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  1. Platt GS, Way HJ, Bowen ET, Simpson DI, Hill MN, Kamath S, et al.
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 1975 Mar;69(1):65-71.
    PMID: 235907
    Thirty isolations of Tembusu virus and four of Sindbis virus were obtained from approximately 280 000 mosquitoes collected between October 1968 and February 1970 in Sarawak, particularly from K. Tijirak, a Land Dyak village 19 miles South of Kuching. Twenty-two isolations of Tembusu virus and two of Sindbis virus were from Culex tritaeniorhynchus; two of Tembusu virus and two of Sindbis virus came from Culex gelidus. Tembusu virus was active throughout the year at K. Tijirak, the highest infection rates in C. tritaeniorhynchus being in January-March and May-August, when the C. tritaeniorhynchus population was declining and ageing. These results confirm that C. tritaeniorhynchus is the principal arthopod host of Tembusu virus in Sarawak. Antibody studies suggest that birds, particularly domestic fowl, are probably vertebrate maintenance hosts of Tembusu and Sindbis viruses in Sarawak.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culex/microbiology
  2. Simpson DI, Bowen ET, Way HJ, Platt GS, Hill MN, Kamath S, et al.
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 1974 Dec;68(4):393-404.
    PMID: 4155608
    Matched MeSH terms: Culex/microbiology
  3. Simpson DI, Smith CE, Marshall TF, Platt GS, Way HJ, Bowen ET, et al.
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1976;70(1):66-72.
    PMID: 1265821
    The possible role of pigs as arbovirus maintenance hosts and their importance as amplifier hosts was studied. Blood samples from 464 pigs of all ages collected in 1962 and 1964 were tested against 10 arboviruses. Antibodies to Japanese encephalitis and Getah viruses were particularly prevalent and their calculated monthly infection rates were 19-5% and 13-3% respectively. In 1969, 447 pigs were bled monthly throughout the year and the infection rates for Japanese encephalitis virus were calculated in pigs during the first year of life. Infection rates were not uniform throughout the year; the rate increases as the pig grew older and there was a marked seasonal increase in the infection rate in the period from November to January. This coincided with the seasonal major population peak of Culex tritaeniorhynchus following intense breeding of this mosquito prior to rice planting. It is suggested that, in Sarawak, the pig acts as a maintenance host of Japanese encephalitis in a cycle involving C. gelidus mosquitoes and also acts as an important amplifier host towards the end of the year in a cycle involving C. tritaeniorhynchus. It is further suggested that Getah virus is maintained in a similar cycle between C. tritaeniorhynchus and pigs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culex/microbiology
  4. Serit MA, Yap HH
    PMID: 6151744
    Comparative laboratory bioassays of Tolypocladium cylindrosporum, California strain (Kal) was conducted against third instar larvae of four species of mosquito, viz. Aedes aegypti, Anopheles balabacensis, Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia uniformis in Malaysia. Of the four mosquito species tested, Ma. uniformis was found to be the most susceptible, followed by Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. balabacensis and Ae. aegypti, in a decreasing order. The LC50 values for Ma. uniformis, Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. balabacensis and Ae. aegypti after four days of exposure were 1.18 X 10(4), 2.02 X 10(5), 4.76 X 10(5) and 1.84 X 10(7) spores per ml test media, respectively. The high sensitivity of Ma. uniformis and its longer life cycle seems to indicate that T. cylindrosporum Kal has good potential as a biocontrol agent for this species of mosquito. But, for Ae. aegypti, this fungus appears to be less effective.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culex/microbiology
  5. Cheong WH, Loong KP, Mahadevan S, Mak JW, Kan SK
    PMID: 6146203
    A total of 37 species of mosquitoes from seven genera were collected in six villages in the Bengkoka Peninsula, Sabah State, during two visits in 1981 in connection with studies on malaria and filariasis. Fifty-five per cent of the total mosquitoes collected were Mansonia. An. collessi constituted a new record of the species from Sabah. An. balabacensis was found to be naturally infected with sporozoites. Ma. bonneae was found to be naturally infected with Brugia, probably B. malayi. Parous rates of An. balabacensis and Ma. bonneae were very high with consequent high probability of survival ideally suiting transmission of malaria and filariasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culex/microbiology
  6. Wong ML, Liew JWK, Wong WK, Pramasivan S, Mohamed Hassan N, Wan Sulaiman WY, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2020 Aug 12;13(1):414.
    PMID: 32787974 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-020-04277-x
    BACKGROUND: The endosymbiont bacterium Wolbachia is maternally inherited and naturally infects some filarial nematodes and a diverse range of arthropods, including mosquito vectors responsible for disease transmission in humans. Previously, it has been found infecting most mosquito species but absent in Anopheles and Aedes aegypti. However, recently these two mosquito species were found to be naturally infected with Wolbachia. We report here the extent of Wolbachia infections in field-collected mosquitoes from Malaysia based on PCR amplification of the Wolbachia wsp and 16S rRNA genes.

    METHODS: The prevalence of Wolbachia in Culicinae mosquitoes was assessed via PCR with wsp primers. For some of the mosquitoes, in which the wsp primers failed to amplify a product, Wolbachia screening was performed using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Wolbachia sequences were aligned using Geneious 9.1.6 software, analyzed with BLAST, and the most similar sequences were downloaded. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out with MEGA 7.0 software. Graphs were drawn with GraphPad Prism 8.0 software.

    RESULTS: A total of 217 adult mosquitoes representing 26 mosquito species were screened. Of these, infections with Wolbachia were detected in 4 and 15 mosquito species using wsp and 16S rRNA primers, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first time Wolbachia was detected using 16S rRNA gene amplification, in some Anopheles species (some infected with Plasmodium), Culex sinensis, Culex vishnui, Culex pseudovishnui, Mansonia bonneae and Mansonia annulifera. Phylogenetic analysis based on wsp revealed Wolbachia from most of the mosquitoes belonged to Wolbachia Supergroup B. Based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis, the Wolbachia strain from Anopheles mosquitoes were more closely related to Wolbachia infecting Anopheles from Africa than from Myanmar.

    CONCLUSIONS: Wolbachia was found infecting Anopheles and other important disease vectors such as Mansonia. Since Wolbachia can affect its host by reducing the life span and provide resistance to pathogen infection, several studies have suggested it as a potential innovative tool for vector/vector-borne disease control. Therefore, it is important to carry out further studies on natural Wolbachia infection in vector mosquitoes' populations as well as their long-term effects in new hosts and pathogen suppression.

    Matched MeSH terms: Culex/microbiology
  7. Morita K, Igarashi A
    J Gen Virol, 1984 Nov;65 ( Pt 11):1899-908.
    PMID: 6094708
    Eighteen strains of Getah virus isolated from mosquitoes, swine and horses in Japan (1956 to 1981), and one strain isolated in Malaysia (1955), were analysed by RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotide fingerprinting. All fingerprints showed a poly(A) tract. The fingerprint pattern of the Malaysian strain was quite different from those of the Japanese strains. Although most of the recent Japanese isolates shared many large oligonucleotide spots in common, the patterns were not identical even among the strains obtained in one locality in the same year. These results suggest that the Getah virus genome undergoes mutation rather frequently. However, there is a tendency for the isolates of the same year to show greater similarity. The fingerprint patterns of certain host-dependent temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants differed from that of the parental strain. Also, there were some differences in large oligonucleotide spots between strain JaNAr12380M isolated in suckling mouse brain (SMB) and strain JaNAr12380A isolated in C6/36 cells, despite the fact that both strains were derived from the same wild mosquito homogenate. In addition, many host-dependent ts mutants were present in strain JaNAr12380A, whereas no such mutants were observed in strain JaNAr12380M. It is concluded that there is considerable variation in the strains of Getah virus infecting mosquitoes in the wild, and also that the variants or mutants present in mosquitoes might be subject to selection during viral multiplication in the mammalian host.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culex/microbiology
  8. Vythilingam I, Singh KI, Mahadevan S, Zaridah MS, Ong KK, Abidin MH
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc, 1993 Dec;9(4):467-9.
    PMID: 8126485
    Mosquito collections were carried out from May to June 1992 and from September to December 1992 in an area where a case of Japanese encephalitis was confirmed. A total of 40,072 mosquitoes belonging to 35 species and 8 genera were collected. The dominant species in that locality were Culex vishnui, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex pseudovishnui, Culex gelidus, Aedes butleri, and Mansonia uniformis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culex/microbiology
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