Hydroxyapatite powder was mechanochemically synthesized from calcium pyrophosphate (Ca2P2O7) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) using a solid-state reaction. The two powders were mixed in distilled water, milled for 8 hours, dried and calcined at 1100 degrees C for 1 hour. The phase(s) formed was analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that hydroxyapatite was not the only one formed. This result will be used as the starting point to produce a single-phase hydroxyapatite in terms of excess hydroxyl group in a mechanochemical reaction.
In this work, nanometer HA crystals have been synthesized via wet chemical precipitation and characterized. This research studies how key synthesis parameters affect the size and phase purity of the produced HA. Characterization work was carried out using X-ray powder diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy for phase identification and particle sizing, respectively.
There is a great demand of Hydroxyapatite (HA) material in Orthopaedics and Dental applications due to its similarity to human bone. However, the lack of availability and due to high import cost of this material in Malaysia, research in producing synthetic HA locally is therefore timely. The use of local resources as the raw materials for the production of HA is also desirable in reducing the overall cost of HA. In this study, two HA materials were synthesised from different starting precursors, i.e. commercial pure Ca(OH)2 (HAS) and Ca(OH)2 directly from a local natural limestone deposit (HAL). Whereas a commercially available HA "Captal 60" (HAC) was used as reference. The synthesised powders obtained were fired at 1000 degrees C and at 1250 degrees C. Characterisation evaluations on bulk properties were carried out using XRD, SEM-EDX, ICP and FTIR. The results indicate that both HAS and HAL are comparable to HAC even at 1000 degrees C. Thus, the local natural limestone can be used to form HA. However, the overall appearance of these materials are quite different (HAC - blue, HAS - greenish and HAL - light green). The reasons for this and the subsequent mechanical and bioactive effects of these materials are currently being investigated.
The paper discusses the influence of sintering temperature on the microstructure and strength of hydroxyapatite ceramics prepared using the extrusion process. The average pore diameters observed were in the range of approximately 150mm to 300mm whereas the compaction strength was found to be around 120-160 MPa.