fear of diagnosis, treatment and hospitalisation, with more effort focused on the Malay ethnic group. Training is needed to avoid missed diagnoses and other factors contributing to delay among health professionals.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology; Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data*
  8. Akhtari-Zavare M, Juni MH, Said SM, Ismail IZ
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(1):57-61.
    PMID: 23534796
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second principal cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide, including Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 262 female undergraduate students in University Putra Malaysia using a validated questionnaire which was developed for this study.

    RESULTS: The mean age of respondents was 22∓2.3 years. Most of them were single (83.1%), Malay (42.3%) and 20.7% reported having a family history of breast cancer. Eighty-seven (36.7%) claimed they had practiced BSE. Motivation and self-efficacy of the respondents who performed BSE were significantly higher compared with women who did not (p<0.05).There was no association between BSE practice and demographic details (p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that women who perceived greater motivation (OR=1.089, 95%CI: 1.016-1.168) and had higher confidence of BSE (OR=1.076, 95%CI: 1.028-1.126) were more likely to perform the screening.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings show that Malaysian young female's perception regarding breast cancer and the practice of BSE is low. Targeted education should be implemented to improve early detection of breast cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology*
  9. Norlaili AA, Fatihah MA, Daliana NF, Maznah D
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(12):7161-4.
    PMID: 24460269
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally. This study was conducted to compare the awareness of breast cancer and the practice of breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography screening among rural females in Pahang and Perak. A cross-sectional study was carried out in five selected rural districts of Pahang and Perak. Two hundred and fifty households were randomly selected and interviewed face to face using a semi-structured questionnaire. The majority of residents from both states were Malay, aged between 50 and 60 years and had a secondary level of education. Malay women aged 40-49 years and women with a higher level of education were significantly more aware of breast cancer (p<0.05). About half of these women practiced BSE (60.7%) and CBE (56.1%), and 7% had underwent mammography screening. The results of this study suggest that women in Pahang and Perak have good awareness of breast cancer and that more than half practice BSE and CBE. The women's level of education appears to contribute to their level of knowledge and health behaviour. However, more effort is needed to encourage all women in rural areas to acquire further knowledge on breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data*
  10. Subramanian P, Oranye NO, Masri AM, Taib NA, Ahmad N
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(11):6783-90.
    PMID: 24377606
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the commonest type of cancer among women, and in Malaysia 50-60% of the new cases are being detected at late stages. Do age, education level, income, ethnicity, relationship with breast cancer patients and knowledge of breast cancer risk factors influence breast screening practices? This study revealed interesting but significant differences.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors and early detection measures among women in a high risk group.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional survey of one hundred and thirty one women relatives of breast cancer patients was carried out. Participants were selected through purposive sampling, during hospital visits. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection.

    RESULTS: The majority of the respondents (71%) had poor knowledge of the risk factors for breast cancer. Income, relationship with a patient and practise of breast cancer screening predicted performance of mammography, R2=0.467, F=12.568, p<0.0001.

    CONCLUSIONS: The finding shows inadequate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors and poor cancer screening practise among women with family history of breast cancer. Poor knowledge and practise of breast screening are likely to lead to late stage presentation of breast cancer disease. Some important predictors of breast cancer screening behaviour among women with positive family history of breast cancer were identified. An understanding of the strengths and significance of the association between these factors and breast screening behaviour is vital for developing more targeted breast health promotion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  11. Dahlui M, Ramli S, Bulgiba AM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1631-4.
    PMID: 22126511
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Malaysian females. The National Cancer Registry in 2003 and 2006 reported that the age standardized incidence of breast cancer was 46.2 and 39.3 per 100,000 populations, respectively. With the cumulative risk at 5.0; a woman in Malaysia had a 1 in 20 chance of developing breast cancer in her lifetime. The incidence of cancer in general, and for breast cancer specifically was highest in the Chinese, followed by Indians and Malays. Most of the patients with breast cancers presented at late stages (stage I: 15.45%, stage II: 46.9%, stage III: 22.2% and stage IV: 15.5%). The Healthy Lifestyles Campaign which started in the early nineties had created awareness on breast cancer and after a decade the effort was enhanced with the Breast Health Awareness program to promote breast self examination (BSE) to all women, to perform annual clinical breast examination (CBE) on women above 40 and mammogram on women above 50. The National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 showed that the prevalence rate of 70.35% by any of three methods of breast screening; 57.1% by BSE, 51.8% by CBE and 7.6% by mammogram. The current screening policy for breast cancer focuses on CBE whereby all women at the age of 20 years and above must undergo breast examination by trained health care providers every 3 years for age between 20-39 years, and annually for age 40 and above. Several breast cancer preventive programs had been developed by various ministries in Malaysia; among which are the RM50 subsidy for mammogram by the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development and the SIPPS program (a call-recall system for women to do PAP smear and CBE) by the Ministry of Health. Measures to increase uptake of breast cancer screening and factors as to why women with breast cancer present late should be studied to assist in more development of policy on the prevention of breast cancer in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  12. Dahlui M, Gan DE, Taib NA, Lim JN
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S18-20.
    PMID: 23276776 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.12.010
    This study investigated rural women's knowledge of breast cancer and screening methods by ethnicity and examined the predictors of breast screening methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology; Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data
  13. Leelavathi, M., Yasmin, S.A.K., Gomez, P.A., Aznida, F.A.A.
    Medicine & Health, 2006;1(1):1-4.
    MyJurnal
    This is a retrospective descriptive study done to look at common presentation and method of detection of breast cancer. A total of 366 case records of patients attending the Breast and Endocrine Clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur were reviewed. The peak age of breast cancer presentation was 40 to 49 years (39.6%). Most (81.4%) patients presented with a lump in the breast and the lump was mainly self-detected (97.3%). The mean tumour diameter on presentation was 4.7± 3 cm. Medical staff detected the disease in 1.6% cases and 1.1% of cases were detected by mammogram. Most women detected the lump themselves, suggesting that Breast Self Examination (BSE) can be used for detection of the disease in places where there is cost and availability constrains for mammogram. Early detection with BSE can possibly offer better treatment options and quality of life despite the evidence that it does not reduce the mortality due to breast cancer.
     
    Study site: Breast and Endocrine Clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  14. Swami V, Furnham A
    Body Image, 2018 Mar;24:76-81.
    PMID: 29304438 DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.12.004
    Studies examining associations between body image and breast self-examination (BSE) have returned mixed findings, but this may be a function of focusing on global body image. Here, we examined the impact of breast size dissatisfaction specifically on BSE and behaviours in relation to breast change detection. A total of 384 British women completed measures of breast size dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, BSE frequency, confidence in detecting breast change, and delay in contacting their doctor upon detecting a breast change. Regression analyses indicated that greater breast size dissatisfaction, but not body dissatisfaction, was significantly associated with less frequent BSE and lower confidence in detecting breast change. Both breast size and body dissatisfaction were significantly associated with greater delay in consulting a doctor following breast change, but the former was the stronger predictor. These findings suggest that improving breast size satisfaction may be a useful means of promoting improved breast awareness and self-examination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology*
  15. Dunn RA, Tan A, Samad I
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(2):417-21.
    PMID: 20843127
    OBJECTIVES: Breast self-examination (BSE) was evaluated to see if it is a significant predictor of mammography.

    METHODS: The decisions of females above age 40 in Malaysia to test for breast cancer using BSE and mammography are jointly modeled using a bivariate probit so that unobserved attributes affecting mammography usage are also allowed to affect BSE. Data come from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1, which was collected between September 2005 and February 2006.

    RESULTS: Having ever performed BSE is positively associated with having ever undergone mammography among Malay (adjusted OR=7.343, CI=2.686, 20.079) and Chinese (adjusted OR=3.466, CI=1.330, 9.031) females after adjusting for household income, education, marital status and residential location. Neither relationship is affected by jointly modelling the decision problem. Although the association is also positive for Indian females when mammography is modelled separately (adjusted OR=5.959, CI=1.546 - 22.970), the relationship is reversed when both decisions are modelled separately.

    CONCLUSIONS: De-emphasizing BSE in Malaysia may reduce mammography screening among a large proportion of the population. Previous work on the issue in developed countries may not apply to nations with limited resources.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination*
  16. Hadi MA, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Awaisu A
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2010 Jan;8(1):29-34.
    PMID: 25152790
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women of all ethnic and age groups in Malaysia.

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms and methods of screening among female university students and their perception towards the disease treatment outcomes.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2008 at Universiti Sains Malaysia. Two hundred participants from 10 randomly selected faculties were interviewed face to face by a trained pharmacist using a validated questionnaire. In addition to their demographic characteristics, participants were required to answer 22 questions concerning knowledge of breast cancer and five questions related to their perception of breast cancer management and treatment outcomes. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.

    RESULTS: The mean age of the respondents was 26.7 (SD=1.9) years. The results showed that the vast majority of the female university students had inadequate knowledge of breast cancer. The mean total knowledge score of the students was 60.7%. Indian students had significantly less knowledge of breast cancer compared to their Chinese and Malay counterparts (p<0.05). However, more than two third of the students were aware of breast self examination (BSE) and clinical breast examination (CBE) recommendations. Furthermore, the students had positive perceptions towards the treatment outcomes of breast cancer.

    CONCLUSION: This study has highlighted the need of a breast cancer awareness campaign, which should also stress the importance of early detection and reporting of breast cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  17. Al-Dubai SA, Ganasegeran K, Alabsi AM, Abdul Manaf MR, Ijaz S, Kassim S
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(4):1627-32.
    PMID: 22799379
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia. Barriers for practicing breast self examination (BSE) await exploration.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the practice of BSE and its correlated factors and particularly barriers amongst urban women in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 222 Malaysian women using a self-administered questionnaire.

    RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 28.5 (±9.2) years, 59.0% were university graduates. Of the total, 81.1% were aware of breast cancer and 55% practiced BSE. Amongst 45% of respondents who did not practice BSE, 79.8% did not know how to do it, 60.6% feared being diagnosed with breast cancer, 59.6% were worried about detecting breast cancer, 22% reported that they should not touch their bodies, 44% and 28% reported BSE is embarrassing or unpleasant, 29% time consuming, 22% thought they would never have breast cancer or it is ineffective and finally 20% perceived BSE as unimportant. Logistic regression modeling showed that respondents aged ≥45 years, being Malay, married and having a high education level were more likely to practice BSE (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: In this study sample, a significant proportion of respondents was aware of breast cancer but did not practice BSE. Knowledge, psychological, cultural, perception and environmental factors were identified as barriers. BSE practice was associated significantly with socio-demographic factors and socioeconomic status.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology*
  18. Akhtari-Zavare M, Juni MH, Ismail IZ, Said SM, Latiff LA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(9):4019-23.
    PMID: 25987079
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women and the most common cause of cancer death worldwide.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 792 female undergraduate students in public universities in Klang Valley, Malaysia, from January to April 2011. Data were collected using a validated questionnaire developed for this study.

    RESULTS: The mean age of respondents was 21.7±1.2 years. Most of them were single (96.8%), Malay (91.9%) and 150 (19.6%) claimed they had practiced BSE. There was a significant differences between performers and non-performers correlated to age, marital status, check breast by doctor, and being trained about BSE. Performers had lower mean scores for perceived barriers and susceptibility and higher mean score for confidence. Stepwise logistic regression analysis yielded four significant predictor variables.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall our findings indicate that the practice of BSE while perceived as being important is not frequently practiced among female in Malaysia. Targeted education should be implemented to improve early detection of breast cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology*
  19. Norhaini, M., Norazlanshah, H., Khairil Anuar, M.I., Fazlyla Nadya, M.F., Mashita, M., Mohamad, G.M.
    MyJurnal
    Students in tertiary level education are mostly young adults that are transiting from the teenage years to adulthood. Since there is less restriction as compared to their teenage years, university and college students might involve in risky behaviours that may affect their health, social and academic performance. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate and identify the differences of health risk factors and health promoting behaviour that have been practiced by students in Malaysia. A cross sectional study was conducted using closed-ended questionnaires distributed to university and college students via emails. The results showed that 77.0% students claimed they have no health problem. However 49.0% of the non-medical students did not know whether they have normal BMI. Among the medical students, 62.0% rarely do physical exercise even though most are seriously concern about their fat consumption (95.0%). Only 30.0% of the total students have awareness of wearing seat belt. For health promoting behaviour, 33.0% of female students have never perform breast self examination (BSE), while 65.0% of male students have never perform testicular self examination (TSE). These findings confirmed that there are differences in health risk factors and health promoting behaviour that have been practiced by the students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination
  20. Abu Samah A, Ahmadian M, Latiff LA
    Glob J Health Sci, 2016;8(1):277-85.
    PMID: 26234996 DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v8n1p277
    Despite continuous argument about the efficacy of breast self-examination; it still could be a life-saving technique through inspiring and empowering women to take better control over their body/breast and health. This study investigated Malaysian female university students' knowledge about breast cancer risk factors, signs, and symptoms and assessed breast self-examination frequency among students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data
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