Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 50 in total

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  1. Isa MN, Sulong S, Sidek MR, George PJ, Abdullah JM
    PMID: 15115103
    Telomerase, the enzyme that stabilizes telomere length is reactivated with almost all cancer types, and may be a useful diagnostic marker for malignancy. Telomerase activity has been detected in germ line cells and most cancer cells, whereas most normal somatic cells have no clearly detectable telomerase activity. In our study, we aim to detect telomerase activity in 20 human central nervous system tumors from Malaysian patients. Telomerase activity was detected based on a highly sensitive procedure consisting of a CHAPS detergent-based extraction from frozen tissues and a PCR-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) using a TRAPEZE Telomerase Detection Kit (Intergen, Co). Telomerase activity was considered positive when a ladder of products was observed starting at 50bp, with 6bp increments. The activity was detected in 30% of the samples analysed, included glioblastoma multiforme, meduloblastoma, paraganglioma and oligodendroglioma. The result of Fisher's exact test indicated that there was a significant association between telomerase activity status with tumor grade (p=0.003). These results suggest that telomerase activity may be an important marker for tumor malignancy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
  2. Lau YL, Lai MY, Teoh BT, Abd-Jamil J, Johari J, Sam SS, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(9):e0138694.
    PMID: 26384248 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138694
    Dengue is usually diagnosed by isolation of the virus, serology or molecular diagnostic methods. Several commercial kits for the diagnosis of dengue are existing, but concerns have arisen regarding to the affordability and performance characteristics of these kits. Hence, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is potentially ideal to be used especially in resource limited environments. Serum was collected from healthy donors and patients diagnosed with dengue infection. RNA extracted from the serum samples were tested by reverse-transcription-LAMP assay developed based on 3'-NCR gene sequences for DENV 1-4. Results were interpreted by a turbidity meter in real time or visually at the end of the assay. Sensitivity and specificity of RT-LAMP results were calculated and compared to qRT-PCR and ELISA. RT-LAMP is highly sensitive with the detection limit of 10 RNA copies for all serotypes. Dengue virus RNA was detected in all positive samples using RT-LAMP and none of the negative samples within 30-45 minutes. With continuing efforts in the optimization of this assay, RT-LAMP may provide a simple and reliable test for detecting DENV in areas where dengue is prevalent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  3. Teoh BT, Sam SS, Tan KK, Johari J, Danlami MB, Hooi PS, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2013;13:387.
    PMID: 23964963 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-387
    BACKGROUND: Early and rapid detection of dengue virus (DENV) infection during the febrile period is crucial for proper patient management and prevention of disease spread. An easy to perform and highly sensitive method is needed for routine implementation especially in the resource-limited rural healthcare settings where dengue is endemic.
    METHODS: A single-tube reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay with a set of nine primers was developed for the detection of all four DENV serotypes and their different genotypes. The sensitivity and specificity of the RT-LAMP were evaluated. The clinical applicability of RT-LAMP assay for detection of DENV RNA was assessed in a total of 305 sera of clinically-suspected dengue patients. The test results of RT-LAMP were statistically compared to those of quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), IgM- and IgG-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).
    RESULTS: Acute DENV infection was confirmed in 171 samples (n = 305); 43.3% (74/171) and 46.8% (80/171) of the samples were positive for DENV using RT-LAMP and qRT-PCR, respectively. The combination of RT-LAMP with the dengue IgM and IgG ELISA increased detection of acute DENV infection to 97.7% (167/171), in comparison to only 70.8% (121/171) when dengue IgM and IgG ELISA alone were used. The RT-LAMP assays showed high concordance (κ = 0.939) with the qRT-PCR. The RT-LAMP assay detected up to 10 copies of virus RNA within an hour but 100% reproducibility (12/12) was achieved with 100 copies. There was no cross reactivity of RT-LAMP with other closely related arboviruses.
    CONCLUSION: The RT-LAMP assay developed in this study is sensitive, specific and simple to perform. The assay improved the detection of dengue when used in combination with serological methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  4. Hamidah NH, Munirah AR, Hafiza A, Farisah AR, Shuhaila A, Norzilawati MN, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2014 Dec;36(3):163-8.
    PMID: 25500514 MyJurnal
    Prenatal diagnosis is essential in the new era of diagnosis and management of genetic diseases in obstetrics. Multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a recent technique for prenatal diagnosis for the relative quantification of 40 different nucleic acid sequences in one single reaction. We had utilized the MLPA technique in detecting aneuploidies in amniotic fluid samples from 25 pregnant women from the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department UKMMC, versus the quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) method. Conclusive results were obtained in 18 cases and all were concordant with that of the QF-PCR. All four cases of trisomies were correctly identified including one case with maternal cell contamination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  5. Hafiza A, Noor HH, Noor FA, Azlin I, Ainoon O
    Malays J Pathol, 2010 Dec;32(2):137-41.
    PMID: 21329186 MyJurnal
    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited red cell disorder, characterized by the tendency of haemoglobin S or sickle haemoglobin to polymerize and assume a characteristic sickle shape. Molecular analysis has been the mainstay of detection method when confirmation is required. Previously a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction enzyme analysis was used for this purpose. A simple bidirectional allele-specific amplification, recently described by Waterfall in 2001 was used to detect the GAG --> GTG mutation on codon 6 of the beta globin gene. Two sets of primers for the mutant and the wild type alleles were used in a single PCR reaction to amplify the regions of interest. The resultant PCR products will produce two fragments at 517 and 267 base pair (bp) respectively. This report highlights the investigations for SCD in the family of a 16-year old girl with recurrent painful crisis affecting the lower limbs whereby the family members are asymptomatic for the disease. Her haemoglobin electrophoresis at an alkaline pH showed dense bands at the HbS and HbF regions, while her father and two sisters had bands at HbS, HbF and HbA. The PCR analysis showed that she was homozygous for the mutation by the presence of only one band at 267 bp fragment, while the father and her sisters were heterozygotes, with the presence of two bands at 267 as well as 517 bp fragments. DNA sequencing of the sample confirmed the mutation. In conclusion, this case report highlighted the simple and cheap yet practical method for molecular confirmation of the presence of HbS gene in subjects with homozygous or heterozygous state of the condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  6. Ramlah Zainudin, Augustine Gawin, Dency Flenny
    MyJurnal
    Limnonectes kuhlii and Limnonectes leporinus are two of the Bornean fanged frogs (without advertisement call) which are widely distributed, thus thought to exhibit different evolutionary lineages and the existence of genetically cryptic species. Yet, the two species are still under study especially at the molecular level. Hence, cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) of mitochondrial gene was used to investigate suitable parameters for DNA amplification using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. Three PCR programmes (varied in the temperatures and period of each PCR step) were employed to identify the most efficient parameters in amplifying PCR products for both species. From the three programmes, Programme B (Initial denaturation: 96°C for 5 min; denaturation: 95°C for 45 sec; annealing: 48-53°C for 1 min 30 sec; extension: 72°C for 1 min 30 sec; final extension: 72°C for 10 min, 30 cycles) showed the highest percentage (53%) of optimal PCR products. The other two programmes showed non-specific products or “primer-dimers”. The results also suggest that the annealing temperature of 52°C, 0.025-0.05 units/µl of 1.5mM Taq polymerase, 0.04 mM of
    dNTPs mix and optimal concentrations of magnesium in 50 µl of reaction mixture were sufficient enough to amplify high quality PCR products for both species. However, using Programme B, the re-amplification of the PCR products yielded “primer-dimer”. In addition, a ‘Hot-Start’ PCR method was also applied and mostly yielded in an optimal PCR amplification. Nevertheless, further research on the second amplification of the two species should be conducted to determine the causes of the primer-dimer production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  7. Jasbeer, K., Son, R., Mohamad Ghazali, F., Cheah, Y.K.
    MyJurnal
    Successful DNA amplification is vital for the detection of specific DNA targets in feeds, and this in return depends on the ability of DNA extraction methods to produce good quality DNA. In this study, seven methods were compared for DNA extraction from feeds using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of single copy maize (Zea mays) endogenous hmg (high mobility group) gene. Relative levels of hmg were used to evaluate the DNA quality. Spectrophotometer determination of DNA was also carried out to assess DNA yield and DNA purity, while electrophoretic analysis of genomic DNA extracts was carried out to investigate DNA integrity. The findings illustrate that the DNA extraction methods have a significant effect on DNA quality. Statistically, the Epicentre method extracted the highest DNA yield while the Wizard method had the lowest DNA yield with high DNA purity and integrity. However, the Wizard method recovered the most amplifiable DNA per reaction, indicating that template quality and integrity had greater influence over hmg amplification than DNA yield.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  8. Wong YP, Othman S, Lau YL, Radu S, Chee HY
    J. Appl. Microbiol., 2018 Mar;124(3):626-643.
    PMID: 29165905 DOI: 10.1111/jam.13647
    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) amplifies DNA with high specificity, efficiency and rapidity under isothermal conditions by using a DNA polymerase with high displacement strand activity and a set of specifically designed primers to amplify targeted DNA strands. Following its first discovery by Notomi et al. ( Nucleic Acids Res 28: E63), LAMP was further developed over the years which involved the combination of this technique with other molecular approaches, such as reverse transcription and multiplex amplification for the detection of infectious diseases caused by micro-organisms in humans, livestock and plants. In this review, available types of LAMP techniques will be discussed together with their applications in detection of various micro-organisms. Up to date, there are varieties of LAMP detection methods available including colorimetric and fluorescent detection, real-time monitoring using turbidity metre and detection using lateral flow device which will also be highlighted in this review. Apart from that, commercialization of LAMP technique had also been reported such as lyophilized form of LAMP reagents kit and LAMP primer sets for detection of pathogenic micro-organisms. On top of that, advantages and limitations of this molecular detection method are also described together with its future potential as a diagnostic method for infectious disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  9. Lam JY, Low GK, Chee HY
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2020 02;14(2):e0008074.
    PMID: 32049960 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0008074
    BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is often difficult to diagnose because of its nonspecific symptoms. The drawbacks of direct isolation and serological tests have led to the increased development of nucleic acid-based assays, which are more rapid and accurate. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of genetic markers for the detection of Leptospira in clinical samples.

    METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: A literature search was performed in Scopus, PubMed, MEDLINE and non-indexed citations (via Ovid) by using suitable keyword combinations. Studies evaluating the performance of nucleic acid assays targeting leptospire genes in human or animal clinical samples against a reference test were included. Of the 1645 articles identified, 42 eligible studies involving 7414 samples were included in the analysis. The diagnostic performance of nucleic acid assays targeting the rrs, lipL32, secY and flaB genes was pooled and analyzed. Among the genetic markers analyzed, the secY gene showed the highest diagnostic accuracy measures, with a pooled sensitivity of 0.56 (95% CI: 0.50-0.63), a specificity of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.97-0.98), a diagnostic odds ratio of 46.16 (95% CI: 6.20-343.49), and an area under the curve of summary receiver operating characteristics curves of 0.94. Nevertheless, a high degree of heterogeneity was observed in this meta-analysis. Therefore, the present findings here should be interpreted with caution.

    CONCLUSION: The diagnostic accuracies of the studies examined for each genetic marker showed a significant heterogeneity. The secY gene exhibited higher diagnostic accuracy measures compared with other genetic markers, such as lipL32, flaB, and rrs, but the difference was not significant. Thus, these genetic markers had no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy for leptospirosis. Further research into these genetic markers is warranted.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  10. Lau YL, Meganathan P, Sonaimuthu P, Thiruvengadam G, Nissapatorn V, Chen Y
    J. Clin. Microbiol., 2010 Oct;48(10):3698-702.
    PMID: 20660217 DOI: 10.1128/JCM.00462-10
    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), a rapid nucleic acid amplification method, was developed for the clinical diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Three LAMP assays based on the SAG1, SAG2, and B1 genes of Toxoplasma gondii were developed. The sensitivities and specificities of the LAMP assays were evaluated by comparison with the results of conventional nested PCR. The LAMP assays were highly sensitive and had a detection limit of 0.1 tachyzoite, and no cross-reactivity with the DNA of other parasites was observed. Blood was collected from 105 individuals to test the LAMP assays: 40 patients with active toxoplasmosis, 40 negative controls, and 25 patients with other parasitic infections. The SAG2-based LAMP (SAG2-LAMP) had a greater sensitivity (87.5%) than the SAG1-LAMP (80%), B1-LAMP (80%), and nested PCR (62.5%). All the LAMP assays and nested PCR were 100% specific. This is the first report of a study which applied the LAMP method to diagnose toxoplasmosis from human blood samples. Due to its simplicity, sensitivity, and specificity, LAMP is suggested as an appropriate method for routine diagnosis of active toxoplasmosis in humans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  11. Lau YL, Fong MY, Mahmud R, Chang PY, Palaeya V, Cheong FW, et al.
    Malar. J., 2011;10:197.
    PMID: 21774805 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-197
    The emergence of Plasmodium knowlesi in humans, which is in many cases misdiagnosed by microscopy as Plasmodium malariae due to the morphological similarity has contributed to the needs of detection and differentiation of malaria parasites. At present, nested PCR targeted on Plasmodium ssrRNA genes has been described as the most sensitive and specific method for Plasmodium detection. However, this method is costly and requires trained personnel for its implementation. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), a novel nucleic acid amplification method was developed for the clinical detection of P. knowlesi. The sensitivity and specificity of LAMP was evaluated in comparison to the results obtained via microscopic examination and nested PCR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  12. Yaseen SG, Ahmed SA, Johan MF, Kiron R, Daher AM
    Transfus. Apher. Sci., 2013 Dec;49(3):647-51.
    PMID: 23890575 DOI: 10.1016/j.transci.2013.07.003
    Transmission of infectious diseases is a recognized complication of blood transfusion and blood products. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) may contribute to improved efficiency of blood screening and thereby increase the safety margin for transfused blood.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation; Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  13. Piera KA, Aziz A, William T, Bell D, González IJ, Barber BE, et al.
    Malar. J., 2017 01 13;16(1):29.
    PMID: 28086789 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-016-1676-9
    BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia. However, microscopic diagnosis is inaccurate and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are insufficiently sensitive. PCR is sensitive and specific but not feasible at a district level. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) shows potential with only basic requirements. A commercially available LAMP assay, the Eiken Loopamp™ MALARIA Pan Detection kit, is sensitive for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, but has not previously been evaluated for P. knowlesi. This study aims to determine the sensitivity of this LAMP assay for detecting P. knowlesi infection.

    METHODS: Study participants included 73 uncomplicated malaria patients with PCR species confirmation: 50 P. knowlesi, 20 P. falciparum and 3 P. vivax. Nineteen malaria-negative, non-endemic area controls were also included. The sensitivity of the Eiken Loopamp™ MALARIA Pan Detection kit (Pan LAMP) for detecting each Plasmodium species was evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity of the Eiken Loopamp™ MALARIA Pf Detection kit (Pf LAMP) for P. falciparum were also determined. The limit of detection for each LAMP assay was evaluated, with results compared to PCR. All P. knowlesi patients were also tested by CareStart™ (Pf/VOM) and OptiMAL-IT™ (Pan/Pf) RDTs.

    RESULTS: The sensitivity of the Pan LAMP assay was 100% for P. knowlesi (95% CI 92.9-100), P. falciparum (95% CI 83.2-100), and P. vivax (95% CI 29.2-100). The Pf LAMP was 100% sensitive and specific for P. falciparum detection, with all P. knowlesi samples having a negative reaction. LAMP sensitivity was superior to both RDTs, with only 10 and 28% of P. knowlesi samples testing positive to CareStart™ and OptiMAL-IT™, respectively. Limit of detection using the Pan LAMP for both P. knowlesi and P. vivax was 2 parasites/μL, comparable to PCR. For P. falciparum both the Pan LAMP and Pf LAMP demonstrated a limit of detection of 20 parasites/μL.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Eiken Loopamp™ MALARIA Pan Detection kit is sensitive for detection of P. knowlesi in low parasitaemia clinical infections, as well as P. falciparum and P. vivax. However, a P. knowlesi-specific field assay in a simpler format would assist correct species identification and initiation of optimal treatment for all malaria patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  14. Siddiquee S, Tan SG, Yusuf UK, Fatihah NH, Hasan MM
    Mol. Biol. Rep., 2012 Jan;39(1):715-22.
    PMID: 21553047 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-011-0790-6
    Trichoderma species are commercially applied as biocontrol agents against numerous plant pathogenic fungi due to their production of antifungal metabolites, competition for nutrients and space, and mycoparasitism. However, currently the identification of Trichoderma species from throughout the world based on micro-morphological descriptions is tedious and prone to error. The correct identification of Trichoderma species is important as several traits are species-specific. The Random Amplified Microsatellites (RAMS) analysis done using five primers in this study showed different degrees of the genetic similarity among 42 isolates of this genus. The genetic similarity values were found to be in the range of 12.50-85.11% based on a total of 76 bands scored in the Trichoderma isolates. Of these 76 bands, 96.05% were polymorphic, 3.95% were monomorphic and 16% were exclusive bands. Two bands (250 bp and 200 bp) produced by primer LR-5 and one band (250 bp) by primer P1A were present in all the Trichoderma isolates collected from healthy and infected oil palm plantation soils. Cluster analysis based on UPGMA of the RAMS marker data showed that T. harzianum, T. virens and T. longibrachiatum isolates were grouped into different clades and lineages. In this study we found that although T. aureoviride isolates were morphologically different when compared to T. harzianum isolates, the UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the majority isolates of T. aureoviride (seven from nine) were closely related to the isolates of T. harzianum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
  15. Chua EW, Maggo S, Kennedy MA
    Methods Mol. Biol., 2017;1620:65-74.
    PMID: 28540699 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7060-5_3
    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an oft-used preparatory technique in amplifying specific DNA regions for downstream analysis. The size of an amplicon was initially limited by errors in nucleotide polymerization and template deterioration during thermal cycling. A variant of PCR, designated long-range PCR, was devised to counter these drawbacks and enable the amplification of large fragments exceeding a few kb. In this chapter we describe a protocol for long-range PCR, which we have adopted to obtain products of 6.6, 7.2, 13, and 20 kb from human genomic DNA samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  16. Chang YM, Swaran Y, Phoon YK, Sothirasan K, Sim HT, Lim KB, et al.
    Forensic Sci Int Genet, 2009 Jun;3(3):e77-80.
    PMID: 19414156 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2008.07.007
    17 Y-STRs (DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635 or Y-GATA C4, DYS392, Y-GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS448) have been analyzed in 320 male individuals from Sarawak, an eastern state of Malaysia on the Borneo island using the AmpFlSTR Y-filer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). These individuals were from three indigenous ethnic groups in Sarawak comprising of 103 Ibans, 113 Bidayuhs and 104 Melanaus. The observed 17-loci haplotypes and the individual allele frequencies for each locus were estimated, whilst the locus diversity, haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity were calculated in the three groups. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 87.6% of the haplotypic variation was found within population and 12.4% between populations (fixation index F(ST)=0.124, p=0.000). This study has revealed that the indigenous populations in Sarawak are distinctly different to each other, and to the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malays, Chinese and Indians), with the Melanaus having a strikingly high degree of shared haplotypes within. There are rare unusual variants and microvariants that were not present in Malaysian Malay, Chinese or Indian groups. In addition, occurrences of DYS385 duplications which were only noticeably present in Chinese group previously was also observed in the Iban group whilst null alleles were detected at several Y-loci (namely DYS19, DYS392, DYS389II and DYS448) in the Iban and Melanau groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  17. Lai MY, Ooi CH, Lau YL
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2017 Nov;97(5):1597-1599.
    PMID: 28820700 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0427
    In this study, we developed a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for specific diagnosis of Plasmodium knowlesi. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples using a commercial kit. With incubation at 37°C, the samples were successfully amplified within 20 minutes. The end product of RPA was further examined by loading onto agarose gel and a specific band was observed with a size of 128 bp. The RPA assay exhibited high sensitivity with limits of detection down to one copy of the plasmid. From the specificity experiments, it was demonstrated that all P. knowlesi samples (N = 45) were positive while other Plasmodium spp. (N = 42) and negative samples (N = 6) were negative. Therefore, the RPA assay is a highly promising approach with the potential to be used in resource-limited settings. This assay can be further optimized for bedside and on field application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques*
  18. Lai MY, Ooi CH, Lau YL
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2018 03;98(3):700-703.
    PMID: 29260656 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0738
    The aim of this study was to develop a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip method for specific diagnosis of Plasmodium knowlesi. With incubation at 37°C, the 18S rRNA gene of P. knowlesi was successfully amplified within 12 minutes. By adding a specifically designed probe to the reaction solution, the amplified RPA product can be visualized on a LF strip. The RPA assay exhibited high sensitivity with limits of detection down to 10 parasites/μL of P. knowlesi. Nonetheless, it was demonstrated that all P. knowlesi (N = 41) and other Plasmodium sp. (N = 25) were positive while negative samples (N = 8) were negative. Therefore, a combination of RPA and LF strip detection is a highly promising approach with the potential to be suitable for use in resource-limited settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  19. Amir A, Cheong FW, De Silva JR, Lau YL
    Parasit Vectors, 2018 01 23;11(1):53.
    PMID: 29361963 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-018-2617-y
    Every year, millions of people are burdened with malaria. An estimated 429,000 casualties were reported in 2015, with the majority made up of children under five years old. Early and accurate diagnosis of malaria is of paramount importance to ensure appropriate administration of treatment. This minimizes the risk of parasite resistance development, reduces drug wastage and unnecessary adverse reaction to antimalarial drugs. Malaria diagnostic tools have expanded beyond the conventional microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood films. Contemporary and innovative techniques have emerged, mainly the rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and other molecular diagnostic methods such as PCR, qPCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Even microscopic diagnosis has gone through a paradigm shift with the development of new techniques such as the quantitative buffy coat (QBC) method and the Partec rapid malaria test. This review explores the different diagnostic tools available for childhood malaria, each with their characteristic strengths and limitations. These tools play an important role in making an accurate malaria diagnosis to ensure that the use of anti-malaria are rationalized and that presumptive diagnosis would only be a thing of the past.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
  20. Mallepaddi PC, Lai MY, Podha S, Ooi CH, Liew JW, Polavarapu R, et al.
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2018 09;99(3):704-708.
    PMID: 29943720 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0177
    The present study aims to develop a method for rapid diagnosis of malaria using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with a lateral flow device (LFD). By adding the biotin-labeled and fluorescein amidite-labeled loop primers to the LAMP reaction solution, the end product can be visualized on a LFD. The entire procedure takes approximately 42 minutes to complete, LAMP assay exhibited high sensitivity, as the detection limit was 0.01 pg/μL for all five Plasmodium species. It was demonstrated that all Plasmodium knowlesi (N = 90) and Plasmodium vivax (N = 56) were positively amplified by LAMP-LFD assay, whereas healthy donor samples (N = 8) were negative. However, not all mixed infections were positive, and other infected nonmalaria samples were negative. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification-LFD represents a robust approach with potential suitability for use in resource-constrained laboratories. We believe that LAMP-LFD has a potential to be developed as point-of-care diagnostic tool in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
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