Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 88 in total

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  1. Lee SY, Mediani A, Maulidiani M, Khatib A, Ismail IS, Zawawi N, et al.
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2018 Jan;98(1):240-252.
    PMID: 28580581 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8462
    BACKGROUND: Neptunia oleracea is a plant consumed as a vegetable and which has been used as a folk remedy for several diseases. Herein, two regression models (partial least squares, PLS; and random forest, RF) in a metabolomics approach were compared and applied to the evaluation of the relationship between phenolics and bioactivities of N. oleracea. In addition, the effects of different extraction conditions on the phenolic constituents were assessed by pattern recognition analysis.

    RESULTS: Comparison of the PLS and RF showed that RF exhibited poorer generalization and hence poorer predictive performance. Both the regression coefficient of PLS and the variable importance of RF revealed that quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, caffeic acid and vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside were significant towards the tested bioactivities. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) results showed that sonication and absolute ethanol are the preferable extraction method and ethanol ratio, respectively, to produce N. oleracea extracts with high phenolic levels and therefore high DPPH scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

    CONCLUSION: Both PLS and RF are useful regression models in metabolomics studies. This work provides insight into the performance of different multivariate data analysis tools and the effects of different extraction conditions on the extraction of desired phenolics from plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  2. Khoo LW, Foong Kow AS, Maulidiani M, Lee MT, Tan CP, Shaari K, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Aug 29;23(9).
    PMID: 30158427 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092172
    The present study aims for the first time to provide the in vivo acute toxicological profile of the highest dose of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau water leaf extract according to the Organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD) 423 guidelines through conventional toxicity and advanced proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) serum and urinary metabolomics evaluation methods. A single dose of 5000 mg/kg bw of C. nutans water extract was administered to Sprague Dawley rats, and they were observed for 14 days. Conventional toxicity evaluation methods (physical observation, body and organ weight, food and water consumption, hematology, biochemical testing and histopathological analysis) suggested no abnormal toxicity signs. Serum ¹H-NMR metabolome revealed no significant metabolic difference between untreated and treated groups. Urinary ¹H-NMR analysis, on the other hand, revealed alteration in carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism in extract-treated rats after 2 h of extract administration, but the metabolic expression collected after 24 h and at Day 5, Day 10 and Day 15 indicated that the extract-treated rats did not accumulate any toxicity biomarkers. Importantly, the outcomes further suggest that single oral administration of up to 5000 mg/kg bw of C. nutans water leaf extract is safe for consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/methods*
  3. Khoo LW, Kow ASF, Maulidiani M, Ang MY, Chew WY, Lee MT, et al.
    Phytochem Anal, 2019 Jan;30(1):46-61.
    PMID: 30183131 DOI: 10.1002/pca.2789
    INTRODUCTION: Clinacanthus nutans, a small shrub that is native to Southeast Asia, is commonly used in traditional herbal medicine and as a food source. Its anti-inflammation properties is influenced by the metabolites composition, which can be determined by different binary extraction solvent ratio and extraction methods used during plant post-harvesting stage.

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between the chemical composition of C. nutans and its anti-inflammatory properties using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics approach.

    METHODOLOGY: The anti-inflammatory effect of C. nutans air-dried leaves extracted using five different binary extraction solvent ratio and two extraction methods was determined based on their nitric oxide (NO) inhibition effect in lipopolysaccharide-interferon-gamma (LPS-IFN-γ) activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The relationship between extract bioactivity and metabolite profiles and quantifications were established using 1 H-NMR metabolomics and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The possible metabolite biosynthesis pathway was constructed to further strengthen the findings.

    RESULTS: Water and sonication prepared air-dried leaves possessed the highest NO inhibition activity (IC50  = 190.43 ± 12.26 μg/mL, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/methods*
  4. Khoo LW, Audrey Kow SF, Maulidiani M, Lee MT, Tan CP, Shaari K, et al.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2018 Sep 05;158:438-450.
    PMID: 29957507 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2018.06.038
    The present study sought to identify the key biomarkers and pathways involved in the induction of allergic sensitization to ovalbumin and to elucidate the potential anti-anaphylaxis property of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau water leaf extract, a Southeast Asia herb in an in vivo ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis model evaluated by 1H-NMR metabolomics. The results revealed that carbohydrate metabolism (glucose, myo-inositol, galactarate) and lipid metabolism (glycerol, choline, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) are the key requisites for the induction of anaphylaxis reaction. Sensitized rats treated with 2000 mg/kg bw C. nutans extract before ovalbumin challenge showed a positive correlation with the normal group and was negatively related to the induced group. Further 1H-NMR analysis in complement with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) reveals the protective effect of C. nutans extract against ovalbumin-induced anaphylaxis through the down-regulation of lipid metabolism (choline, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), carbohydrate and signal transduction system (glucose, myo-inositol, galactarate) and up-regulation of citrate cycle intermediates (citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate), propanoate metabolism (1,2-propanediol), amino acid metabolism (betaine, N,N-dimethylglycine, methylguanidine, valine) and nucleotide metabolism (malonate, allantoin). In summary, this study reports for the first time, C. nutans water extract is a potential anti-anaphylactic agent and 1H-NMR metabolomics is a great alternative analytical tool to explicate the mechanism of action of anaphylaxis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/instrumentation; Metabolomics/methods
  5. Abu Bakar Sajak A, Mediani A, Maulidiani, Mohd Dom NS, Machap C, Hamid M, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2017 Dec 01;36:201-209.
    PMID: 29157816 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2017.10.011
    BACKGROUND: Ipomoea aquatica (locally known as "kangkung") has previously been reported to have hypoglycemic activities on glucose level in diabetes patients. However, the effect of I. aquatica ethanolic extract on the metabolites in the body has remained unknown.

    PURPOSE: This study provides new insights on the changes of endogenous metabolites caused by I. aquatica ethanolic extract and improves the understanding on the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of I. aquatica ethanolic extract.

    METHODS: By using a combination of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with multivariate analysis (MVDA), the changes of metabolites due to I. aquatica ethanolic extract administration in obese diabetic-induced Sprague Dawley rats (OB+STZ+IA) were identified.

    RESULTS: The results suggested 19 potential biomarkers with variable importance projections (VIP) above 0.5, which include creatine/creatinine, glucose, creatinine, citrate, carnitine, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, hippurate, leucine, 1-methylnicotinamice (MNA), taurine, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB), tryptophan, lysine, trigonelline, allantoin, formiate, acetoacetate (AcAc) and dimethylamine. From the changes in the metabolites, the affected pathways and aspects of metabolism were identified.

    CONCLUSION: I. aquatica ethanolic extract increases metabolite levels such as creatinine/creatine, carnitine, MNA, trigonelline, leucine, lysine, 3-HB and decreases metabolite levels, including glucose and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates. This implies capabilities of I. aquatica ethanolic extract promoting glycolysis, gut microbiota and nicotinate/nicotinamide metabolism, improving the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and reducing the β-oxidation rate. However, the administration of I. aquatica ethanolic extract has several drawbacks, such as unimproved changes in amino acid metabolism, especially in reducing branched chain amino acid (BCAA) synthesis pathways and lipid metabolism.

    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/methods
  6. Lee SY, Mediani A, Ismail IS, Maulidiani, Abas F
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Jan 07;19(1):7.
    PMID: 30616569 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2413-4
    BACKGROUND: Neptunia oleracea is a plant cultivated as vegetable in Southeast Asia. Previous works have revealed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and α-glucosidase inhibitors. Continuing our interest on this plant, the present work is focused in identification of the bioactive compounds from different polarity fractions of N. oleracea, namely hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EF) and methanol (MF).

    METHODS: The N. oleracea fractions were obtained using solid phase extraction (SPE). A metabolomics approach that coupled the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) with multivariate data analysis (MVDA) was applied to distinguish the metabolite variations among the N. oleracea fractions, as well as to assess the correlation between metabolite variation and the studied bioactivities (DPPH free radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities). The bioactive fractions were then subjected to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis to profile and identify the potential bioactive constituents.

    RESULTS: The principal component analysis (PCA) discriminated EF and MF from the other fractions with the higher distributions of phenolics. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis revealed a strong correlation between the phenolics and the studied bioactivities in the EF and the MF. The UHPLC-MS/MS profiling of EF and MF had tentatively identified the phenolics present. Together with some non-phenolic metabolites, a total of 37 metabolites were tentatively assigned.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this work supported that N. oleracea is a rich source of phenolics that can be potential antioxidants and α-glucosidase inhibitors for the management of diabetes. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on the metabolite-bioactivity correlation and UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of N. oleracea fractions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  7. Azizan A, Ahamad Bustamam MS, Maulidiani M, Shaari K, Ismail IS, Nagao N, et al.
    Mar Drugs, 2018 May 07;16(5).
    PMID: 29735927 DOI: 10.3390/md16050154
    Microalgae are promising candidate resources from marine ecology for health-improving effects. Metabolite profiling of the microalgal diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans was conducted by using robust metabolomics tools, namely ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis (MVDA). The unsupervised data analysis, using principal component analysis (PCA), resolved the five types of extracts made by solvents ranging from polar to non-polar into five different clusters. Collectively, with various extraction solvents, 11 amino acids, cholesterol, 6 fatty acids, 2 sugars, 1 osmolyte, 6 carotenoids and 2 chlorophyll pigments were identified. The fatty acids and both carotenoid pigments as well as chlorophyll, were observed in the extracts made from medium polar (acetone, chloroform) and non-polar (hexane) solvents. It is suggested that the compounds were the characteristic markers that influenced the separation between the clusters. Based on partial least square (PLS) analysis, fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and lutein displayed strong correlation to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity. This metabolomics study showed that solvent extractions are one of the main bottlenecks for the maximum recovery of bioactive microalgal compounds and could be a better source of natural antioxidants due to a high value of metabolites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/methods
  8. Shahfiza N, Osman H, Hock TT, Abdel-Hamid AZ
    Acta Biochim. Pol., 2017;64(2):215-219.
    PMID: 28350402 DOI: 10.18388/abp.2015_1224
    BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the major public health problems in the world, affecting more than fifty million cases in tropical and subtropical region every year. The metabolome, as pathophysiological end-points, provide significant understanding of the mechanism and progression of dengue pathogenesis via changes in the metabolite profile of infected patients. Recent developments in diagnostic technologies provide metabolomics for the early detection of infectious diseases.

    METHODS: The mid-stream urine was collected from 96 patients diagnosed with dengue fever at Penang General Hospital (PGH) and 50 healthy volunteers. Urine samples were analyzed with proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, followed by chemometric multivariate analysis. NMR signals highlighted in the orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) S-plots were selected and identified using Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) and Chenomx Profiler. A highly predictive model was constructed from urine profile of dengue infected patients versus healthy individuals with the total R2Y (cum) value 0.935, and the total Q2Y (cum) value 0.832.

    RESULTS: Data showed that dengue infection is related to amino acid metabolism, tricarboxylic acid intermediates cycle and β-oxidation of fatty acids. Distinct variations in certain metabolites were recorded in infected patients including amino acids, various organic acids, betaine, valerylglycine, myo-inositol and glycine.

    CONCLUSION: Metabolomics approach provides essential insight into host metabolic disturbances following dengue infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics*
  9. Gooda Sahib Jambocus N, Saari N, Ismail A, Khatib A, Mahomoodally MF, Abdul Hamid A
    J Diabetes Res, 2016;2016:2391592.
    PMID: 26798649 DOI: 10.1155/2016/2391592
    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, with high fat diet (HFD) as one of the main contributing factors. Obesity increases the predisposition to other diseases such as diabetes through various metabolic pathways. Limited availability of antiobesity drugs and the popularity of complementary medicine have encouraged research in finding phytochemical strategies to this multifaceted disease. HFD induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an extract of Morinda citrifolia L. leaves (MLE 60). After 9 weeks of treatment, positive effects were observed on adiposity, fecal fat content, plasma lipids, and insulin and leptin levels. The inducement of obesity and treatment with MLE 60 on metabolic alterations were then further elucidated using a (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach. Discriminating metabolites involved were products of various metabolic pathways, including glucose metabolism and TCA cycle (lactate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, succinate, pyruvate, and acetate), amino acid metabolism (alanine, 2-hydroxybutyrate), choline metabolism (betaine), creatinine metabolism (creatinine), and gut microbiome metabolism (hippurate, phenylacetylglycine, dimethylamine, and trigonelline). Treatment with MLE 60 resulted in significant improvement in the metabolic perturbations caused obesity as demonstrated by the proximity of the treated group to the normal group in the OPLS-DA score plot and the change in trajectory movement of the diseased group towards the healthy group upon treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/methods*
  10. Gooda Sahib N, Saari N, Ismail A, Khatib A, Mahomoodally F, Abdul Hamid A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:436039.
    PMID: 22666121 DOI: 10.1100/2012/436039
    Obesity and obesity-related complications are on the increase both in the developed and developing world. Since existing pharmaceuticals fail to come up with long-term solutions to address this issue, there is an ever-pressing need to find and develop new drugs and alternatives. Natural products, particularly medicinal plants, are believed to harbor potential antiobesity agents that can act through various mechanisms either by preventing weight gain or promoting weight loss amongst others. The inhibition of key lipid and carbohydrate hydrolyzing and metabolizing enzymes, disruption of adipogenesis, and modulation of its factors or appetite suppression are some of the plethora of targeted approaches to probe the antiobesity potential of medicinal plants. A new technology such as metabolomics, which deals with the study of the whole metabolome, has been identified to be a promising technique to probe the progression of diseases, elucidate their pathologies, and assess the effects of natural health products on certain pathological conditions. This has been applied to drug research, bone health, and to a limited extent to obesity research. This paper thus endeavors to give an overview of those plants, which have been reported to have antiobesity effects and highlight the potential and relevance of metabolomics in obesity research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  11. Mamat SF, Azizan KA, Baharum SN, Noor NM, Aizat WM
    Data Brief, 2018 Apr;17:1074-1077.
    PMID: 29876463 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2018.02.033
    Fruit ripening is a complex phenomenon involving a series of biochemical, physiological and organoleptic changes. Ripening process in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) is unique of which the fruit will only ripen properly if harvested during its middle stage (emergence of purple/pink colour) but not earlier (green stage). The knowledge on the molecular mechanism and regulation behind this phenomenon is still limited. Hence, electrospray ionization liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS) based metabolomics analysis was applied to determine the metabolome of mangosteen ripening. Specifically, mangosteen pericarp, aril and seed were collected at four different ripening stages (stage 0: green, stage 2: yellowish with pink patches, stage 4: brownish red and stage 6: dark purple) and subjected to metabolite profiling analysis. The data provided in this article have been deposited to the EMBL-EBI MetaboLights database (DOI: 10.1093/nar/gks1004. PubMed PMID: 23109552) with the identifier MTBLS595. The complete dataset can be accessed here https://www.ebi.ac.uk/metabolights/MTBLS595.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  12. Jamil NAM, Rahmad N, Rosli NHM, Al-Obaidi JR
    Electrophoresis, 2018 12;39(23):2954-2964.
    PMID: 30074628 DOI: 10.1002/elps.201800185
    Wax apple is one of the underutilized fruits that is considered a good source of fibers, vitamins, minerals as well as antioxidants. In this study, a comparative analysis of the developments of wax fruit ripening at the proteomic and metabolomic level was reported. 2D electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF was used to compare the proteome profile from three developmental stages named immature, young, and mature fruits. In general, the protein expression profile and the identified proteins function were discussed for their potential roles in fruit physiological development and ripening processes. The metabolomic investigation was also performed on the same samples using quadrupole LC-MS (LC-QTOF/MS). Roles of some of the differentially expressed proteins and metabolites are discussed in relation to wax apple ripening during the development. This is the first study investigating the changes in the proteins and metabolites in wax apple at different developmental stages. The information obtained from this research will be helpful in developing biomarkers for breeders and help the plant researchers to avoid wax apple cultivation problems such as fruit cracking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/methods*
  13. Ramachandran H, Shafie NAH, Sudesh K, Azizan MN, Majid MIA, Amirul AA
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 2018 Mar;111(3):361-372.
    PMID: 29022146 DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0958-8
    Bacterial classification on the basis of a polyphasic approach was conducted on three poly(3 hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] accumulating bacterial strains that were isolated from samples collected from Malaysian environments; Kulim Lake, Sg. Pinang river and Sg. Manik paddy field. The Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, non-sporulating and non-fermenting bacteria were shown to belong to the genus Cupriavidus of the Betaproteobacteria on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The sequence similarity value with their near phylogenetic neighbour, Cupriavidus pauculus LMG3413T, was 98.5%. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values (8-58%) and ribotyping analysis both enabled these strains to be differentiated from related Cupriavidus species with validly published names. The RiboPrint patterns of the three strains also revealed that the strains were genetically related even though they displayed a clonal diversity. The major cellular fatty acids detected in these strains included C15:0 ISO 2OH/C16:1 ω7c, hexadecanoic (16:0) and cis-11-octadecenoic (C18:1 ω7c). Their G+C contents ranged from 68.0  to 68.6 mol%, and their major isoprenoid quinone was Ubiquinone Q-8. Of these three strains, only strain USMAHM13 (= DSM 25816 = KCTC 32390) was discovered to exhibit yellow pigmentation that is characteristic of the carotenoid family. Their assembled genomes also showed that the three strains were not identical in terms of their genome sizes that were 7.82, 7.95 and 8.70 Mb for strains USMAHM13, USMAA1020 and USMAA2-4, respectively, which are slightly larger than that of Cupriavidus necator H16 (7.42 Mb). The average nucleotide identity (ANI) results indicated that the strains were genetically related and the genome pairs belong to the same species. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, the three strains are considered to represent a novel species for which the name Cupriavidus malaysiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the species is USMAA1020T (= DSM 19416T = KCTC 32390T).
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/methods
  14. Teh HF, Neoh BK, Hong MP, Low JY, Ng TL, Ithnin N, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(4):e61344.
    PMID: 23593468 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061344
    To better understand lipid biosynthesis in oil palm mesocarp, in particular the differences in gene regulation leading to and including de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, a multi-platform metabolomics technology was used to profile mesocarp metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in comparatively high- and low-yielding oil palm populations. Significantly higher amino acid levels preceding lipid biosynthesis and nucleosides during lipid biosynthesis were observed in a higher yielding commercial palm population. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis revealed interesting divergence of flux towards glycerol-3-phosphate, while carbon utilization differences in the TCA cycle were proven by an increase in malic acid/citric acid ratio. Apart from insights into the regulation of enhanced lipid production in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programmes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/methods
  15. Neoh BK, Teh HF, Ng TL, Tiong SH, Thang YM, Ersad MA, et al.
    J. Agric. Food Chem., 2013 Feb 27;61(8):1920-7.
    PMID: 23384169 DOI: 10.1021/jf304561f
    Oil palm is one of the most productive oil producing crops and can store up to 90% oil in its fruit mesocarp. However, the biosynthetic regulation and drivers of palm mesocarp development are still not well understood. Multiplatform metabolomics technology was used to profile palm metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in order to better understand lipid biosynthesis. Significantly higher amino acid levels were observed in palm mesocarp preceding lipid biosynthesis. Nucleosides were found to be in high concentration during lipid biosynthesis, whereas levels of metabolites involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle were more concentrated during early fruit development. Apart from insights into the regulation of metabolites during fruit development in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  16. Shafiee MN, Chapman C, Barrett D, Abu J, Atiomo W
    Gynecol. Oncol., 2013 Nov;131(2):489-92.
    PMID: 23822891 DOI: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2013.06.032
    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the commonest gynaecological cancer in North American and European women. Even though it has been shown that women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a three-fold increase in the risk of developing EC compared to women without PCOS, the precise molecular mechanisms which increase EC risk in women with PCOS remain unclear. Clinical strategies to prevent EC in PCOS are therefore not well researched and understood. Although raised estrogen levels, hyperinsulinaemia and, reduced apoptosis have been suggested as potential mechanisms, there is a lack of clarity about how these factors and other factors may interact to increase EC risk in PCOS. This article reviews the literature, on the potential molecular links between PCOS and EC but argues for a paradigm shift, to a systems biology-based approach in future research into the molecular links between PCOS and EC. The potential challenges of a systems biology-based approach are outlined but not considered insurmountable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics
  17. Au A
    Adv Clin Chem, 2018 03 08;85:31-69.
    PMID: 29655461 DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2018.02.002
    Ischemic stroke is a sudden loss of brain function due to the reduction of blood flow. Brain tissues cease to function with subsequent activation of the ischemic cascade. Metabolomics and lipidomics are modern disciplines that characterize the metabolites and lipid components of a biological system, respectively. Because the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke is heterogeneous and multifactorial, it is crucial to establish comprehensive metabolomic and lipidomic approaches to elucidate these alterations in this disease. Fortunately, metabolomic and lipidomic studies have the distinct advantages of identifying tissue/mechanism-specific biomarkers, predicting treatment and clinical outcome, and improving our understanding of the pathophysiologic basis of disease states. Therefore, recent applications of these analytical approaches in the early diagnosis of ischemic stroke were discussed. In addition, the emerging roles of metabolomics and lipidomics on ischemic stroke were summarized, in order to gain new insights into the mechanisms underlying ischemic stroke and in the search for novel metabolite biomarkers and their related pathways.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/instrumentation; Metabolomics/methods*
  18. Baharum SN, Azizan KA
    Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 2018 11 2;1102:51-68.
    PMID: 30382568 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-98758-3_4
    Over the last decade, metabolomics has continued to grow rapidly and is considered a dynamic technology in envisaging and elucidating complex phenotypes in systems biology area. The advantage of metabolomics compared to other omics technologies such as transcriptomics and proteomics is that these later omics only consider the intermediate steps in the central dogma pathway (mRNA and protein expression). Meanwhile, metabolomics reveals the downstream products of gene and expression of proteins. The most frequently used tools are nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). Some of the common MS-based analyses are gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). These high-throughput instruments play an extremely crucial role in discovery metabolomics to generate data needed for further analysis. In this chapter, the concept of metabolomics in the context of systems biology is discussed and provides examples of its application in human disease studies, plant responses towards stress and abiotic resistance and also microbial metabolomics for biotechnology applications. Lastly, a few case studies of metabolomics analysis are also presented, for example, investigation of an aromatic herbal plant, Persicaria minor metabolome and microbial metabolomics for metabolic engineering applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics*
  19. Kumarasingha R, Karpe AV, Preston S, Yeo TC, Lim DSL, Tu CL, et al.
    Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist, 2016 12;6(3):171-178.
    PMID: 27639945 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpddr.2016.08.002
    Anthelmintic resistance is widespread in gastrointestinal nematode populations, such that there is a consistent need to search for new anthelmintics. However, the cost of screening for new compounds is high and has a very low success rate. Using the knowledge of traditional healers from Borneo Rainforests (Sarawak, Malaysia), we have previously shown that some traditional medicinal plants are a rich source of potential new anthelmintic drug candidates. In this study, Picria fel-terrae Lour. plant extract, which has previously shown promising anthelmintic activities, was fractionated via the use of a solid phase extraction cartridge and each isolated fraction was then tested on free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. We found that a single fraction was enriched for nematocidal activity, killing ≥90% of C. elegans adults and inhibiting the motility of exsheathed L3 of H. contortus, while having minimal cytotoxic activity in mammalian cell culture. Metabolic profiling and chemometric analysis of the effective fraction indicated medium chained fatty acids and phenolic acids were highly represented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics/methods*
  20. Akpunarlieva S, Weidt S, Lamasudin D, Naula C, Henderson D, Barrett M, et al.
    J Proteomics, 2017 02 23;155:85-98.
    PMID: 28040509 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2016.12.009
    Leishmania parasites multiply and develop in the gut of a sand fly vector in order to be transmitted to a vertebrate host. During this process they encounter and exploit various nutrients, including sugars, and amino and fatty acids. We have previously generated a mutant Leishmania line that is deficient in glucose transport and which displays some biologically important phenotypic changes such as reduced growth in axenic culture, reduced biosynthesis of hexose-containing virulence factors, increased sensitivity to oxidative stress, and dramatically reduced parasite burden in both insect vector and macrophage host cells. Here we report the generation and integration of proteomic and metabolomic approaches to identify molecular changes that may explain these phenotypes. Our data suggest changes in pathways of glycoconjugate production and redox homeostasis, which likely represent adaptations to the loss of sugar uptake capacity and explain the reduced virulence of this mutant in sand flies and mammals. Our data contribute to understanding the mechanisms of metabolic adaptation in Leishmania and illustrate the power of integrated proteomic and metabolomic approaches to relate biochemistry to phenotype.

    BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This paper reports the application of comparative proteomic and metabolomic approaches to reveal the molecular basis for important phenotypic changes Leishmania parasites that are deficient in glucose uptake. Leishmania cause a very significant disease burden across the world and there are few effective drugs available for control. This work shows that proteomics and metabolomics can produce complementary data that advance understanding of parasite metabolism and highlight potential new targets for chemotherapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Metabolomics*
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