Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 206 in total

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  1. Wong KK, Gascoyne DM, Brown PJ, Soilleux EJ, Snell C, Chen H, et al.
    Leukemia, 2014 Feb;28(2):362-72.
    PMID: 23884370 DOI: 10.1038/leu.2013.224
    We previously identified autoantibodies to the endocytic-associated protein Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related (HIP1R) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. HIP1R regulates internalization of cell surface receptors via endocytosis, a process relevant to many therapeutic strategies including CD20 targeting with rituximab. In this study, we characterized HIP1R expression patterns, investigated a mechanism of transcriptional regulation and its clinical relevance in DLBCL patients treated with immunochemotherapy (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone, R-CHOP). HIP1R was preferentially expressed in germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL (P<0.0001) and inversely correlated with the activated B-cell-like DLBCL (ABC-DLBCL) associated transcription factor, Forkhead box P1 (FOXP1). HIP1R was confirmed as a direct FOXP1 target gene in ABC-DLBCL by FOXP1-targeted silencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Lower HIP1R protein expression (≤ 10% tumoral positivity) significantly correlated with inferior overall survival (OS, P=0.0003) and progression-free survival (PFS, P=0.0148) in R-CHOP-treated DLBCL patients (n=157). Reciprocal expression with ≥ 70% FOXP1 positivity defined FOXP1(hi)/HIP1R(lo) patients with particularly poor outcome (OS, P=0.0001; PFS, P=0.0016). In an independent R-CHOP-treated DLBCL (n=233) microarray data set, patients with transcript expression in lower quartile HIP1R and FOXP1(hi)/HIP1R(lo) subgroups exhibited worse OS, P=0.0044 and P=0.0004, respectively. HIP1R repression by FOXP1 is strongly associated with poor outcome, thus further understanding of FOXP1-HIP1R and/or endocytic signaling pathways might give rise to novel therapeutic options for DLBCL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  2. Liam CK, Lim KH, Wong CM
    Respirology, 2000 Dec;5(4):355-61.
    PMID: 11192546
    This study aimed to determine whether the clinicopathological features of lung cancer in patients younger than 40 years differ from that of older patients in an Asian country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  3. Cheng AL, Li J, Vaid AK, Ma BB, Teh C, Ahn JB, et al.
    Clin Colorectal Cancer, 2014 Sep;13(3):145-55.
    PMID: 25209093 DOI: 10.1016/j.clcc.2014.06.004
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most common cancers worldwide, but marked epidemiological differences exist between Asian and non-Asian populations. Hence, a consensus meeting was held in Hong Kong in December 2012 to develop Asia-specific guidelines for the management of metastatic CRC (mCRC). A multidisciplinary expert panel, consisting of 23 participants from 10 Asian and 2 European countries, discussed current guidelines for colon or rectal cancer and developed recommendations for adapting these guidelines to Asian clinical practice. Participants agreed that mCRC management in Asia largely follows international guidelines, but they proposed a number of recommendations based on regional 'real-world' experience. In general, participants agreed that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) infusion regimens in doublets can be substituted with UFT (capecitabine, tegafur-uracil) and S1 (tegafur, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine and oxonic acid), and that the monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab are recommended for KRAS wild type tumors. For KRAS mutant tumors, bevacizumab is the preferred biological therapy. FOLFOX (folinic acid, 5-FU, and oxaliplatin) is preferred for initial therapy in Asian patients. The management of mCRC is evolving, and it must be emphasized that the recommendations presented here reflect current treatment practices and thus might change as more data become available.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  4. Ismail AF, Oskay Halacli S, Babteen N, De Piano M, Martin TA, Jiang WG, et al.
    Biochem. J., 2017 Mar 24;474(8):1333-1346.
    PMID: 28232500 DOI: 10.1042/BCJ20160875
    Urothelial bladder cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing an estimated 150 000 deaths per year. Whilst non-muscle-invasive bladder tumours can be effectively treated, with high survival rates, many tumours recur, and some will progress to muscle-invasive disease with a much poorer long-term prognosis. Thus, there is a pressing need to understand the molecular transitions occurring within the progression of bladder cancer to an invasive disease. Tumour invasion is often associated with a down-regulation of E-cadherin expression concomitant with a suppression of cell:cell junctions, and decreased levels of E-cadherin expression have been reported in higher grade urothelial bladder tumours. We find that expression of E-cadherin in a panel of bladder cancer cell lines correlated with the presence of cell:cell junctions and the level of PAK5 expression. Interestingly, exogenous PAK5 has recently been described to be associated with cell:cell junctions and we now find that endogenous PAK5 is localised to cell junctions and interacts with an E-cadherin complex. Moreover, depletion of PAK5 expression significantly reduced junctional integrity. These data suggest a role for PAK5 in maintaining junctional stability and we find that, in both our own patient samples and a commercially available dataset, PAK5mRNA levels are reduced in human bladder cancer compared with normal controls. Taken together, the present study proposes that PAK5 expression levels could be used as a novel prognostic marker for bladder cancer progression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  5. Lim JN, Potrata B, Simonella L, Ng CW, Aw TC, Dahlui M, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2015 Dec 21;5(12):e009863.
    PMID: 26692558 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009863
    OBJECTIVE: To explore and compare barriers to early presentation of self-discovered breast cancer in Singapore and Malaysia.

    DESIGN: A qualitative interview study with thematic analysis of transcripts.

    PARTICIPANTS: 67 patients with self-discovered breast symptoms were included in the analysis. Of these, 36% were of Malay ethnicity, 39% were Chinese and 25% Indian, with an average age of 58 years (range 24-82 years). The number of women diagnosed at early stages of cancer almost equalled those at advanced stages. Approximately three-quarters presented with a painless lump, one-quarter experienced a painful lump and 10% had atypical symptoms.

    SETTING: University hospital setting in Singapore and Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Patients revealed barriers to early presentation not previously reported: the poor quality of online website information about breast symptoms, financial issues and the negative influence of relatives in both countries, while perceived poor quality of care and services in state-run hospitals and misdiagnosis by healthcare professionals were reported in Malaysia. The pattern of presentation by ethnicity remained unchanged where more Malay delayed help-seeking and had more advanced cancer compared to Chinese and Indian patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: There are few differences in the pattern of presentation and in the reported barriers to seek medical care after symptom discovery between Singapore and Malaysia despite their differing economic status. Strategies to reduce delayed presentation are: a need to improve knowledge of disease, symptoms and causes, quality of care and services, and quality of online information; and addressing fear of diagnosis, treatment and hospitalisation, with more effort focused on the Malay ethnic group. Training is needed to avoid missed diagnoses and other factors contributing to delay among health professionals.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  6. Obón-Santacana M, Lujan-Barroso L, Travis RC, Freisling H, Ferrari P, Severi G, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2016 Jan;25(1):127-34.
    PMID: 26598536 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0822
    BACKGROUND: Acrylamide was classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A)" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fourth cause of cancer mortality in women. Five epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between EOC risk and dietary acrylamide intake assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and one nested case-control study evaluated hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA) and EOC risk; the results of these studies were inconsistent.

    METHODS: A nested case-control study in nonsmoking postmenopausal women (334 cases, 417 controls) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbAA, HbGA, HbAA+HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA and EOC and invasive serous EOC risk.

    RESULTS: No overall associations were observed between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure analyzed in quintiles and EOC risk; however, positive associations were observed between some middle quintiles of HbGA and HbAA+HbGA. Elevated but nonstatistically significant ORs for serous EOC were observed for HbGA and HbAA+HbGA (ORQ5vsQ1, 1.91; 95% CI, 0.96-3.81 and ORQ5vsQ1, 1.90; 95% CI, 0.94-3.83, respectively); however, no linear dose-response trends were observed.

    CONCLUSION: This EPIC nested case-control study failed to observe a clear association between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure and the risk of EOC or invasive serous EOC.

    IMPACT: It is unlikely that dietary acrylamide exposure increases ovarian cancer risk; however, additional studies with larger sample size should be performed to exclude any possible association with EOC risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  7. Jarmin R, Azman A, Rahim R, Kosai NR, Das S
    Acta Med Iran, 2012;50(11):782-4.
    PMID: 23292632
    Intussusception is common cause of bowel obstruction in the paediatric age group compared to the elderly population. Many times, the diagnosis may be difficult because of asymptomatic nature of this bowel disorder. We hereby describe the case of a 75-year-old male who presented with lethargy, weakness, loss of movement in the joints and was found to be anemic. The haemoglobin level was low so he was transfused with packed cells. On gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, upper GI bleed was observed. A mass was observed beyond ampulla at the 2nd and 3rd part of the duodenal junction. Computerized tomography (CT) scan also showed a mass at the head of pancreas and the lesion at the left lung. In view of persistent bleed, 'Whipple's procedure' was performed. Histopathological examination showed small cell carcinoma of the lungs with metastasis to the pancreas and the jejunum. We here discuss the case of intussusception with intestinal metastasis which presented with gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  8. Mirakhorli M, Rahman SA, Abdullah S, Vakili M, Rozafzon R, Khoshzaban A
    Mol Med Rep, 2013 Feb;7(2):613-7.
    PMID: 23232902 DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2012.1226
    Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), encoded by the ATP-binding cassette C2 (ABCC2) gene, is an efflux pump located on the apical membrane of many polarized cells, which transports conjugate compounds by an ATP-dependent mechanism. The correlation of G1249A ABCC2 polymorphism with the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and poor prognosis was evaluated in patients who were treated with fluorouracil/-leucovorin (FL) plus oxaliplatin (FOLFOX-4). A total of 50 paraffin‑embedded tissue samples collected from CRC patients were analyzed to identify the polymorphism. Patients were in stage II/III and received postoperative FOLFOX-4 chemotherapy. As a control group, an equal number of unrelated healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. The polymorphism was genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method, and results were compared with clinicopathological markers, early relapse and survival rates. During the 12 months of follow-up, local and distant recurrences were observed in 15 (30%) patients. No significant difference in the distribution of wild-type and polymorphic genotypes was observed between the patient and control groups and between the patients who experienced recurrence within 1 year and those who did not (all P>0.05). In conclusion, the G1249A polymorphism is not associated with CRC risk and early recurrence. However, significant correlation was observed between G1249A polymorphism and the overall survival and disease-free survival of the patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  9. Wu YL, Kim JH, Park K, Zaatar A, Klingelschmitt G, Ng C
    Lung Cancer, 2012 Aug;77(2):339-45.
    PMID: 22494567 DOI: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2012.03.012
    Maintenance therapy, commenced immediately after the completion of first-line chemotherapy, is a promising strategy for improving treatment outcomes in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The global phase III SequentiAl Tarceva in UnResectable NSCLC (SATURN) study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitor erlotinib as maintenance treatment in NSCLC patients without progression after first-line chemotherapy. We report a retrospective subanalysis of Asian patients enrolled in SATURN. Patients with advanced NSCLC with no evidence of progression after four cycles of chemotherapy were randomized to receive erlotinib 150 mg/day or placebo, until progressive disease or limiting toxicity. The co-primary endpoints of SATURN were progression-free survival (PFS) in all patients and in those with positive EGFR immunohistochemistry (IHC) status. Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), disease control rate, safety, quality of life (QoL) and biomarker analyses. In total, 126 patients from East and South-East Asian centers were randomized (14% of the intent-to-treat population): 88 from Korea, 28 from China and 10 from Malaysia; one patient was excluded from this analysis due to Indian ethnicity. PFS was significantly prolonged in the erlotinib treatment arm, both overall (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.57; p=0.0067) and in patients with EGFR IHC-positive disease (HR=0.50; p=0.0057). There was a trend towards an increase in OS, which reached statistical significance in the EGFR IHC-positive subgroup (p=0.0233). The overall response rate was significantly higher with erlotinib compared with placebo (24% versus 5%; p=0.0025). Erlotinib was generally well tolerated and had no negative impact on QoL in this subpopulation. The most common treatment-related adverse events were rash, diarrhea and pruritus. Erlotinib was effective and well tolerated in Asian patients, producing benefits consistent with those observed in the overall SATURN population. Maintenance treatment with erlotinib appears to be a useful option for the management of Asian patients with advanced NSCLC without progression after first-line chemotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  10. Lee CH, Liam CK, Pang YK, Chua KT, Lim BK, Lai NL
    Lung Cancer, 2011 Nov;74(2):349-51.
    PMID: 21920622 DOI: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2011.08.008
    We report a woman presenting with respiratory failure due to a right-sided pleural effusion, lung metastases and lymphangitis carcinomatosis from advanced lung adenocarcinoma in the third trimester of pregnancy, who showed good response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  11. Hussin HN, Zulkifli FN, Phang KS, Cheong SK
    Malays J Pathol, 2009 Dec;31(2):105-12.
    PMID: 20514853 MyJurnal
    Dendritic cells (DC) are specialized antigen presenting cells (APC) that have important roles in host defenses and in generating anti-tumour immune response. Altered frequency and maturation of DC have been reported in malignant tumours. We studied the distribution and maturation status of DC by immunohistochemistry, on the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lymph node tissues of 32 histologically diagnosed lymphomas and 40 inflammatory conditions that were retrieved from the Department of Pathology, UKM Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur. Our study showed a significant reduction in the total DC counts in the lymphoma tissues compared to the inflammatory conditions. The mature and immature DC counts were both significantly reduced (p = 0.008 and 0.001 respectively), although a greater reduction was observed in mature DC numbers. We also observed compartmentalization of DC where the immature DC were seen within the tumour tissues and the mature DC were more in peri-tumoural areas. Our findings were similar to other reports, suggesting that reduced numbers of DC appears to be a factor contributing to lack of tumour surveillance in these cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  12. Singam P, Ho C, Hong GE, Mohd A, Tamil AM, Cheok LB, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(2):503-6.
    PMID: 20843141
    Renal cancer is rare and its incidence is 1.9 per 100,000 in the Malaysian population, which consists of three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indians). A retrospective study was her conducted to identify clinical characteristics and ethnic background influences on presentation. The study included all renal cancer patients from a single medical institution over ten years, with a total of 75 cases. Seventy-three patients underwent surgery while 2 received only radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The male to female ratio was 2.75:1. Incidence was equal among the Malay (49.3%) and Chinese ethnic groups (45.3%). Mean age of patients were 57.1 (18-93) years old. There were 26 (37.4%) patients with Stage I disease, 14 (18.7%) at Stage II, 23 (30.7%) at Stage III and 12 (16%) at Stage IV. The Chinese race presented at mean older age (p= 0.02) and later stage of disease (p= 0.046). Patients above 40 years old had more advanced stage disease (p= 0.023). Tumour histology were clear cell (72%), urothelial cell (13.3%), sarcomatoid cell and nephroblastoma each contributed 2.7%. The mean tumour size was 8.1 (2-20) cm. There was substantial agreement between the pre and post operative staging (kappa 0.691). In conclusion we observed significant influences of age and race in the clinical presentation of renal cancer in our institution based population. There was larger male to female ratio and mean tumour size as compared to previous epidemiology studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  13. Seow HF, Yip WK, Loh HW, Ithnin H, Por P, Rohaizak M
    Pathol. Oncol. Res., 2010 Jun;16(2):239-48.
    PMID: 19882362 DOI: 10.1007/s12253-009-9216-3
    Activation of Akt signaling pathway has been documented in various human malignancies, including breast carcinoma. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of Akt phosphorylation in breast tumours and its relationship with expression of ER-alpha, ER-beta, HER2, Ki-67 and phosphorylated Bcl-2 associated death domain (p-BAD). Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect these molecules on 43 paraffin-embedded breast tumour tissues with commercially available antibodies. Eighteen (41.9%), 3 (7.0%), 23 (53.5%), 35 (81.4%), 21 (48.8%), 29 (67.4%), and 34 (81.0%) of breast tumours were positive for nuclear ER-alpha, nuclear ER-beta, membranous HER2, cytonuclear p-Akt (Thr308), p-Akt (Ser473), p-BAD and Ki-67, respectively. ER-alpha expression was inversely correlated with HER2 and Ki-67 (P = 0.041 and P = 0.040, respectively). The p-Akt (Ser473) was correlated with increased level of p-BAD (Ser136) (P = 0.012). No relationship of Akt phosphorylation with HER2, ER-alpha or ER-beta was found. The p-Akt (Ser473) immunoreactivity was significantly higher in stage IV than in stage I or II (P = 0.036 or P = 0.009). The higher Ki-67 and lower ER-alpha expression showed an association with patient age of <50 years (P = 0.004) and with positive nodal status (P = 0.033), respectively. Our data suggest that the Akt phosphorylation and inactivation of its downstream target, BAD may play a role in survival of breast cancer cell. This study does not support the simple model of linear HER2/PI3K/Akt pathway in breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  14. Abdulamir AS, Hafidh RR, Kadhim HS, Abubakar F
    PMID: 19243595 DOI: 10.1186/1756-9966-28-27
    The aim of this study is to comparatively elucidate the underlying molecular pathways and clinicopathological criteria in schistosomal bladder tumor (SBT) versus non-schistosomal bladder tumor (NSBT).
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  15. Sharifah NA, Lee BR, Clarence-Ko CH, Tan GC, Shiran MS, Naqiyah I, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2008 Oct-Dec;9(4):663-70.
    PMID: 19271345
    Breast cancer is the commonest cancer affecting females in Malaysia, contributing 31% of all newly diagnosed cases amongst Malaysian women. The present retrospective cohort study evaluated the relationship between cerbB- 2 onco-protein overexpression with various tumour characteristics and survival rate of breast cancer patients treated at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) between 1996-2000. CerbB- 2 oncoprotein overexpression was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tumors showing 2+ positivity were verified by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH). One hundred and seventy two patients were eligible for the study with a short-term follow-up (median) of 5.1 years. C-erbB-2 oncoprotein overexpression correlated with lymph node positivity, oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) negativity. Univariate analyses showed shorter disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with cerbB- 2 oncoprotein overexpression, Malay ethnicity, higher tumour grade, lymph node positivity, ER and PR negativity. In a subgroup of patients with c-erbB-2 oncoprotein overexpression, a shorter OS was observed in those with lymph node positivity, ER and PR negativity. In multivariate prognostic analysis, lymph node status, ER status and tumour grading were the strongest independent prognostic factors for both OS and DFS. However, c-erbB-2 status was not a significantly independent prognostic factor, even in subsets with lymph node positive or negative group. C-erbB-2 oncoprotein overexpression correlated well with lymph node status, ER and PR. Shorter OS and DFS were significantly observed in patients with c-erbB-2 oncoprotein overexpression. Lymph node status, ER status and tumour grading were the only three independent prognostic factors for OS and DFS in this study. Although c-erbB-2 expression is obviously important from a biological standpoint, multivariate analysis showed that it is not an independent prognostic indicator in breast carcinoma in the local population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  16. Lee WC, Yusof MM, Lau FN, Phua VC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(6):3941-4.
    PMID: 23886211
    BACKGROUND: The use of preoperative chemoirradiation is the commonest treatment strategy employed in Malaysia for locally advanced rectal cancer. We need to determine the local control and survival rates for comparison with established rates in the literature.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed all newly diagnosed patients with rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent long course preoperative radiotherapy (RT) at the Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Kuala Lumpur Hospital (HKL) between 1st January 2004 and 31st December 2010. The aim of the study was to determine the radiological response post radiotherapy, pathological response including circumferential resection margin (CRM) status, 3 years local control, 3 years overall survival (OS) and 3 years disease free survival (DFS). Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software. Kaplan-Meier and log rank analysis were used to determine survival outcomes.

    RESULTS: A total of 507 patients with rectal cancer underwent RT at HKL. Sixty seven who underwent long course preoperative RT were eligible for this study. The median age at diagnosis was 60 years old with a range of 26-78 years. The median tumour location was 6 cm from the anal verge. Most patients had suspicion of mesorectum involvement (95.5%) while 28.4% of patients had enlarged pelvic nodes on staging CT scan. All patients underwent preoperative chemo-irradiation except for five who had preoperative RT alone. Only 38 patients underwent definitive surgery (56.7%). Five patients were deemed to be inoperable radiologically and 3 patients were found to have unresectable disease intraoperatively. The remaining 21 patients defaulted surgery (31.3%). The median time from completion of RT to surgery was 8 weeks (range 5.6 to 29.4 weeks). Fifteen patients (39.5%) had surgery more than 8 weeks after completion of RT. Complete pathological response was noted in 4 patients (10.5%). The pathological CRM positive rate after RT was 18.4%. With a median follow-up of 38.8 months, the 3 year local control rate was 67%. The 3 years rate for CRM positive (<2 mm), CRM clear (>2 mm) and pCR groups were 0%, 88.1% and 100% respectively (p-value of 0.007). The 3 year OS and DFS were 57.3% and 44.8% respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the approach of long course preoperative chemoirradiation for rectal cancer needs to be re-examined in our local setting. The high rate of local recurrence is worrying and is mainly due to patient defaulting post-preoperative chemoirradiation or delayed definitive surgery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  17. Tan EL, Selvaratnam G, Kananathan R, Sam CK
    BMC Cancer, 2006;6:227.
    PMID: 16995954
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common epithelial neoplasm among the Chinese populations in Southern China and South East Asia. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to be an important etiologic agent of NPC and the viral gene products are frequently detected in NPC tissues along with elevated antibody titres to the viral proteins (VCA and EA) in a majority of patients. Elevated plasma EBV DNA load is regarded as an important marker for the presence of the disease and for the monitoring of disease progression. However, other serum/plasma parameters such as the levels of certain interleukins and growth factors have also been implicated in NPC. The objectives of the present study are, 1) to investigate the correlations between plasma EBV DNA load and the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, TGF-beta1 and SCF (steel factor) and 2) to relate these parameters to the stages of NPC and the effect of treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  18. Goh KL, Quek KF, Yeo GT, Hilmi IN, Lee CK, Hasnida N, et al.
    Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 2005 Nov 1;22(9):859-64.
    PMID: 16225496
    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common forms of gastrointestinal cancer in the world today. In the Asia-Pacific area, it is the fastest emerging gastrointestinal cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  19. Naidu R, Wahab NA, Yadav MM, Kutty MK
    Oncol. Rep., 2002 Mar-Apr;9(2):409-16.
    PMID: 11836618
    Overexpression and amplification of cyclin D1 were investigated by immunohistochemistry and differential polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) in 440 formalin-fixed primary breast carcinoma tissues. Overexpression of cyclin D1 was detected in 60% (263/440) and amplification of cyclin D1 was noted in 27% (119/440) of the primary breast carcinomas. Molecular analysis demonstrated that cyclin D1 was amplified in 30% (7/23) of the comedo DCIS, 22% (9/41) of the comedo DCIS and 32% (13/41) of the adjacent invasive ductal carcinomas, 30% (82/270) of the invasive ductal carcinomas, 27% (9/33) of the invasive lobular carcinomas, 19% (4/21) of the colloid carcinomas and 13% (2/15) of the medullary carcinomas. Cyclin D1 was amplified in 11% (2/19) of the invasive ductal carcinomas but not in the adjacent non-comedo DCIS lesions. Our observation showed that cyclin D1 was strongly positive in 61% (14/23) of the comedo subtype, 61% (11/18) of the non-comedo subtype, 59% (24/41) of the comedo DCIS and 63% (26/41) of the adjacent invasive ductal carcinomas, 53% (10/19) of the non-comedo DCIS and 58% (11/19) of the adjacent invasive lesions, 58% (157/270) of the invasive ductal carcinomas, 73% (24/33) of the invasive lobular carcinomas, 52% (11/21) of the colloid carcinomas and 27% (4/15) of the medullary carcinomas. A significant association was observed between in situ components and adjacent invasive lesions for cyclin D1 expression (p<0.05) and amplification (p<0.05). A significant relationship was noted between amplification of cyclin D1 and lymph node metastases (p<0.05) but not with histological grade (p>0.05), estrogen receptor status (p>0.05) and proliferation index (Ki-67 and PCNA) (p>0.05). However, overexpression of cyclin D1 was statistically associated with well differentiated tumors (p<0.05) and estrogen receptor positivity (p<0.05). No relationship was seen with nodal status (p>0.05) and proliferation index (Ki-67 and PCNA) (p>0.05). These observations suggest that tumors positive for cyclin D1 protein may have features of good prognosis but amplification of cyclin D1 gene could be an indicator of tumors with poor prognostic features. Although majority of the Malaysian patients belong to younger age group (<50 years old), amplification and expression of cyclin D1 was not statistically associated with patient age (p>0.05). These observations indicate that amplification and up-regulation of cyclin D1 may be independent of patient age. Moreover, overexpression and amplification of cyclin D1 in preinvasive, preinvasive and adjacent invasive lesions, and invasive carcinomas suggest that the gene may play an important role in early and late stages of breast carcinogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  20. Ng SM, Abdullah WA, Lin HP, Chan LL
    PMID: 10695803
    To study the distribution of presenting features and their prognostic significance in neuroblastoma treated in a single institution in Malaysia. A retrospective study was made of 78 neuroblastoma cases diagnosed and treated in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between June 1982 and February 1997. Diagnosis was established by standard histological criteria. The presenting features were evaluated for their distribution and prognostic influence. Disease-free survival from diagnosis was the outcome variable of interest. The ages ranged from 0.1 to 11 years old (median: 3 years old). The tumor originated from the adrenal glands in 83% and the majority of cases presented in advanced stage (stage III 22%, stage IV 66%). Bone marrow was the commonest site of distant metastasis occurring in 45% of patients. The main presenting signs and symptoms in decreasing order were pallor, fever, abdominal mass, weight loss, and bone/joint pain. Univariate analysis conferred age, initial stage and Hb level as significant prognostic factors. No influence in disease-free survival was found for sex, race, primary site, urinary vanillylmandelic acid level, white cell count and platelet count. Overall 2-year disease-free survival was achieved in 27 (39%) patients. Four patients underwent bone marrow transplant, three of whom achieved 2-year disease-free survival. The results suggest that age, initial stage and hemoglobin level are significant prognostic factors based on univariate analysis. In addition, more Malaysian children presented with adrenal primary site and advanced disease compared to previous reported studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
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