Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 86 in total

  1. Yeang HY, Arif SA, Yusof F, Sunderasan E
    Methods, 2002 May;27(1):32-45.
    PMID: 12079415 DOI: 10.1016/S1046-2023(02)00049-X
    As the living cytoplasm of laticiferous cells, Hevea brasiliensis latex is a rich blend of organic substances that include a mélange of proteins. A small number of these proteins have given rise to the problem of latex allergy. The salient characteristics of H. brasiliensis latex allergens that are recognized by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) are reviewed. These are the proteins associated with the rubber particles, the cytosolic C-serum proteins and the B-serum proteins that originate mainly from the lutoids. Procedures for the isolation and purification of latex allergens are discussed, from latex collection in the field to various preparative approaches adopted in the laboratory. As interest in recombinant latex allergens increases, there is a need to validate recombinant proteins to ascertain equivalence with their native counterparts when used in immunological studies, diagnostics, and immunotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex/immunology*; Latex Hypersensitivity/immunology*
  2. Yeang HY
    Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol, 2004 Apr;4(2):99-104.
    PMID: 15021061
    New allergenic latex proteins have been identified, whereas further information on known latex allergens has emerged in recent years. Although prevalence figures for sensitization to the various latex allergens have been published in several studies in the past, the data have not been collated to facilitate cross-comparison.

    Salient characteristics of the three most recently identified latex allergens, Hev b 11, 12 and 13 are described, whereas new findings on some of the previously recognized allergens are examined. Hev b 2 is viewed from the standpoint of allergenicity and protein glycosylation, Hev b 4 in relation to its biochemical identity and molecular cloning, Hev b 5 with respect to its recombinant form, and Hev b 6 in connection with conformational IgE epitopes. Reports on sensitization or allergic reaction to purified latex allergens from recent and past work are summarized. The use of latex allergens in latex allergy diagnostics is reviewed and discussed.

    Thirteen latex allergens have been recognized by the International Union of Immunological Societies. Based on the results of published studies, native Hev b 2, recombinant Hev b 5, native or recombinant Hev b 6, native Hev b 13, and possibly native Hev b 4 are the major allergens relevant to latex-sensitized adults. Although there is an increasing tendency to identify and characterize latex allergens largely on the basis of their recombinant forms, not all such recombinant proteins have been fully validated against their native counterparts with respect to clinical significance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex/adverse effects*; Latex/classification; Latex Hypersensitivity/diagnosis; Latex Hypersensitivity/etiology*
  3. Yeang HY, Chow KS, Yusof F, Arif SA, Chew NP, Loke YH
    J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol, 2000 Jul-Aug;10(4):215-22.
    PMID: 11039838
    Six Hevea brasiliensis latex protein allergens, Hevb 1, Hev b 2, Hev b 3, Hev b 4, and two variants of Hev b 7 (7b and 7c), were purified from Hevea latex, while a seventh protein, Hev b 5, was prepared in recombinant form. The presence of these proteins in glove extracts was indicated by their respective antibodies in the serum of rabbits immunized against the extracts. The relative propensities of IgE binding to the individual latex allergens were compared using sera from latex-allergic patients. IgE recognition of Hev b 4, Hev b 7b, Hev b 5 and Hev b 2 was most frequently encountered, with 75, 61, 31 and 28%, respectively, of the patient sera reacting. Sensitivity to multiple latex proteins was common, and out of the 31 seropositive patients, 23 (74%/ ) had IgE against at least two latex allergens, while 12 (39%) had IgE specific for at least three allergens. Statistical analysis of the data suggested that many patients might have acquired sensitivity to Hev b 2, Hev b 4 and Hev b 7b from a common source. (e.g., from latex products). On the other hand, sensitivity to Hev b 5 and to Hev b 7c were interrelated. It is plausible that sensitivity to these two proteins might have been acquired from sources other than latex products (e.g., from certain foods).
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex/adverse effects*; Latex/immunology; Latex/chemistry; Latex Hypersensitivity/diagnosis*; Latex Hypersensitivity/etiology*
  4. Yeang HY, Arif SA, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Loke YH, Sander I, Sulong SH, et al.
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2004 Sep;114(3):593-8.
    PMID: 15356563 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2004.05.039
    Sensitization to natural rubber latex has been linked to proteins from medical latex gloves. Various assays to estimate the amount of residual allergenic proteins extractable from latex gloves to assess their potential exposure hazard have inherent weaknesses.

    This investigation was aimed at developing 2-site immunoenzymetric assays and identifying appropriate protein markers to assess the allergenic potential of latex gloves.

    The presence of 6 latex allergens--Hev b 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 13--was measured in a cross-section of commercial latex medical gloves by using monoclonal and polyclonal antibody-based 2-site immunoenzymetric assays. The overall allergenic potential of these gloves was assessed by IgE-inhibition assay. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to identify marker allergens that best explained the variation in latex glove allergenicity.

    All 6 latex allergens were detected in at least some of the glove samples. Hev b 5 and Hev b 13 were identified as the marker allergens that combined best to explain the variation in the glove allergenicity. The significant multiple correlation (R=0.855) between these 2 markers and glove allergenic potency forms the basis of an assay to gauge latex glove allergenicity.

    The overall allergenic potential of latex gloves can be estimated by using Hev b 5 and Hev b 13 as indicator allergens. The correlation between glove allergenicity and the level of these allergens was maintained for low-protein gloves (<200 microg/g). This estimation of glove allergenicity was superior to that obtained by using total protein readings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex/adverse effects; Latex/chemistry; Latex Hypersensitivity/prevention & control
  5. Yip E, Cacioli P
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2002 Aug;110(2 Suppl):S3-14.
    PMID: 12170237 DOI: 10.1067/mai.2002.124499
    Gloves that will provide a barrier of protection from infectious organisms are an essential feature of medical practice for the protection of both patients and medical personnel. Natural rubber latex has consistently been the most satisfactory raw material for the manufacture of gloves. Certain latex proteins, carried over into the finished product by inadequate manufacturing processes, may pose a risk of provoking allergic reactions in some patients and medical workers. As with any allergy, the risk depends on the route of exposure and dose. Hence, the method of manufacture, including the means used to coat gloves to make donning easy, can influence the eventual exposure of sensitive people to latex allergens. In this article, we describe the several processes in use and their effects on latex protein content.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex/immunology; Latex/isolation & purification
  6. Yeang HY
    Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol., 2000 Jun;84(6):628-32.
    PMID: 10875493 DOI: 10.1016/S1081-1206(10)62415-5
    The prevalence of latex-specific IgE computed from the results of serologic assays is commonly thought to reflect, to a greater or lesser extent, the prevalence of latex allergy and its implied risk.

    The study examines how imperfect test specificity of in vitro assays influences the precision of latex allergy prevalence that it estimates.

    Various models encompassing a range of hypothetical test sensitivity and specificity values are investigated to gauge their influence on the estimate of latex allergy prevalence. The models examine these interactions in situations of high or low allergy prevalence.

    Serologic latex diagnostic assays with test specificity within the range of those of commercially available assays can greatly overestimate prevalence where the true prevalence is low (eg, of the order of one in 100 or one in 1,000). A formula to correct for errors in prevalence estimates arising from imperfect test sensitivity and specificity of an in vitro assay is presented.

    While serologic assays for latex IgE pose few hazards to the patient and are useful for confirming the diagnosis of latex allergy, the test results may vastly overestimate the true prevalence of latex allergy and its associated risks in situations where latex allergy is actually rare.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex Hypersensitivity/diagnosis; Latex Hypersensitivity/epidemiology*
  7. Das S
    ANZ J Surg, 2008 Nov;78(11):939.
    PMID: 18959687 DOI: 10.1111/j.1445-2197.2008.04708.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex/adverse effects*; Latex Hypersensitivity/epidemiology*
  8. Wan, Ngeow Yen, Chin, Khaw Pei, Che Su Mt. Saad
    Reclaimed rubber from rejected natural rubber (NR) latex gloves (r-NRG) was evaluated as partial
    replacement for Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR) 20 in producing microcellular rubber. In the study, the amount of reclaimed rubber varied from 20 pphr to 95 pphr for the purpose of cost reduction, environmental interest and as processing aids in reducing internal porosity, swells and to minimize shrinkage and air-trapped problems in producing microcellular rubber. A typical formulation in making microcellular rubber slab was developed and two-roll mill was used for compounding. The cure characteristics and mechanical properties, such as density, hardness, tensile strength, and elongation at break, were evaluated. Scorch time and cure rate index performed marginal decreased with increasing of r-NRG content. 95 pphr r-NRG blends showed a consequential drop in hardness. Both tensile properties and elongation at break decreased as the r-NRG content was increased.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex
  9. Kurup VP, Yeang HY, Sussman GL, Bansal NK, Beezhold DH, Kelly KJ, et al.
    Clin. Exp. Allergy, 2000 Mar;30(3):359-69.
    PMID: 10691894
    BACKGROUND: Latex allergy is largely an occupational allergy due to sensitization to natural rubber latex allergens present in a number of health care and household products. Although several purified allergens are currently available for study, information on the usefulness of these purified, native or recombinant allergens in the demonstration of specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E in the sera of patients is lacking.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the purified latex allergens and to demonstrate specific IgE antibody in the sera of health care workers and spina bifida patients with clinical latex allergy.

    METHODS: Two radioallergosorbent and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using latex proteins Hev b 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 along with two glove extracts and Malaysian nonammoniated latex (MNA) were evaluated to demonstrate IgE in the sera of health care workers and spina bifida with latex allergy and controls with no history of latex allergy.

    RESULTS: ELISA using the purified latex allergens demonstrated specific IgE in 32-65% health care workers and 54-100% of spina bifida patients with latex allergy. The corresponding figures for RAST were 13-48 and 23-85 for RAST-1 and 19-61 and 36-57 for RAST-2. These results were comparable with the results obtained with glove extracts and crude rubber latex proteins.

    CONCLUSIONS: When used simultaneously, latex proteins Hev b 2 and Hev b 7 reacted significantly with specific serum IgE in 80% of health care workers and 92% of spina bifida patients with latex allergy by ELISA technique, while this combination gave lower positivity when the RASTs were used. By the addition of Hev b 3, specific IgE was detected in all spina bifida patients with latex allergy. Both RASTs failed to show specific IgE in the control subjects, while the ELISA showed significant latex-specific IgE in 22% of controls.

    Matched MeSH terms: Latex/adverse effects; Latex/immunology*; Latex/isolation & purification; Latex Hypersensitivity/etiology; Latex Hypersensitivity/immunology*
  10. Rajisha KR, Maria HJ, Pothan LA, Ahmad Z, Thomas S
    Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 2014 Jun;67:147-53.
    PMID: 24657376 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.03.013
    Potato starch nanocrystals were found to serve as an effective reinforcing agent for natural rubber (NR). Starch nanocrystals were obtained by the sulfuric acid hydrolysis of potato starch granules. After mixing the latex and the starch nanocrystals, the resulting aqueous suspension was cast into film by solvent evaporation method. The composite samples were successfully prepared by varying filler loadings, using a colloidal suspension of starch nanocrystals and NR latex. The morphology of the nanocomposite prepared was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). FESEM analysis revealed the size and shape of the crystal and their homogeneous dispersion in the composites. The crystallinity of the nanocomposites was studied using XRD analysis which indicated an overall increase in crystallinity with filler content. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites such as stress-strain behavior, tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break were measured according to ASTM standards. The tensile strength and modulus of the composites were found to improve tremendously with increasing nanocrystal content. This dramatic increase observed can be attributed to the formation of starch nanocrystal network. This network immobilizes the polymer chains leading to an increase in the modulus and other mechanical properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex/chemistry
  11. Ludin CM, Radzi JM, Maimunah A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2003 Jul;10(2):87-90.
    PMID: 23386803 MyJurnal
    The present study, analyzes data from 1991 to 2000 for rotavirus infection among children with diarrhoea and acute gastroenteritis admitted to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). The Latex Slide Agglutination Test was used for the detection of rotavirus antigens. Out of 1097 stool samples tested, 207 samples or 18.8 % were found to be positive for rotavirus. The infection occurred most frequently in infants and young children from 6 months to 2 years of age. The infection was recorded highest in the year of 2000 - 48 cases (34.1%) and the lowest in 1999 - 5 cases (6.6%). Stool examination and cultures from the rotavirus positive samples revealed no parasites and enteropathogenic bacteria. These observations suggested that rotavirus could still remain as an important agent causing diarrhoea and gastroenteritis in young children admitted to HUSM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex; Latex Fixation Tests
  12. Yap KL
    Malays J Pathol, 1994 Jun;16(1):49-56.
    PMID: 16329576
    The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions for the passive adsorption of polyclonal antibody onto plain surface polystyrene latex particles and its performance in a slide latex agglutination test for rotavirus antigen detection. Cleaning of latex particles by washing through repetitive centrifuging, decanting and resuspending in distilled water was adequate in removing surfactants from the particles' surfaces to enable coating. A study of antibody concentration, incubation temperature and buffer pH revealed that optimum coating was achieved with a 3-fold excess of antibody to the calculated total particle surface capacity for the antibody in a glycine-saline buffer of pH 9.2 at 40 degrees C for 4 hours. The ionic strength and pH of the latex suspending buffer and the sample buffer were critical factors determining the sensitivity of the test and the appearance of non-specific agglutination. Ultrasonication, addition of glycerol and Tween 20, either individually or in combination, were able to suppress non-specific agglutination in some batches of latex reagents. Polyethylene glycol 6000 enhanced the quality of agglutination as well as reduced the time of its appearance, especially in reagents that produced poor agglutination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex Fixation Tests/methods*
  13. Daruliza KM, Lam KL, Yang KL, Priscilla JT, Sunderasan E, Ong MT
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2011 Sep;15(9):1027-33.
    PMID: 22013725
    Hevea brasiliensis extract could potentially be employed as a relatively low cost resource for various anti-fungal activities due to the simplicity of latex preparation and the abundance of latex that can be obtained in rubber producing regions. The present study was aimed at examining the species specific anti-fungal property of H. brasilensis latex C-serum against Aspergillus niger.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex/isolation & purification; Latex/pharmacology*; Latex/toxicity
  14. Yeang HY, Cheong KF, Sunderasan E, Hamzah S, Chew NP, Hamid S, et al.
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 1996 Sep;98(3):628-39.
    PMID: 8828541 DOI: 10.1016/s0091-6749(96)70097-0
    Two major water-insoluble proteins are located on the surface of rubber particles in Hevea brasiliensis latex. A 14.6 kd protein (Hev b 1), found mainly on large rubber particles (> 350 mm in diameter), and a 24 kd protein (Hev b 3), found mainly on small rubber particles (average diameter, 70 nm), are recognized by IgE from patients with spina bifida and latex allergy. Although Hev b 1 (also called the rubber elongation factor [REF]) has previously been reported as a major latex allergen, this conclusion has been disputed on the basis of results from other studies. The allergenicity of Hev b 1 is verified in this study by testing the recombinant protein generated from its gene. Because allergenicity is confined to patients with spina bifida and not observed in adults sensitive to latex, it is not a major latex allergen. The identification of Hev b 3 as another allergen originating from rubber particles is confirmed by immunogold labeling and electron microscopy. Observations with the monoclonal antibody USM/RC2 developed against Hev b 3 show that the protein has a tendency to fragment into several polypeptides of lower molecular weight (from 24 kd to about 5 kd) when stored at -20 degrees C. There is also indication of protein aggregation from the appearance of proteins with molecular weights greater than 24 kd. Fragmentation of Hev b 3 is induced immediately on he addition of latex B-serum, which is normally compartmentalized in the lutoids in fresh latex. In the preparation of ammoniated latex (used for the manufacture of latex products), the lutoids are ruptured, and the released B-serum reacts with Hev b 3 on the rubber particles to give rise to an array of low molecular weight polypeptides that are allergenic to patients with spina bifida.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex/immunology*; Latex/metabolism; Latex/chemistry
  15. Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Mohd Syukri Anwar, Ahmad Asmadi Yusof
    This study was carried out to compare the rate of burn wound healing with the applications of the latex of Carica papaya Linn. (papaya) or of silver sulfadiazine cream (SSD). Partial and full thickness burn wound (2 cm x 2 cm) was induced on the dorsal part of anaesthetized rats by using heated metal plates. The rats were divided into three groups, i.e. untreated group and groups treated daily with SSD and papaya latex, respectively. A digital camera was used to take photographs of the burn wounds daily to monitor their healing. It was found that there was no significant difference in the healing time of papaya latex treated group compared to the SSD treated group. Papaya latex contained digestive enzymes which might clean burn wounds but might also cause wound bleeding in a few rats of the papaya latex group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex
  16. Naji, H.R., Sahri, M.H., Bakar, E.S., Soltani, M., Hamid, H.A.
    ASM Science Journal, 2014;8(1):36-43.
    Wood density and types of shrinkage were examined in two rubberwood latex timber clones of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) namely RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025, planted at densities of 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 trees/ha, within a trial plot. The mean wood density showed a low descending trend towards high planting densities in both clones. Wood density was significantly and negatively correlated with planting density. The strength of correlation was moderate. The mean longitudinal shrinkage in both clones and tangential shrinkages in clone RRIM 2020 showed no significant difference among planting densities. The tangential (in RRIM 2025), radial and volumetric shrinkages in both clones decreased from low to high planting densities and the differences were more pronounced between densities of 500 trees/ha and 2000 trees/ha. The magnitudes of correlation between these shrinkages and planting density were low. The regression models indicated that wood density could be more ascribed by planting density followed by volumetric shrinkage. This study exhibited low variations in wood density and shrinkages among clones and the respective planting densities; however, RRIM 2025 was more stable than RRIM 2020.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex
  17. Kaida Khalid, W. Mohd. Daud W. Yusoff, Jumiah Hassan
    Dielectric properties of natural rubber Hevea brasiliensis latex were measured at frequencies 0.2 to 20 GHz, at temperatures of 2, 15, 25, 35, and 50oC and around 30-98% moisture content. Measurements were done using open-ended coaxial line sensor and automated network analyzer. As expected, results showed that dielectric constant increased with increasing moisture. From 0.2 to 2.6 GHz, the losses were governed by conductive losses but for frequencies greater than 2.6 GHz, these were mainly due to dipolar losses. The former is due to conducting phases in hevea latex, while the latter is mainly governed by the orientation of water molecules. The results were analyzed at 2.6, 10, and 18 GHz, respectively. These were then compared with the values predicted by the dielectric mixture equations recommended by Weiner, Bruggeman and Kraszewski. All the measured values were found to be within the Weiner’s boundaries and close to the upper limit of Weiner’s model. It is also close to the predicted values of Bruggeman’s model with a/b = 0.1. All the models including Kraszewski are suitable for predicting the dielectric properties of hevea latex for frequencies 2.6 to 18 GHz, moisture content 30 to 98% and temperatures 2 to 50oC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex
  18. Hasma H, Subramaniam A
    Lipids, 1978 Dec;13(12):905-7.
    PMID: 27520427 DOI: 10.1007/BF02533847
    Methyl esters from the triglyceride fraction of the neutral lipids of natural rubber latex were found by gas liquid chromatography to contain about 90% of a furanoid acid. Spectroscopic analysis identified the acid as 10,13-epoxy-11-methyloctadeca-10,12-dienoic acid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex
  19. Sofian Ibrahim, Chantara Thevy Ratnam, Chai, Chee Keong, Noor Hasni M. Ali, Mohd Noorwadi Mat Lazim, Khairiah Badri
    Peroxide pre-vulcanized natural rubber latex prepared by using gamma irradiation technique is an alternative over the conventionally prepared peroxide pre-vulcanized that used activator to promote the peroxide decomposition in natural rubber latex. Through this technique the problems aroused by some activators such as tends to darken the natural rubber latex film during the drying process can also be overcome. For this preliminary study, data obtained from crosslink density and mechanical measurements were used to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma irradiation in the vulcanization process. Increasing the quantity of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHPO) from 0.1 pphr to 0.3 pphr while the irradiation dose maintain at 12 kGy has successfully delivered peroxide vulcanized natural rubber latex films with average tensile strength, modulus @ 500% and modulus @ 700% around 15.33, 1.01 and 3.42 MPa, respectively. The effective pre-vulcanization irradiation dose with respect to maximum crosslinking density (85.8 %) was observed on film prepared at 0.1 pphr t-BHPO.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latex
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