METHODS: In this study, mouthwash, saliva, and buccal cytobrush samples were collected from β-thalassemia major patients who had previously been characterized using DNA extracted from peripheral blood. DNA was extracted from mouthwash, saliva, and buccal cytobrush samples using the conventional inexpensive phenol-chloroform method and was measured by spectrophotometry for yield and purity. Molecular characterization of β-globin gene mutations was carried out using the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS).
RESULTS: DNA extracted from mouthwash, saliva, and buccal cytobrush samples produced high concentration and pure DNA. The purified DNA was successfully amplified using ARMS. Results of the β-globin gene mutations using DNA from the three non-invasive samples were in 100% concordance with results from DNA extracted from peripheral blood.
CONCLUSIONS: The conventional in-house developed methods for non-invasive sample collection and DNA extraction from these samples are effective and negate the use of more expensive commercial kits. In conclusion, DNA extracted from mouthwash, saliva, and buccal cytobrush samples provided sufficiently high amounts of pure DNA suitable for molecular analysis of β-thalassemia.
METHODS: Keratoconic (n = 74) and control subjects (n = 96) were recruited based on clinical diagnostic tests and selection criteria. DNA extracted from the blood samples was used to genotype VSX1 polymorphisms. In-house designed primers and optimization of PCR conditions were carried out to amplify exons 1 and 3 of the VSX1 gene. PCR conditions including percentage GC content, melting temperatures, and differences in melting temperatures of primers were evaluated to produce sensitive and specific DNA amplifications.
RESULTS: Genotyping was successfully carried out in 4 exons of the VSX1 gene. Primer annealing temperatures were observed to be crucial in enhancing PCR sensitivity and specificity. Annealing temperatures were carefully evaluated to produce increased specificity, yet not allowing sensitivity to be compromised. In addition, exon 1 of the VSX1 gene was amplified using 2 different sets of primers to produce 2 smaller amplified products with absence of non-specific bands. DNA amplification of exons 1 and 3 consistently showed single band products which were successfully sequenced to yield reproducible data.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of in-house designed primers and optimized PCR conditions allowed sensitive and specific DNA amplifications that produced distinct single bands. The in-house designed primers and DNA amplification protocols established in this study provide an addition to the current repertoire of primers for accurate molecular characterization of VSX1 gene polymorphisms in keratoconus research.