Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 207 in total

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  1. Fathinul Fikri AS, Dharmendran R, Vikneswaran P, Nordin AJ
    Abdom Imaging, 2015 Aug;40(6):1457-64.
    PMID: 25576048 DOI: 10.1007/s00261-014-0343-2
    A study was undertaken to investigate the value of pretreatment PET-CT in predicting survival in patients with oesophageal cancer (OC).
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  2. Wong EHC, Liew YT, Abu Bakar MZ, Lim EYL, Prepageran N
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2017 Jan;274(1):275-281.
    PMID: 27520568 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-016-4248-2
    Endoscopic endonasal nasopharyngectomy (EEN) has become increasingly used for recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (rNPC) due to reduced functional and cosmetic morbidities compared to conventional external approach. Majority of the existing studies on EEN focused on patients with lower recurrent staging of rT1 and rT2. The aims of this study were to provide a preliminary report on the outcome of EEN performed in patients with advanced (rT3 and rT4) rNPC, and to determine the prognostic factors for patients' survival. All patients who underwent EEN for rNPC between January 2003 and December 2015 inclusive were analyzed. All surgeries were performed in University Malaya Medical Centre in Kuala Lumpur and Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Sabah, by a single surgeon. We reported the 2-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) and any related complications and significant prognostic factors. Fifteen patients with recurrent NPC (2 rT3 and 13 rT4 tumours) underwent EEN over the 13 years period. The mean age was 50.4 years (range 30-65) and the mean follow-up period was 28.7 months (range 9-81 weeks). The 2-year OS, DFS and DSS were 66.7 % (mean 19.4 months), 40 % (mean 15.7 months) and 73.3 % (mean 20.2 months), respectively. No severe operative complications were encountered. No independent prognostic factors for survival outcome were identified. This is the first preliminary report in English that exclusively looked at the use of EEN in advanced rT3 and rT4 NPCs, showing favourable patient outcome. However, further long-term follow-up of patients is required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  3. Farooqui M, Hassali MA, Knight A, Shafie AA, Farooqui MA, Saleem F, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2013;13:48.
    PMID: 23331785 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-48
    Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients' perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  4. Jarmin R, Azman A, Rahim R, Kosai NR, Das S
    Acta Med Iran, 2012;50(11):782-4.
    PMID: 23292632
    Intussusception is common cause of bowel obstruction in the paediatric age group compared to the elderly population. Many times, the diagnosis may be difficult because of asymptomatic nature of this bowel disorder. We hereby describe the case of a 75-year-old male who presented with lethargy, weakness, loss of movement in the joints and was found to be anemic. The haemoglobin level was low so he was transfused with packed cells. On gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, upper GI bleed was observed. A mass was observed beyond ampulla at the 2nd and 3rd part of the duodenal junction. Computerized tomography (CT) scan also showed a mass at the head of pancreas and the lesion at the left lung. In view of persistent bleed, 'Whipple's procedure' was performed. Histopathological examination showed small cell carcinoma of the lungs with metastasis to the pancreas and the jejunum. We here discuss the case of intussusception with intestinal metastasis which presented with gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  5. Zainal AI, Zulkarnaen M, Norlida DK, Syed Alwi SA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Feb;67(1):60-5.
    PMID: 22582550
    Acral melanoma involve the non-pigmented palmoplantar and subungual areas and are commonly seen among Asians. Patients commonly display advanced stage of disease at presentation. It may appear unnoticed and mimic benign lesions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  6. Obón-Santacana M, Lujan-Barroso L, Travis RC, Freisling H, Ferrari P, Severi G, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2016 Jan;25(1):127-34.
    PMID: 26598536 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0822
    BACKGROUND: Acrylamide was classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A)" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fourth cause of cancer mortality in women. Five epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between EOC risk and dietary acrylamide intake assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and one nested case-control study evaluated hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA) and EOC risk; the results of these studies were inconsistent.

    METHODS: A nested case-control study in nonsmoking postmenopausal women (334 cases, 417 controls) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbAA, HbGA, HbAA+HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA and EOC and invasive serous EOC risk.

    RESULTS: No overall associations were observed between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure analyzed in quintiles and EOC risk; however, positive associations were observed between some middle quintiles of HbGA and HbAA+HbGA. Elevated but nonstatistically significant ORs for serous EOC were observed for HbGA and HbAA+HbGA (ORQ5vsQ1, 1.91; 95% CI, 0.96-3.81 and ORQ5vsQ1, 1.90; 95% CI, 0.94-3.83, respectively); however, no linear dose-response trends were observed.

    CONCLUSION: This EPIC nested case-control study failed to observe a clear association between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure and the risk of EOC or invasive serous EOC.

    IMPACT: It is unlikely that dietary acrylamide exposure increases ovarian cancer risk; however, additional studies with larger sample size should be performed to exclude any possible association with EOC risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  7. Cheng AL, Li J, Vaid AK, Ma BB, Teh C, Ahn JB, et al.
    Clin Colorectal Cancer, 2014 Sep;13(3):145-55.
    PMID: 25209093 DOI: 10.1016/j.clcc.2014.06.004
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most common cancers worldwide, but marked epidemiological differences exist between Asian and non-Asian populations. Hence, a consensus meeting was held in Hong Kong in December 2012 to develop Asia-specific guidelines for the management of metastatic CRC (mCRC). A multidisciplinary expert panel, consisting of 23 participants from 10 Asian and 2 European countries, discussed current guidelines for colon or rectal cancer and developed recommendations for adapting these guidelines to Asian clinical practice. Participants agreed that mCRC management in Asia largely follows international guidelines, but they proposed a number of recommendations based on regional 'real-world' experience. In general, participants agreed that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) infusion regimens in doublets can be substituted with UFT (capecitabine, tegafur-uracil) and S1 (tegafur, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine and oxonic acid), and that the monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab are recommended for KRAS wild type tumors. For KRAS mutant tumors, bevacizumab is the preferred biological therapy. FOLFOX (folinic acid, 5-FU, and oxaliplatin) is preferred for initial therapy in Asian patients. The management of mCRC is evolving, and it must be emphasized that the recommendations presented here reflect current treatment practices and thus might change as more data become available.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  8. Sinniah D, Narasimha G, Prathap K
    Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh), 1980 Oct;58(5):819-24.
    PMID: 7211270
    Twenty children with retinoblastoma are reviewed who were treated at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur over a 10-year-period. They constitute 6.6% of childhood malignancies and without exception all presented with advanced disease. Hereditary cases were notably absent in the the series probably because past cases have almost invariably succumbed without an opportunity to transmit the gene. With enucleation and radiotherapy six of the patients have survived from 2 to 12 years. The addition of vincristine and cyclophosphamide has not been associated with improved survival.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  9. Faisham WI, Zulmi W, Halim AS, Biswal BM, Mutum SS, Ezane AM
    Singapore Med J, 2006 Aug;47(8):679-83.
    PMID: 16865207
    The surgical treatment of Stage III or aggressive giant cell tumour of the bone, whether to perform intralesional or en-bloc resection, remains controversial. The aim of this study is to identify the effectiveness of en-bloc resection for local control and final oncological outcome of the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  10. Thinh DHQ, Sriraj W, Mansor M, Tan KH, Irawan C, Kurnianda J, et al.
    J Glob Oncol, 2018 09;4:1-10.
    PMID: 30241271 DOI: 10.1200/JGO.17.00055
    PURPOSE: To identify patterns of analgesic prescription and to explore patient-reported pain intensity, sleep disturbance, and quality of life among cancer patients with pain in Southeast Asia (SEA).

    METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study included 465 adult outpatients prescribed analgesics for cancer pain for 1 month or longer at 22 sites in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. Data on analgesic prescription and cancer characteristics were extracted from medical records. Pain intensity, sleep disturbance, and quality of life measures were recorded via questionnaires.

    RESULTS: Most patients (84.4%) had stage III or IV cancer. A total of 419 patients (90.7%) were prescribed opioids; of these, 42.2% received only weak opioids, whereas 57.8% received at least one strong opioid. The mean worst pain intensity during the past 24 hours was 4.76 (standard deviation [SD], 2.47) on a scale of 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst possible pain); the mean current pain intensity was 4.10 (SD, 2.61). More than half of patients (54.8%) reported sleep disturbance caused by pain in the past 7 days. The majority of patients reported problems with pain/discomfort (82.3%), usual activities (65.8%), mobility (58.2%), and anxiety/depression (56.3%). The median daily dose prescribed in oral morphine equivalents was 30 mg for both morphine and tramadol.

    CONCLUSION: Despite unrelieved pain, sleep disturbance, and issues with quality of life, a notable proportion of patients were prescribed only weak opioids, and opioid doses prescribed were generally low. Efforts focused on encouragement of prescriptions with analgesic strength and/or doses proportional to the pain management needs of patients are vital to improve the status of cancer pain management in the region.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  11. Wan Juhari WK, Wan Abdul Rahman WF, Mohd Sidek AS, Abu Hassan MR, Ahmad Amin Noordin KB, Zakaria AD, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(9):3767-71.
    PMID: 25987035
    BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome (LS) is an inherited predisposition to colorectal, endometrial (uterine) and other cancers. Although most cancers are not inherited, about 5 percent (%) of people who have colorectal or endometrial cancer have the Lynch syndrome. It involves the alteration of mismatch repair (MMR) genes; MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. In this study, we analyzed the expression of MMR proteins in colorectal cancer in a Malay cohort by immunohistochemistry.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 17 patients were selected fulfilling one of the Bethesda criteria: colorectal cancer diagnosed in a patient aged less than 50 years old, having synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer or with a strong family history. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin embedded tumour tissue samples using four antibodies: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2.

    RESULTS: Twelve out of 17 patients (70.6%) were noted to have a family history. A total of 41% (n=7) of the patients had abnormal immunohistochemical staining with one or more of the four antibodies. Loss of expression were noted in 13 tumour tissues with a negative staining score <4. Of 13 tumour tissues, four showed loss expression of MLH1. For PMS2, loss of expression were noted in five cases. Both MSH2 and MSH6 showed loss of expression in two tumour tissues respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Revised Bethesda criteria and immunohistochemical analysis constituted a convenient approach and is recommended to be a first-line screening for Lynch syndrome in Malay cohorts.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  12. Naidu R, Har YC, Taib NA
    Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest., 2011 Oct;71(6):500-6.
    PMID: 21745146 DOI: 10.3109/00365513.2011.590223
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the peptidyl-propyl-cis/trans isomerase 1 (PIN1) -842(G > C) and -667(T > C) polymorphic variants and breast cancer risk among Malaysian ethnic groups namely the Malays, Chinese and Indians, as well as clinico-pathological characteristics of the patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  13. Ng KL, Nawawi O, Lim BK, Htun TH, Dublin N, Razack AH
    Asian J Surg, 2017 Apr;40(2):171-174.
    PMID: 24210538 DOI: 10.1016/j.asjsur.2013.09.012
    Ureteric strictures are common and can be due to benign or malignant causes. Various surgical treatments can be used from minimally invasive endoscopic retrograde JJ stent insertion, balloon dilatation, ureterolithotomy, to open surgical exploration and repair. Memokath 051 stent is a metallic stent designed for long-term ureteral stenting in the management of ureteral strictures. The insertion of this device is usually a straightforward procedure performed endoscopically in a retrograde fashion via cystoscopy. However, this procedure can be difficult in complicated scenarios when the bladder has been removed with neoureteral reimplantations or high-grade strictures. Here, we report a case of Memokath stent insertion complicated by placement difficulties in a lady with ileal conduit due to previous ovarian cancer complicated by vesicovaginal fistula, who presented with malignant stricture of the ureteroileal anastomosis. We describe a simple yet effective antegrade technique to precisely reposition the malpositioned Memokath stent, along with illustrations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  14. Latiff LA, Rahman SA, Wee WY, Dashti S, Andi Asri AA, Unit NH, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(2):559-64.
    PMID: 25684487
    BACKGROUND: The participation of women in cervical cancer screening in Malaysia is low. Self-sampling might be able to overcome this problem.The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of self-sampling for cervical smear in our country.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 258 community dwelling women from urban and rural settings who participated in health campaigns. In order to reduce the sampling bias, half of the study population performed the self-sampling prior to the physician sampling while the other half performed the self-sampling after the physician sampling, randomly. Acquired samples were assessed for cytological changes as well as HPV DNA detection.

    RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 40.4±11.3 years. The prevalence of abnormal cervical changes was 2.7%. High risk and low risk HPV genotypes were found in 4.0% and 2.7% of the subjects, respectively. A substantial agreement was observed between self-sampling and the physician obtained sampling in cytological diagnosis (k=0.62, 95%CI=0.50, 0.74), micro-organism detection (k=0.77, 95%CI=0.66, 0.88) and detection of hormonal status (k=0.75, 95%CI=0.65, 0.85) as well as detection of high risk (k=0.77, 95%CI=0.4, 0.98) and low risk (K=0.77, 95%CI=0.50, 0.92) HPV. Menopausal state was found to be related with 8.39 times more adequate cell specimens for cytology but 0.13 times less adequate cell specimens for virological assessment.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that self-sampling has a good agreement with physician sampling in detecting HPV genotypes. Self-sampling can serve as a tool in HPV screening while it may be useful in detecting cytological abnormalities in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  15. Chong ET, Goh LP, See EU, Chuah JA, Chua KH, Lee PC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(2):647-53.
    PMID: 26925658
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer affecting Malaysian women. Recent statistics revealed that the cumulative probability of breast cancer and related deaths in Malaysia is higher than in most of the countries of Southeast Asia. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP2E1 (rs6413432 and rs3813867), STK15 (rs2273535 and rs1047972) and XRCC1 (rs1799782 and rs25487) have been associated with breast cancer risk in a meta-analysis but any link in Southeast Asia, including Malaysia, remained to be determined. Hence, we investigated the relationship between these SNPs and breast cancer risk among Malaysian women in the present case-control study.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood of 71 breast cancer patients and 260 healthy controls and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis.

    RESULTS: Our study showed that the c1/c2 genotype or subjects with at least one c2 allele in CYP2E1 rs3813867 SNP had significantly increased almost 1.8-fold higher breast cancer risk in Malaysian women overall. In addition, the variant Phe allele in STK15 rs2273535 SNP appeared to protect against breast cancer in Malaysian Chinese. No significance association was found between XRCC1 SNPs and breast cancer risk in the population.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides additional knowledge on CYP2E1, STK15 and XRCC1 SNP impact of risk of breast cancer, particularly in the Malaysian population. From our findings, we also recommend Malaysian women to perform breast cancer screening before 50 years of age.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  16. Kamil M, Khalid I, Hashim H, Biswas M, Kaur G, Islam R
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2010 Apr;20(4):250-2.
    PMID: 20392401 DOI: 04.2010/JCPSP.250252
    To determine the association between histological grade of tumour and estrogen progesterone receptors (ER/PR) expression in unselected invasive carcinoma of breast in Malaysian patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  17. Ban EZ, Lye MS, Chong PP, Yap YY, Lim SYC, Abdul Rahman H
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(6):e0198332.
    PMID: 29912899 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0198332
    BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a rare form of cancer across the world except in certain areas such as Southern China, Hong Kong and Malaysia. NPC is considered a relatively radiosensitive tumor and patients diagnosed at early stages tend to survive longer compared to those with advanced disease. Given that early symptoms of NPC are non-specific and that the nasopharynx is relatively inaccessible, less invasive screening methods such as biomarker screening might be the key to improve NPC survival and management. A number of genes with their respective polymorphisms have been shown in past studies to be associated with survival of various cancers. hOGG1 and XPD genes encode for a DNA glycosylase and a DNA helicase respectively; both are proteins that are involved in DNA repair. ITGA2 is the alpha subunit of the transmembrane receptor integrin and is mainly responsible for cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interaction. TNF-α is a cytokine that is released by immune cells during inflammation.

    METHODS: Restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) was used to genotype all the aforementioned gene polymorphisms. Kaplan-Meier survival function, log-rank test and Cox regression were used to investigate the effect of gene polymorphisms on the all-cause survival of NPC.

    RESULTS: NPC cases carrying T/T genotype of ITGA2 C807T have poorer all-cause survival compared to those with C/C genotypes, with an adjusted HR of 2.06 (95% CI = 1.14-3.72) in individual model. The 5-year survival rate of C/C carriers was 55% compared to those with C/T and T/T where the survival rates were 50% and 43%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The finding from the present study showed that ITGA2 C807T polymorphism could be potentially useful as a prognostic biomarker for NPC. However, the prognostic value of ITGA2 C807T polymorphism has to be validated by well-designed further studies with larger patient numbers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  18. Abdullah JM, Farizan A, Asmarina K, Zainuddin N, Ghazali MM, Jaafar H, et al.
    Asian J Surg, 2006 Oct;29(4):274-82.
    PMID: 17098662
    The pattern of allelic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and PTEN mutations appear to be associated with the progression of gliomas leading to a decrement in the survival rate of patients. This present study was carried out to determine the LOH and PTEN mutational status in glioma patients and its association with patients' survival.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
  19. Loh SY, Chew SL
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(1):199-202.
    PMID: 21517257
    Breast self-examination (BSE) is a self-generated, non-invasive and non-irradiative method of breast cancer detection. This paper documents Malaysian women's awareness and practice of regular BSE as a potent breast cancer detection tool. A pre-test post-test questionnaire survey on women diagnosed with breast cancer (n=66) was conducted. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were performed to correlate demographic variables, knowledge and regular practice of BSE. Findings showed that 80% of the breast cancer survivors self-detected the breast lumps, despite a high 85% of these women reporting they were never taught about BSE. More than 70% of the women maintained that lack of knowledge/skill on the proper practice of BSE was the key barrier to a more regular BSE practice. After an educational intervention on BSE and breast awareness, we found an increase report from 17% (at pre-test) to 67% (at post-test) of self reported monthly BSE practices. Provision of self-management education incorporating BSE, a readily available cheap method, should be introduced at primary care and breast clinics. This strategy promotes women's self-efficacy which contributes towards cancer control agenda in less resource available countries around Asia Pacific. Longer follow up may be crucial to examine the adherence to positive BSE behaviour.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging/methods
  20. Yusof A, Chia YC, Hasni YM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(19):8095-9.
    PMID: 25338990
    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, over half a million women died of breast cancer in 2011 alone. Mammography screening is associated with a reduction of 20 to 35% in breast cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the awareness and practice of mammography screening and predictors of its uptake in Malaysian women attending a primary care clinic.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among women aged 40 to 74 years attending a primary care clinic in Selangor, Malaysia. An assisted structured questionnaire included questions on socio-demography, source of information and level of knowledge. An adapted version of the revised Champion Health Belief Model Scale plus other associated factors for mammography screening up-take were also included as part of the questionnaire. Predictors for mammography screening uptake were only determined in those who were aware about mammography screening. Significant predictors were determined by logistic regression.

    RESULTS: 447 women were recruited for this study; 99.1% of them (n: 411) were aware about breast cancer. Only 50.1% (n: 206) had knowledge about mammography screening. Prevalence of clinical breast-examination (CBE) was 23.3% (n: 104) and mammography screening up-take was 13.2% (n: 59). The predictors for the latter were those who have had clinical breast-examination (aOR=17.58, 95%CI: 7.68-39.82) and those aged between 50 to 59 years (aOR=3.94, 95%CI: 1.61-9.66) as well as those aged 60 years and above (aOR=6.91, 95%CI: 2.28-20.94). Good knowledge and positive beliefs about mammography screening were not associated with mammography screening uptake.

    CONCLUSIONS: Half of our Malaysian women were aware about mammography screening. However, the uptake of mammography was low. Previous CBE and older age were significant predictors of mammography screening uptake. Increasing CBE services may increase compliance with guidelines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Staging
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