RESULTS: Comparison of the PLS and RF showed that RF exhibited poorer generalization and hence poorer predictive performance. Both the regression coefficient of PLS and the variable importance of RF revealed that quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, caffeic acid and vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside were significant towards the tested bioactivities. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) results showed that sonication and absolute ethanol are the preferable extraction method and ethanol ratio, respectively, to produce N. oleracea extracts with high phenolic levels and therefore high DPPH scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.
CONCLUSION: Both PLS and RF are useful regression models in metabolomics studies. This work provides insight into the performance of different multivariate data analysis tools and the effects of different extraction conditions on the extraction of desired phenolics from plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
PURPOSE: This study provides new insights on the changes of endogenous metabolites caused by I. aquatica ethanolic extract and improves the understanding on the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of I. aquatica ethanolic extract.
METHODS: By using a combination of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with multivariate analysis (MVDA), the changes of metabolites due to I. aquatica ethanolic extract administration in obese diabetic-induced Sprague Dawley rats (OB+STZ+IA) were identified.
RESULTS: The results suggested 19 potential biomarkers with variable importance projections (VIP) above 0.5, which include creatine/creatinine, glucose, creatinine, citrate, carnitine, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, hippurate, leucine, 1-methylnicotinamice (MNA), taurine, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB), tryptophan, lysine, trigonelline, allantoin, formiate, acetoacetate (AcAc) and dimethylamine. From the changes in the metabolites, the affected pathways and aspects of metabolism were identified.
CONCLUSION: I. aquatica ethanolic extract increases metabolite levels such as creatinine/creatine, carnitine, MNA, trigonelline, leucine, lysine, 3-HB and decreases metabolite levels, including glucose and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates. This implies capabilities of I. aquatica ethanolic extract promoting glycolysis, gut microbiota and nicotinate/nicotinamide metabolism, improving the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and reducing the β-oxidation rate. However, the administration of I. aquatica ethanolic extract has several drawbacks, such as unimproved changes in amino acid metabolism, especially in reducing branched chain amino acid (BCAA) synthesis pathways and lipid metabolism.
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between the chemical composition of C. nutans and its anti-inflammatory properties using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics approach.
METHODOLOGY: The anti-inflammatory effect of C. nutans air-dried leaves extracted using five different binary extraction solvent ratio and two extraction methods was determined based on their nitric oxide (NO) inhibition effect in lipopolysaccharide-interferon-gamma (LPS-IFN-γ) activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The relationship between extract bioactivity and metabolite profiles and quantifications were established using 1 H-NMR metabolomics and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The possible metabolite biosynthesis pathway was constructed to further strengthen the findings.
RESULTS: Water and sonication prepared air-dried leaves possessed the highest NO inhibition activity (IC50 = 190.43 ± 12.26 μg/mL, P
METHODS: The N. oleracea fractions were obtained using solid phase extraction (SPE). A metabolomics approach that coupled the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) with multivariate data analysis (MVDA) was applied to distinguish the metabolite variations among the N. oleracea fractions, as well as to assess the correlation between metabolite variation and the studied bioactivities (DPPH free radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities). The bioactive fractions were then subjected to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis to profile and identify the potential bioactive constituents.
RESULTS: The principal component analysis (PCA) discriminated EF and MF from the other fractions with the higher distributions of phenolics. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis revealed a strong correlation between the phenolics and the studied bioactivities in the EF and the MF. The UHPLC-MS/MS profiling of EF and MF had tentatively identified the phenolics present. Together with some non-phenolic metabolites, a total of 37 metabolites were tentatively assigned.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this work supported that N. oleracea is a rich source of phenolics that can be potential antioxidants and α-glucosidase inhibitors for the management of diabetes. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on the metabolite-bioactivity correlation and UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of N. oleracea fractions.
METHODS: The mid-stream urine was collected from 96 patients diagnosed with dengue fever at Penang General Hospital (PGH) and 50 healthy volunteers. Urine samples were analyzed with proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, followed by chemometric multivariate analysis. NMR signals highlighted in the orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) S-plots were selected and identified using Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) and Chenomx Profiler. A highly predictive model was constructed from urine profile of dengue infected patients versus healthy individuals with the total R2Y (cum) value 0.935, and the total Q2Y (cum) value 0.832.
RESULTS: Data showed that dengue infection is related to amino acid metabolism, tricarboxylic acid intermediates cycle and β-oxidation of fatty acids. Distinct variations in certain metabolites were recorded in infected patients including amino acids, various organic acids, betaine, valerylglycine, myo-inositol and glycine.
CONCLUSION: Metabolomics approach provides essential insight into host metabolic disturbances following dengue infection.