Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 88 in total

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  1. van Roekel EH, Trijsburg L, Assi N, Carayol M, Achaintre D, Murphy N, et al.
    Nutrients, 2018 May 22;10(5).
    PMID: 29789452 DOI: 10.3390/nu10050654
    Identifying the metabolites associated with alcohol consumption may provide insights into the metabolic pathways through which alcohol may affect human health. We studied associations of alcohol consumption with circulating concentrations of 123 metabolites among 2974 healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Alcohol consumption at recruitment was self-reported through dietary questionnaires. Metabolite concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry (BIOCRATES AbsoluteIDQTM p180 kit). Data were randomly divided into discovery (2/3) and replication (1/3) sets. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate confounder-adjusted associations of alcohol consumption with metabolite concentrations. Metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set (FDR q-value < 0.05) were further tested in the replication set (Bonferroni-corrected p-value < 0.05). Of the 72 metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set, 34 were also significant in the replication analysis, including three acylcarnitines, the amino acid citrulline, four lysophosphatidylcholines, 13 diacylphosphatidylcholines, seven acyl-alkylphosphatidylcholines, and six sphingomyelins. Our results confirmed earlier findings that alcohol consumption was associated with several lipid metabolites, and possibly also with specific acylcarnitines and amino acids. This provides further leads for future research studies aiming at elucidating the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol in relation to morbid conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/methods
  2. Zuther E, Lee YP, Erban A, Kopka J, Hincha DK
    Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 2018 10 6;1081:81-98.
    PMID: 30288705 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-1244-1_5
    During low-temperature exposure, temperate plant species increase their freezing tolerance in a process termed cold acclimation. The molecular mechanisms involved in cold acclimation have been mostly investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. In addition, other Brassicaceae species related to A. thaliana have been employed in recent years to study plant stress responses on a phylogenetically broader basis and in some cases with extremophile species with a much higher stress tolerance. In this paper, we briefly summarize cold acclimation responses in A. thaliana and current knowledge about cold acclimation in A. thaliana relatives with special emphasis on Eutrema salsugineum and two closely related Thellungiella species. We then present a transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of cold acclimation in five A. thaliana and two E. salsugineum accessions that differ widely in their freezing tolerance. Differences in the cold responses of the two species are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  3. Yusof HM, Ab-Rahim S, Suddin LS, Saman MSA, Mazlan M
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Sep;25(5):16-34.
    PMID: 30914860 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.5.3
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early diagnosis and accurate staging of the disease is vital to improve the prognosis. Metabolomics has been used to identify changes in metabolite profiles in the different stages of cancer in order to introduce new non-invasive molecular tools for staging. In this systematic review, we aim to identify the common metabolite changes in human biological samples and the dominant metabolic pathways associated with CRC progression. A broad systematic search was carried out from selected databases. Four reviewers screened and reviewed the titles, abstracts, and full-text articles according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Quality assessment was conducted on the eight articles which met the criteria. Data showed that the metabolites involved with redox status, energy metabolism and intermediates of amino acids, choline and nucleotides metabolism were the most affected during CRC progression. However, there were differences in the levels of individual metabolites detected between the studies, and this might be due to the study population, sample preparation, analytical platforms used and statistical tools. In conclusion, this systematic review highlights the changes in metabolites from early to late stages of CRC. Moreover, biomarkers for prognosis are important to reduce CRC-related mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  4. Yong WK, Sim KS, Poong SW, Wei D, Phang SM, Lim PE
    3 Biotech, 2019 Aug;9(8):315.
    PMID: 31406637 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-019-1848-8
    An ecologically important tropical freshwater microalga, Scenedesmus quadricauda, was exposed to Ni toxicity under two temperature regimes, 25 and 35 °C to investigate the interactive effects of warming and different Ni concentrations (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 ppm). The stress responses were assessed from the growth, photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and metabolomics aspects to understand the effects at both the physiological and biochemical levels. The results showed that the cell densities of the cultures were higher at 35 °C compared to 25 °C, but decreased with increasing Ni concentrations at 35 °C. In terms of photosynthetic efficiency, the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) of S. quadricauda remained consistent across different conditions. Nickel concentration at 10.0 ppm affected the maximum rate of relative electron transport (rETRm) and saturation irradiance for electron transport (Ek) in photosynthesis. At 25 °C, the increase of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) values in cells exposed to 10.0 ppm Ni might indicate the onset of thermal dissipation process as a self-protection mechanism against Ni toxicity. The combination of warming and Ni toxicity induced a strong oxidative stress response in the cells. The ROS level increased significantly by 40% after exposure to 10.0 ppm of Ni at 35 °C. The amount of Ni accumulated in the biomass was higher at 25 °C compared to 35 °C. Based on the metabolic profile, temperature contributed the most significant differentiation among the samples compared to Ni treatment and the interaction between the two factors. Amino acids, sugars and organic acids were significantly regulated by the combined factors to restore homeostasis. The most affected pathways include sulphur, amino acids, and nitrogen metabolisms. Overall, the results suggest that the inhibitory effect of Ni was lower at 35 °C compared to 25 °C probably due to lower metal uptake and primary metabolism restructuring. The ability of S. quadricauda to accumulate substantial amount of Ni and thrive at 35 °C suggests the potential use of this strain for phycoremediation and outdoor wastewater treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  5. Yap, Ivan K.S.
    MyJurnal
    Metabonomics can be used to quantitatively measure dynamic biochemical responses of living organisms to physiological or pathological stimuli. A range of analytical tools such as high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis can be employed to create comprehensive metabolic signatures of biological samples including urine, plasma, faecal water and tissue extracts. These metabolic signatures can reflect the physiological or pathological condition of the organism and indicate imbalances in the homeostatic regulation of tissues and extracellular fluids. This technology has been employed in a diverse range of application areas including investigation of disease mechanisms, diagnosis/prognosis of pathologies, nutritional interventions and drug toxicity. Metabolic profiling is becoming increasingly important in identifying biomarkers of disease progression and drug intervention, and can provide additional information to support or aid the interpretation of genomic and proteomic data. With the new generation of postgenomic technologies, the paradigm in many biological fields has shifted to either top down systems biology approaches, aiming to achieve a general understanding of the global and integrated response of an organism or to bottom up modelling of specific pathways and networks using a priori knowledge based on mining large bodies of literature. Whilst metabolic profiling lends itself to either approach, using it in an exploratory and hypothesis generating capacity clearly allows new mechanisms to be uncovered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  6. Yap IK, Kho MT, Lim SH, Ismail NH, Yam WK, Chong CW
    Mol Biosyst, 2015 Jan;11(1):297-306.
    PMID: 25382376 DOI: 10.1039/c4mb00463a
    Understanding the basal gut bacterial community structure and the host metabolic composition is pivotal for the interpretation of laboratory treatments designed to answer questions pertinent to host-microbe interactions. In this study, we report for the first time the underlying gut microbiota and systemic metabolic composition in BALB/c mice during the acclimatisation period. Our results showed that stress levels were reduced in the first three days of the study when the animals were subjected to repetitive handling daily but the stress levels were increased when handling was carried out at lower frequencies (weekly). We also observed a strong influence of stress on the host metabolism and commensal compositional variability. In addition, temporal biological compartmental variations in the responses were observed. Based on these results, we suggest that consistency in the frequency and duration of laboratory handling is crucial in murine models to minimise the impact of stress levels on the commensal and host metabolism dynamics. Furthermore, caution is advised in consideration of the temporal delay effect when integrating metagenomics and metabonomics data across different biological matrices (i.e. faeces and urine).
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/methods
  7. Xu J, Cheng KK, Yang Z, Wang C, Shen G, Wang Y, et al.
    PMID: 26170882 DOI: 10.1155/2015/801691
    Gastric mucosal lesion (GML) is a common gastrointestinal disorder with multiple pathogenic mechanisms in clinical practice. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), electroacupuncture (EA) treatment has been proven as an effective therapy for GML, although the underlying healing mechanism is not yet clear. Here, we used proton nuclear magnetic resonance- ((1)H NMR-) based metabolomic method to investigate the metabolic perturbation induced by GML and the therapeutic effect of EA treatment on stomach meridian (SM) acupoints. Clear metabolic differences were observed between GML and control groups, and related metabolic pathways were discussed by means of online metabolic network analysis toolbox. By comparing the endogenous metabolites from GML and GML-SM groups, the disturbed pathways were partly recovered towards healthy state via EA treated on SM acupoints. Further comparison of the metabolic variations induced by EA stimulated on SM and the control gallbladder meridian (GM) acupoints showed a quite similar metabolite composition except for increased phenylacetylglycine, 3,4-dihydroxymandelate, and meta-hydroxyphenylacetate and decreased N-methylnicotinamide in urine from rats with EA treated on SM acupoints. The current study showed the potential application of metabolomics in providing further insight into the molecular mechanism of acupuncture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  8. Xu J, Jiang H, Li J, Cheng KK, Dong J, Chen Z
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(4):e0119654.
    PMID: 25849323 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119654
    Wilson's disease (WD), also known as hepatoleticular degeneration (HLD), is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder of copper metabolism, which causes copper to accumulate in body tissues. In this study, rats fed with copper-laden diet are used to render the clinical manifestations of WD, and their copper toxicity-induced organ lesions are studied. To investigate metabolic behaviors of 'decoppering' process, penicillamine (PA) was used for treating copper-laden rats as this chelating agent could eliminate excess copper through the urine. To date, there has been limited metabolomics study on WD, while metabolic impacts of copper accumulation and PA administration have yet to be established.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/methods*
  9. Wong EHJ, Ng CG, Goh KL, Vadivelu J, Ho B, Loke MF
    Sci Rep, 2018 01 23;8(1):1409.
    PMID: 29362474 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-19697-0
    The biofilm-forming-capability of Helicobacter pylori has been suggested to be among factors influencing treatment outcome. However, H. pylori exhibit strain-to-strain differences in biofilm-forming-capability. Metabolomics enables the inference of spatial and temporal changes of metabolic activities during biofilm formation. Our study seeks to examine the differences in metabolome of low and high biofilm-formers using the metabolomic approach. Eight H. pylori clinical strains with different biofilm-forming-capability were chosen for metabolomic analysis. Bacterial metabolites were extracted using Bligh and Dyer method and analyzed by Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry. The data was processed and analyzed using the MassHunter Qualitative Analysis and the Mass Profiler Professional programs. Based on global metabolomic profiles, low and high biofilm-formers presented as two distinctly different groups. Interestingly, low-biofilm-formers produced more metabolites than high-biofilm-formers. Further analysis was performed to identify metabolites that differed significantly (p-value 
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/methods*
  10. Watanabe M, Roth TL, Bauer SJ, Lane A, Romick-Rosendale LE
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(5):e0156318.
    PMID: 27232336 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156318
    A variety of wildlife species maintained in captivity are susceptible to iron storage disease (ISD), or hemochromatosis, a disease resulting from the deposition of excess iron into insoluble iron clusters in soft tissue. Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is one of the rhinoceros species that has evolutionarily adapted to a low-iron diet and is susceptible to iron overload. Hemosiderosis is reported at necropsy in many African black and Sumatran rhinoceroses but only a small number of animals reportedly die from hemochromatosis. The underlying cause and reasons for differences in susceptibility to hemochromatosis within the taxon remains unclear. Although serum ferritin concentrations have been useful in monitoring the progression of ISD in many species, there is some question regarding their value in diagnosing hemochromatosis in the Sumatran rhino. To investigate the metabolic changes during the development of hemochromatosis and possibly increase our understanding of its progression and individual susceptibility differences, the serum metabolome from a Sumatran rhinoceros was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics. The study involved samples from female rhinoceros at the Cincinnati Zoo (n = 3), including two animals that died from liver failure caused by ISD, and the Sungai Dusun Rhinoceros Conservation Centre in Peninsular Malaysia (n = 4). Principal component analysis was performed to visually and statistically compare the metabolic profiles of the healthy animals. The results indicated that significant differences were present between the animals at the zoo and the animals in the conservation center. A comparison of the 43 serum metabolomes of three zoo rhinoceros showed two distinct groupings, healthy (n = 30) and unhealthy (n = 13). A total of eighteen altered metabolites were identified in healthy versus unhealthy samples. Results strongly suggest that NMR-based metabolomics is a valuable tool for animal health monitoring and may provide insight into the progression of this and other insidious diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics*
  11. Wan-Nadilah WA, Akhtar MT, Shaari K, Khatib A, Hamid AA, Hamid M
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Sep 05;19(1):245.
    PMID: 31488132 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2655-9
    BACKGROUND: Cosmos caudatus is an annual plant known for its medicinal value in treating several health conditions, such as high blood pressure, arthritis, and diabetes mellitus. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and total phenolic content of the leaf aqueous ethanolic extracts of the plant at different growth stages (6, 8. 10, 12 and 14 weeks) were determined in an effort to ascertain the best time to harvest the plant for maximum medicinal quality with respect to its glucose-lowering effects.

    METHODS: The aqueous ethanolic leaf extracts of C. caudatus were characterized by NMR and LC-MS/MS. The total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, respectively. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated using one-way ANOVA with Duncan's post hoc test, and correlation among the different activities was performed by Pearson's correlation test. NMR spectroscopy along with multivariate data analysis was used to identify the metabolites correlated with total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the C. caudatus leaf extracts.

    RESULTS: It was found that the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and total phenolic content of the optimized ethanol:water (80:20) leaf extract of the plant increased significantly as the plant matured, reaching a maximum at the 10th week. The IC50 value for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (39.18 μg mL- 1) at the 10th week showed greater potency than the positive standard, quercetin (110.50 μg mL- 1). Through an 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach, the 10-week-old samples were shown to be correlated with a high total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. From the partial least squares biplot, rutin and flavonoid glycosides, consisting of quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and quercetin 3-O-xyloside, were identified as the major bioactive metabolites. The metabolites were identified by NMR spectroscopy (J-resolve, HSQC and HMBC experiments) and further supported by dereplication via LC-MS/MS.

    CONCLUSION: For high phytomedicinal quality, the 10th week is recommended as the best time to harvest C. caudatus leaves with respect to its glucose lowering potential.

    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  12. Veeramohan R, Azizan KA, Aizat WM, Goh HH, Mansor SM, Yusof NSM, et al.
    Data Brief, 2018 Jun;18:1212-1216.
    PMID: 29900296 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2018.04.001
    Mitragyna speciosa is a psychoactive plant known as "ketum" in Malaysia and "kratom" in Thailand. This plant is distinctly known to produce two important alkaloids, namely mitragynine (MG) and 7-hydroxymitragynine (7-OH-MG) that can bind to opioid receptors [1]. MG was reported to exhibit antidepressant properties in animal studies [2]. These compounds were also proposed to have the potential to replace opioid analgesics with much lower risks of side effects [3]. To date, there are only over 40 metabolites identified in M. speciosa [4,5]. To obtain a more complete profile of secondary metabolites in ketum, we performed metabolomics study using mature leaves of the green M. speciosa variety. The leaf samples were extracted using methanol prior to liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-TOF-MS) analysis. This data can be useful to for the identification of unknown metabolites that are associated with alkaloid biosynthesis pathway in M. speciosa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  13. Teh HF, Neoh BK, Hong MP, Low JY, Ng TL, Ithnin N, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(4):e61344.
    PMID: 23593468 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061344
    To better understand lipid biosynthesis in oil palm mesocarp, in particular the differences in gene regulation leading to and including de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, a multi-platform metabolomics technology was used to profile mesocarp metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in comparatively high- and low-yielding oil palm populations. Significantly higher amino acid levels preceding lipid biosynthesis and nucleosides during lipid biosynthesis were observed in a higher yielding commercial palm population. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis revealed interesting divergence of flux towards glycerol-3-phosphate, while carbon utilization differences in the TCA cycle were proven by an increase in malic acid/citric acid ratio. Apart from insights into the regulation of enhanced lipid production in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programmes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/methods
  14. Tan CX, Chong GH, Hamzah H, Ghazali HM
    Phytother Res, 2018 Nov;32(11):2264-2274.
    PMID: 30051518 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6164
    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for the initiation and development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. The present study evaluated the hypocholesterolemic effect of virgin avocado oil (VAO) using urinary metabolomic method. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high-cholesterol diet for four weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia. After confirming the establishment of hypercholesterolemia model, the VAO (450 and 900 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 ) and simvastatin (10 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 ) were given orally while maintaining the high-cholesterol diet for another four weeks. Assessment of urinary metabolomics using NMR revealed that VAO treatment could partially recover the metabolism dysfunction induced by hypercholesterolemia mainly via lipid, energy, amino acid, and gut microbiota metabolism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  15. Shen G, Huang Y, Dong J, Wang X, Cheng KK, Feng J, et al.
    J. Agric. Food Chem., 2018 Jan 10;66(1):368-377.
    PMID: 29215281 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03182
    Taurine is indispensable in aquatic diets that are based solely on plant protein, and it promotes growth of many fish species. However, the physiological and metabolome effects of taurine on fish have not been well described. In this study, 1H NMR-based metabolomics approaches were applied to investigate the metabolite variations in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotictus) muscle in order to visualize the metabolic trajectory and reveal the possible mechanisms of metabolic effects of dietary taurine supplementation on tilapia growth. After extraction using aqueous and organic solvents, 19 taurine-induced metabolic changes were evaluated in our study. The metabolic changes were characterized by differences in carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and nucleotide contents. The results indicate that taurine supplementation could significantly regulate the physiological state of fish and promote growth and development. These results provide a basis for understanding the mechanism of dietary taurine supplementation in fish feeding. 1H NMR spectroscopy, coupled with multivariate pattern recognition technologies, is an efficient and useful tool to map the fish metabolome and identify metabolic responses to different dietary nutrients in aquaculture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/methods*
  16. Shahfiza N, Osman H, Hock TT, Abdel-Hamid AZ
    Acta Biochim. Pol., 2017;64(2):215-219.
    PMID: 28350402 DOI: 10.18388/abp.2015_1224
    BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the major public health problems in the world, affecting more than fifty million cases in tropical and subtropical region every year. The metabolome, as pathophysiological end-points, provide significant understanding of the mechanism and progression of dengue pathogenesis via changes in the metabolite profile of infected patients. Recent developments in diagnostic technologies provide metabolomics for the early detection of infectious diseases.

    METHODS: The mid-stream urine was collected from 96 patients diagnosed with dengue fever at Penang General Hospital (PGH) and 50 healthy volunteers. Urine samples were analyzed with proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, followed by chemometric multivariate analysis. NMR signals highlighted in the orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) S-plots were selected and identified using Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) and Chenomx Profiler. A highly predictive model was constructed from urine profile of dengue infected patients versus healthy individuals with the total R2Y (cum) value 0.935, and the total Q2Y (cum) value 0.832.

    RESULTS: Data showed that dengue infection is related to amino acid metabolism, tricarboxylic acid intermediates cycle and β-oxidation of fatty acids. Distinct variations in certain metabolites were recorded in infected patients including amino acids, various organic acids, betaine, valerylglycine, myo-inositol and glycine.

    CONCLUSION: Metabolomics approach provides essential insight into host metabolic disturbances following dengue infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics*
  17. Shafiee MN, Chapman C, Barrett D, Abu J, Atiomo W
    Gynecol. Oncol., 2013 Nov;131(2):489-92.
    PMID: 23822891 DOI: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2013.06.032
    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the commonest gynaecological cancer in North American and European women. Even though it has been shown that women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a three-fold increase in the risk of developing EC compared to women without PCOS, the precise molecular mechanisms which increase EC risk in women with PCOS remain unclear. Clinical strategies to prevent EC in PCOS are therefore not well researched and understood. Although raised estrogen levels, hyperinsulinaemia and, reduced apoptosis have been suggested as potential mechanisms, there is a lack of clarity about how these factors and other factors may interact to increase EC risk in PCOS. This article reviews the literature, on the potential molecular links between PCOS and EC but argues for a paradigm shift, to a systems biology-based approach in future research into the molecular links between PCOS and EC. The potential challenges of a systems biology-based approach are outlined but not considered insurmountable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  18. Samat N, Tan PJ, Shaari K, Abas F, Lee HB
    Anal. Chem., 2014 Feb 4;86(3):1324-31.
    PMID: 24405504 DOI: 10.1021/ac403709a
    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an alternative treatment for cancer that involves administration of a photosensitive drug or photosensitizer that localizes at the tumor tissue followed by in situ excitation at an appropriate wavelength of light. Tumour tissues are then killed by cytotoxic reactive oxygen species generated by the photosensitizer. Targeted excitation and photokilling of affected tissues is achieved through focal light irradiation, thereby minimizing systemic side effects to the normal healthy tissues. Currently, there are only a small number of photosensitizers that are in the clinic and many of these share the same structural core based on cyclic tetrapyrroles. This paper describes how metabolic tools are utilized to prioritize natural extracts to search for structurally new photosensitizers from Malaysian biodiversity. As proof of concept, we analyzed 278 photocytotoxic extracts using a hyphenated technique of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with principal component analysis (LC-MS-PCA) and prioritized 27 extracts that potentially contained new photosensitizers for chemical dereplication using an in-house UPLC-PDA-MS-Photocytotoxic assay platform. This led to the identification of 2 new photosensitizers with cyclic tetrapyrrolic structures, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of the metabolic approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/methods*
  19. Saiman MZ, Mustafa NR, Verpoorte R
    Methods Mol. Biol., 2018;1815:437-455.
    PMID: 29981141 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-8594-4_31
    The plant Catharanthus roseus is a rich source of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIA). Some of the TIA are important as antihypertensive (ajmalicine) and anticancer (vinblastine and vincristine) drugs. However, production of the latter is very low in the plant. Therefore, in vitro plant cell cultures have been considered as a potential supply of these chemicals or their precursors. Some monomeric alkaloids can be produced by plant cell cultures, but not on a level feasible for commercialization, despite extensive studies on this plant that deepened the understanding of the TIA biosynthesis and its regulation. In order to analyze the metabolites in C. roseus cell cultures, this chapter presents the method of TIA, carotenoids, and phytosterols analyses. Furthermore, an NMR-based metabolomics approach to study C. roseus cell culture is described.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/methods*
  20. Saiman MZ, Miettinen K, Mustafa NR, Choi YH, Verpoorte R, Schulte AE
    Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult., 2018;134(1):41-53.
    PMID: 31007320 DOI: 10.1007/s11240-018-1398-5
    Previous studies showed that geraniol could be an upstream limiting factor in the monoterpenoid pathway towards the production of terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) in Catharanthus roseus cells and hairy root cultures. This shortage in precursor availability could be due to (1) limited expression of the plastidial geraniol synthase resulted in a low activity of the enzyme to catalyze the conversion of geranyl diphosphate to geraniol; or (2) the limitation of geraniol transport from plastids to cytosol. Therefore, in this study, C. roseus's geraniol synthase (CrGES) gene was overexpressed in either plastids or cytosol of a non-TIA producing C. roseus cell line. The expression of CrGES in the plastids or cytosol was confirmed and the constitutive transformation lines were successfully established. A targeted metabolite analysis using HPLC shows that the transformed cell lines did not produce TIA or iridoid precursors unless elicited with jasmonic acid, as their parent cell line. This indicates a requirement for expression of additional, inducible pathway genes to reach production of TIA in this cell line. Interestingly, further analysis using NMR-based metabolomics reveals that the overexpression of CrGES impacts primary metabolism differently if expressed in the plastids or cytosol. The levels of valine, leucine, and some metabolites derived from the shikimate pathway, i.e. phenylalanine and tyrosine were significantly higher in the plastidial- but lower in the cytosolic-CrGES overexpressing cell lines. This result shows that overexpression of CrGES in the plastids or cytosol caused alteration of primary metabolism that associated to the plant cell growth and development. A comprehensive omics analysis is necessary to reveal the full effect of metabolic engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
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