BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This paper reports the application of comparative proteomic and metabolomic approaches to reveal the molecular basis for important phenotypic changes Leishmania parasites that are deficient in glucose uptake. Leishmania cause a very significant disease burden across the world and there are few effective drugs available for control. This work shows that proteomics and metabolomics can produce complementary data that advance understanding of parasite metabolism and highlight potential new targets for chemotherapy.
METHODS: We analysed plasma and urine samples of 50 stable CAD patients and 50 healthy controls using 1H NMR. Orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) followed by multivariate logistic regression (MVLR) models were developed to indicate the discriminating metabotypes. Metabolic pathway analysis was performed to identify the implicated pathways.
RESULTS: Both plasma and urine OPLS-DA models had specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of 100%, 96% and 98%, respectively. Plasma MVLR model had specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and AUROC of 92%, 86%, 89% and 0.96, respectively. The MVLR model of urine had specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and AUROC of 90%, 80%, 85% and 0.92, respectively. 35 and 12 metabolites were identified in plasma and urine metabotypes, respectively. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed that urea cycle, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies pathways were significantly disturbed in plasma, while methylhistidine metabolism and galactose metabolism pathways were significantly disturbed in urine. The enrichment over representation analysis against SNPs-associated-metabolite sets library revealed that 85 SNPs were significantly enriched in plasma metabotype.
CONCLUSIONS: Cardiometabolic diseases, dysbiotic gut-microbiota and genetic variabilities are largely implicated in the pathogenesis of CAD.
METHODS: The mid-stream urine was collected from 96 patients diagnosed with dengue fever at Penang General Hospital (PGH) and 50 healthy volunteers. Urine samples were analyzed with proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, followed by chemometric multivariate analysis. NMR signals highlighted in the orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) S-plots were selected and identified using Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) and Chenomx Profiler. A highly predictive model was constructed from urine profile of dengue infected patients versus healthy individuals with the total R2Y (cum) value 0.935, and the total Q2Y (cum) value 0.832.
RESULTS: Data showed that dengue infection is related to amino acid metabolism, tricarboxylic acid intermediates cycle and β-oxidation of fatty acids. Distinct variations in certain metabolites were recorded in infected patients including amino acids, various organic acids, betaine, valerylglycine, myo-inositol and glycine.
CONCLUSION: Metabolomics approach provides essential insight into host metabolic disturbances following dengue infection.