Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 65 in total

  1. Balachandra D, Ahmad H, Arifin N, Noordin R
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2021 Jan;40(1):27-37.
    PMID: 32729057 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-020-03949-x
    Laboratory diagnosis of Strongyloides infections can be grouped into direct and indirect detection methods, and a combination of the two methods is often needed to reach an accurate and timely diagnosis. This review focuses on non-conventional direct detection via molecular and antigen detection assays. Conventional PCR is the most commonly used molecular diagnostic for Strongyloides. Real-time PCR is accurate and highly sensitive for quantitative and qualitative analysis. Meanwhile, PCR-RFLP can efficiently distinguish human and dog isolates of S. stercoralis, S. fuelleborni (from monkey), and S. ratti (from rodent). Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) amplifies DNA isothermally with high specificity, efficiency, and rapidity, and has potential for point-of-care (POC) translation. As for antigen detection assay, coproantigen detection ELISAs for strongyloidiasis traditionally relied on raising rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the parasite antigens for use as capture or detection reagents. Subsequently, hybridoma technology using animals has enabled the discovery of monoclonal antibodies specific to Strongyloides antigens and was utilised to develop antigen detection assays. In recent times, phage display technology has facilitated the discovery of scFv antibody against Strongyloides protein that can accelerate the development of such assays. Improvements in both direct detection methods are being made. Strongyloides molecular diagnostics is moving from the detection of a single infection to the simultaneous detection of soil-transmitted helminths. Meanwhile, antigen detection assays can also be multiplexed and aptamers can be used as antigen binders. In the near future, these two direct detection methods may be more widely used as diagnostic tools for strongyloidiasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  2. Lau YL, Ismail IB, Mustapa NIB, Lai MY, Tuan Soh TS, Haji Hassan A, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(1):e0245164.
    PMID: 33406112 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0245164
    Rapid diagnosis is an important intervention in managing the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) remains the primary means for diagnosing the new virus strain but it is time consuming and costly. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an isothermal amplification assay that does not require a PCR machine. It is an affordable, rapid, and simple assay. In this study, we developed and optimized a sensitive reverse transcription (RT)-RPA assay for the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 using SYBR Green I and/or lateral flow (LF) strip. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the RT-RPA assay were tested by using 10-fold serial diluted synthetic RNA and genomic RNA of similar viruses, respectively. Clinical sensitivity and specificity of the RT-RPA assay were carried out using 78 positive and 35 negative nasopharyngeal samples. The detection limit of both RPA and RT-qPCR assays was 7.659 and 5 copies/μL RNA, respectively with no cross reactivity with other viruses. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of RT-RPA were 98% and 100%, respectively. Our study showed that RT-RPA represents a viable alternative to RT-qPCR for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, especially in areas with limited infrastructure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
  3. Teoh BT, Chin KL, Samsudin NI, Loong SK, Sam SS, Tan KK, et al.
    BMC Infect Dis, 2020 Dec 11;20(1):947.
    PMID: 33308203 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-020-05585-4
    BACKGROUND: Early detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during the viremia and viruria facilitates proper patient management and mosquito control measurement to prevent disease spread. Therefore, a cost-effective nucleic acid detection method for the diagnosis of ZIKV infection, especially in resource-deficient settings, is highly required.

    METHODS: In the present study, a single-tube reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of both the Asian and African-lineage ZIKV. The detection limit, strain coverage and cross-reactivity of the ZIKV RT-LAMP assay was evaluated. The sensitivity and specificity of the RT-LAMP were also evaluated using a total of 24 simulated clinical samples. The ZIKV quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was used as the reference assay.

    RESULTS: The detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was 3.73 ZIKV RNA copies (probit analysis, P ≤ 0.05). The RT-LAMP assay detected the ZIKV genomes of both the Asian and African lineages without cross-reacting with other arthropod-borne viruses. The sensitivity and specificity of the RT-LAMP assay were 90% (95% CI = 59.6-98.2) and 100% (95% CI = 78.5-100.0), respectively. The RT-LAMP assay detected ZIKV genome in 9 of 24 (37.5%) of the simulated clinical samples compared to 10 of 24 (41.7%) by qRT-PCR assay with a high level of concordance (κ = 0.913, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  4. Lau YL, Ismail IB, Izati Binti Mustapa N, Lai MY, Tuan Soh TS, Hassan AH, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2020 Dec;103(6):2350-2352.
    PMID: 33098286 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1079
    A simple and rapid reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The RT-LAMP assay was highly specific for SARS-CoV-2 and was able to detect one copy of transcribed SARS-CoV-2 RNA within 24 minutes. Assay validation performed using 50 positive and 32 negative clinical samples showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. The RT-LAMP would be valuable for clinical diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infection in resource-limited areas as it does not require the use of sophisticated and costly equipment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods; Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/standards*
  5. Chin KL, Sarmiento ME, Mustapha ZA, Jani J, Jamal NB, Stanis CS, et al.
    Tuberculosis (Edinb), 2020 Dec;125:102003.
    PMID: 33099253 DOI: 10.1016/j.tube.2020.102003
    Tuberculosis (TB) is the deadliest of infectious diseases. TB diagnosis, based on sputum microscopy, culture, and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) to identify its main causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), remains challenging. The current available NAATs, endorsed by World Health Organization (WHO), can differentiate MTB from some MTB complex (MTBC) members. Using bioinformatics, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in lprM (Rv1970) gene that differentiate MTB from other MTBC members. A forward mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) primer was designed for the targeted mutation and was used in a semi-nested melt-MAMA qPCR (lprM-MAMA). Using the optimized protocol, lprM-MAMA was positive with all MTB reference and clinical strains, and negative with other MTBC members, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and other non-mycobacterial (NM) reference strains. The limit of detection (LOD) of lprM-MAMA was 76.29 fg. Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert)-positive sputum samples were also positive by lprM-MAMA, except for samples classified as having "very low" bacterial load by Xpert. Xpert-negative sputum samples were also negative by lprM-MAMA. In conclusion, lprM-MAMA demonstrated to be a useful tool for specific MTB diagnosis. Further evaluation with higher number of reference strains, including NTM and NM; and sputum samples are required to determine its potential for clinical application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  6. Vythalingam LM, Hossain MAM, Bhassu S
    Mol Cell Probes, 2020 Nov 28;55:101683.
    PMID: 33259896 DOI: 10.1016/j.mcp.2020.101683
    Invasive alien fish species have become a silent treat towards the ecosystem especially the native fish population in Malaysia. There has been a need to develop rapid identification methods that can aid management teams in identifying fish species that are not native to our ecosystem. Current visual identification methods are highly tedious and require time, delaying action towards curbing the invasion. The LAMP assay successfully identified six popular invasive fish species in Malaysia. None of the LAMP assays showed false positives and the Limit of Detection of the LAMP primers were highly sensitive and could detect DNA samples up to 1 × 10-15 ng/μl. The LAMP primers designed were highly specific to the target species and did not amplify non target species. DNA sequencing was done to ensure the accuracy of LAMP assay results. This study demonstrates that LAMP is a suitable tool in species identification efforts of invasive fish species in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  7. Selvarajah D, Naing C, Htet NH, Mak JW
    Malar J, 2020 Jun 19;19(1):211.
    PMID: 32560728 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-020-03283-9
    BACKGROUND: The global malaria decline has stalled and only a few countries are pushing towards pre-elimination. The aim of the malaria elimination phase is interruption of local transmission of a specified malaria parasite in a defined geographical area. New and improved screening tools and strategies are required for detection and management of very low-density parasitaemia in the field. The objective of this study was to synthesize evidence on the diagnostic accuracy of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test for the detection of malaria parasites among people living in endemic areas.

    METHODS: This study adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis for Diagnostic Test Accuracy (PRISMA-DTA) guideline. Relevant studies in the health-related electronic databases were searched. According to the criteria set for this study, eligible studies were identified. The quality of included studies was evaluated with the use of a quality assessment checklist. A summary performance estimates such as pooled sensitivity and specificity were stratified by type of LAMP. Bivariate model for data analyses was applied. Summary receiver operating characteristics plots were created to display the results of individual studies in a receiver operating characteristics space. Meta-regression analysis was performed to investigate the sources of heterogeneity among individual studies.

    RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies across 17 endemic countries were identified. The vast majority of studies were with unclear risk of bias in the selection of index test. Overall, the pooled test performances were high for Pan LAMP (sensitivity: 0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.97; specificity: 0.98, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99), Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) LAMP (sensitivity: 0.96, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.98; specificity: 0.99, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.00) or for Plasmodium vivax (Pv) LAMP from 6 studies (sensitivity: 0.98, 95% CI 0.92 to 0.99; specificity: 0.99, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.00). The area under the curve for Pan LAMP (0.99, 95% CI 0.98-1.00), Pf LAMP (0.99, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and Pv LAMP was (1.00, 95% CI 0.98-1.00) indicated that the diagnostic performance of these tests were within the excellent accuracy range. Meta-regression analysis showed that sample size had the greatest impact on test performance, among other factors.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that LAMP-based assays are appropriate for detecting low-level malaria parasite infections in the field and would become valuable tools for malaria control and elimination programmes. Future well-designed larger sample studies on LAMP assessment in passive and active malaria surveillances that use PCR as the reference standard and provide sufficient data to construct 2 × 2 diagnostic table are needed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  8. Lai MY, Ooi CH, Jaimin JJ, Lau YL
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2020 06;102(6):1370-1372.
    PMID: 32228783 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0001
    The incidence of zoonotic malaria, Plasmodium knowlesi, infection is increasing and now is the major cause of malaria in Malaysia. Here, we describe a WarmStart colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of Plasmodium spp. The detection limit for this assay was 10 copies/µL for P knowlesi and Plasmodium ovale and 1 copy/µL for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium malariae. To test clinical sensitivity and specificity, 100 microscopy-positive and 20 malaria-negative samples were used. The WarmStart colorimetric LAMP was 98% sensitive and 100% specific. Amplification products were visible for direct observation, thereby eliminating the need for post-amplification processing steps. Therefore, WarmStart colorimetric LAMP is suitable for use in resource-limited settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  9. Lam JY, Low GK, Chee HY
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2020 02;14(2):e0008074.
    PMID: 32049960 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0008074
    BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is often difficult to diagnose because of its nonspecific symptoms. The drawbacks of direct isolation and serological tests have led to the increased development of nucleic acid-based assays, which are more rapid and accurate. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of genetic markers for the detection of Leptospira in clinical samples.

    METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: A literature search was performed in Scopus, PubMed, MEDLINE and non-indexed citations (via Ovid) by using suitable keyword combinations. Studies evaluating the performance of nucleic acid assays targeting leptospire genes in human or animal clinical samples against a reference test were included. Of the 1645 articles identified, 42 eligible studies involving 7414 samples were included in the analysis. The diagnostic performance of nucleic acid assays targeting the rrs, lipL32, secY and flaB genes was pooled and analyzed. Among the genetic markers analyzed, the secY gene showed the highest diagnostic accuracy measures, with a pooled sensitivity of 0.56 (95% CI: 0.50-0.63), a specificity of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.97-0.98), a diagnostic odds ratio of 46.16 (95% CI: 6.20-343.49), and an area under the curve of summary receiver operating characteristics curves of 0.94. Nevertheless, a high degree of heterogeneity was observed in this meta-analysis. Therefore, the present findings here should be interpreted with caution.

    CONCLUSION: The diagnostic accuracies of the studies examined for each genetic marker showed a significant heterogeneity. The secY gene exhibited higher diagnostic accuracy measures compared with other genetic markers, such as lipL32, flaB, and rrs, but the difference was not significant. Thus, these genetic markers had no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy for leptospirosis. Further research into these genetic markers is warranted.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  10. Obande GA, Banga Singh KK
    Infect Drug Resist, 2020;13:455-483.
    PMID: 32104017 DOI: 10.2147/IDR.S217571
    Nucleic acid amplification technology (NAAT) has assumed a critical position in disease diagnosis in recent times and contributed significantly to healthcare. Application of these methods has resulted in a more sensitive, accurate and rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases than older traditional methods like culture-based identification. NAAT such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is widely applied but seldom available to resource-limited settings. Isothermal amplification (IA) methods provide a rapid, sensitive, specific, simpler and less expensive procedure for detecting nucleic acid from samples. However, not all of these IA techniques find regular applications in infectious diseases diagnosis. Disease diagnosis and treatment could be improved, and the rapidly increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance reduced, with improvement, adaptation, and application of isothermal amplification methods in clinical settings, especially in developing countries. This review centres on some isothermal techniques that have found documented applications in infectious diseases diagnosis, highlighting their principles, development, strengths, setbacks and imminent potentials for use at points of care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  11. Lau YL, Ismail I, Mustapa NI, Lai MY, Tuan Soh TS, Hassan A, et al.
    PeerJ, 2020;8:e9278.
    PMID: 32547882 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.9278
    Background: Highly sensitive real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) methods have been developed for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. However, they are costly. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has emerged as a novel alternative isothermal amplification method for the detection of nucleic acid.

    Methods: A rapid, sensitive and specific real-time reverse transcription LAMP (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for SARS-CoV-2 detection.

    Results: This assay detected one copy/reaction of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in 30 min. Both the clinical sensitivity and specificity of this assay were 100%. The RT-LAMP showed comparable performance with RT-qPCR. Combining simplicity and cost-effectiveness, this assay is therefore recommended for use in resource resource-limited settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  12. Wong CL, Yong CY, Ong HK, Ho KL, Tan WS
    Front Vet Sci, 2020;7:477.
    PMID: 32974392 DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00477
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a devastating livestock disease caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Outbreaks of this disease in a country always result in conspicuous economic losses to livestock industry and subsequently lead to serious socioeconomic damages due to the immediate imposition of trade embargo. Rapid and accurate diagnoses are imperative to control this infectious virus. In the current review, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based methods used in FMD diagnosis are extensively reviewed, particularly the sandwich, liquid-phase blocking, and solid-phase competition ELISA. The differentiation of infected animals from vaccinated animals using ELISA-based methods is also highlighted, in which the role of 3ABC polyprotein as a marker is reviewed intensively. Recently, more studies are focusing on the molecular diagnostic methods, which detect the viral nucleic acids based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RT-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). These methods are generally more sensitive because of their ability to amplify a minute amount of the viral nucleic acids. In this digital era, the RT-PCR and RT-LAMP are progressing toward the mobile versions, aiming for on-site FMDV diagnosis. Apart from RT-PCR and RT-LAMP, another diagnostic assay specifically designed for on-site diagnosis is the lateral flow immunochromatographic test strips. These test strips have some distinct advantages over other diagnostic methods, whereby the assay often does not require the aid of an external device, which greatly lowers the cost per test. In addition, the on-site diagnostic test can be easily performed by untrained personnel including farmers, and the results can be obtained in a few minutes. Lastly, the use of FMDV diagnostic assays for progressive control of the disease is also discussed critically.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  13. Nurul Najian AB, Foo PC, Ismail N, Kim-Fatt L, Yean CY
    Mol Cell Probes, 2019 04;44:63-68.
    PMID: 30876924 DOI: 10.1016/j.mcp.2019.03.001
    This study highlighted the performance of the developed integrated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) coupled with a colorimetric DNA-based magnetogenosensor. The biosensor operates through a DNA hybridization system in which a specific designed probe captures the target LAMP amplicons. We demonstrated the magnetogenosensor assay by detecting pathogenic Leptospira, which causes leptospirosis. The color change of the assay from brown to blue indicated a positive result, whereas a negative result was indicated by the assay maintaining its brown color. The DNA biosensor was able to detect DNA at a concentration as low as 200 fg/μl, which is equivalent to 80 genomes/reaction. The specificity of the biosensor assay was 100% when it was evaluated with 172 bacterial strains. An integrated LAMP and probe-specific magnetogenosensor was successfully developed, promising simple and rapid visual detection in clinical diagnostics and service as a point-of-care device.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  14. Chan SK, Kuzuya A, Choong YS, Lim TS
    SLAS Discov, 2019 01;24(1):68-76.
    PMID: 30063871 DOI: 10.1177/2472555218791743
    The inherent ability of nucleic acids to recognize a complementary pair has gained wide popularity in DNA sensor applications. DNA molecules can be produced in bulk and easily incorporated with various nanomaterials for sensing applications. More complex designs and sophisticated DNA sensors have been reported over the years to allow DNA detection in a faster, cheaper, and more convenient manner. Here, we report a DNA sensor designed to function like a switch to turn "on" silver nanocluster (AgNC) generation in the presence of a specific DNA target. By defining the probe region sequence, we are able to tune the color of the AgNC generated in direct relation to the different targets. As a proof of concept, we used dengue RNA-dependent RNA polymerase conserved sequences from all four serotypes as targets. This method was able to distinguish each dengue serotype by generating the serotype-respective AgNCs. The DNA switch was also able to identify and amplify the correct target in a mixture of targets with good specificity. This strategy has a detection limit of between 1.5 and 2.0 µM depending on the sequence of AgNC. The DNA switch approach provides an attractive alternative for single-target or multiplex DNA detection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  15. Chin Kai Ling, Jaeyres Jani, Zainal Arifin Mustapha
    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB), commonly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is one of the ten leading causes of death worldwide. The gold standard, microbiological culture for detection and differentiation of mycobac-teria are time-consuming and laborious. The use of fast, easy and sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for diagnosis of TB remains challenging because there is a high degree of homology within Mtb complex (MTBC) members and absence of target genes in the genome of some strains. This study aimed to identify new candidate genetic marker and to design specific primers to detect Mtb using in silico methods. Methods: Using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) program, Mtb H37Rv chromosome reference genome sequence was mapped with other MTBC members and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at Rv1970 was found to be specific only for Mtb strains. Mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) combine with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used as an alternative method to detect the point mutation. MAMA primers targeting the SNP were designed using Primer-BLAST and the PCR assay was optimized via Taguchi method. Results: The assay amplified a 112 bp gene fragment and was able to detect all Mtb strains, but not the other MTBC members and non-tuberculous Mycobacte-ria. The detection limit of the assay was 60 pg/μl. Conclusion: Bioinformatics has provided predictive identification of many new target markers. The designed primers were found to be highly specific at single-gene target resolution for detection of Mtb.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  16. Azi Simon Onyema, Leslie Than Thian Lung, Suresh Kumar, Rukman Awang Hamat
    Introduction: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is responsible for high morbidity and mortality globally. Hence, the need to develop sensitive, reliable and cost- effective method of detection is crucial. In this study, we developed a visual detection method for the common virulence gene, streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (speB) involved in invasive GAS diseases using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with fluorescent detection dye (calcein). Meth-ods: The LAMP reaction was optimized at 63°C for 35 minutes using five sets of primer designed with LAMP primer V5 software. When the dye was added prior to amplification, samples with speB DNA developed a characteristic green color after the reaction, but no color reactions were observed in samples with DNAs of non-GAS isolates. De-tection of speB by LAMP assay was done among 43 clinical isolates of blood, pus, wound, tissue and throat samples and ATCCs for controls. Our findings were further reconfirmed by subjecting the LAMP products to 0.5% gel electro-phoresis. Results: The detection limit of this LAMP assay for speB was 10-7 ng/μl of genomic DNA per reaction, which was 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional PCR 10-3 ng/μl. All 100 % samples were positive for speB gene by LAMP, and 93% by conventional PCR method. Conclusion: LAMP assay could offer remarkably high sensitivity, specificity, repeatability, reliability, affordability, and visibility; it is appropriate for rapid detection of speB in Group A streptococci (GAS) as a point of care testing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  17. Mallepaddi PC, Lai MY, Podha S, Ooi CH, Liew JW, Polavarapu R, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2018 09;99(3):704-708.
    PMID: 29943720 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0177
    The present study aims to develop a method for rapid diagnosis of malaria using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with a lateral flow device (LFD). By adding the biotin-labeled and fluorescein amidite-labeled loop primers to the LAMP reaction solution, the end product can be visualized on a LFD. The entire procedure takes approximately 42 minutes to complete, LAMP assay exhibited high sensitivity, as the detection limit was 0.01 pg/μL for all five Plasmodium species. It was demonstrated that all Plasmodium knowlesi (N = 90) and Plasmodium vivax (N = 56) were positively amplified by LAMP-LFD assay, whereas healthy donor samples (N = 8) were negative. However, not all mixed infections were positive, and other infected nonmalaria samples were negative. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification-LFD represents a robust approach with potential suitability for use in resource-constrained laboratories. We believe that LAMP-LFD has a potential to be developed as point-of-care diagnostic tool in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  18. Engku Nur Syafirah EAR, Nurul Najian AB, Foo PC, Mohd Ali MR, Mohamed M, Yean CY
    Acta Trop, 2018 Jun;182:223-231.
    PMID: 29545156 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.004
    Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae is a foodborne disease that frequently reported in food and water related outbreak. Rapid diagnosis of cholera infection is important to avoid potential spread of disease. Among available diagnostic platforms, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is regarded as a potential diagnostic tool due to its rapidity, high sensitivity and specificity and independent of sophisticated thermalcycler. However, the current LAMP often requires multiple pipetting steps, hence is susceptible to cross contamination. Besides, the strict requirement of cold-chain during transportation and storage make its application in low resource settings to be inconvenient. To overcome these problems, the present study is aimed to develop an ambient-temperature-stable and ready-to-use LAMP assay for the detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in low resource settings. A set of specific LAMP primers were designed and tested against 155 V. cholerae and non-V. cholerae strains. Analytical specifity showed that the developed LAMP assay detected 100% of pathogenic V. cholerae and did not amplified other tested bacterial strains. Upon testing against stool samples spiked with toxigenic V. cholerae outbreak isolates, the LAMP assay detected all of the spiked samples (n = 76/76, 100%), in contrast to the conventional PCR which amplified 77.6% (n = 59/76) of the tested specimens. In term of sensitivity, the LAMP assay was 100-fold more sensitive as compared to the conventional PCR method, with LOD of 10 fg per μL and 10 CFU per mL. Following lyophilisation with addition of lyoprotectants, the dry-reagent LAMP mix has an estimated shelf-life of 90.75 days at room temperature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  19. Wong YP, Othman S, Lau YL, Radu S, Chee HY
    J Appl Microbiol, 2018 Mar;124(3):626-643.
    PMID: 29165905 DOI: 10.1111/jam.13647
    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) amplifies DNA with high specificity, efficiency and rapidity under isothermal conditions by using a DNA polymerase with high displacement strand activity and a set of specifically designed primers to amplify targeted DNA strands. Following its first discovery by Notomi et al. ( Nucleic Acids Res 28: E63), LAMP was further developed over the years which involved the combination of this technique with other molecular approaches, such as reverse transcription and multiplex amplification for the detection of infectious diseases caused by micro-organisms in humans, livestock and plants. In this review, available types of LAMP techniques will be discussed together with their applications in detection of various micro-organisms. Up to date, there are varieties of LAMP detection methods available including colorimetric and fluorescent detection, real-time monitoring using turbidity metre and detection using lateral flow device which will also be highlighted in this review. Apart from that, commercialization of LAMP technique had also been reported such as lyophilized form of LAMP reagents kit and LAMP primer sets for detection of pathogenic micro-organisms. On top of that, advantages and limitations of this molecular detection method are also described together with its future potential as a diagnostic method for infectious disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  20. Lai MY, Ooi CH, Lau YL
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2018 03;98(3):700-703.
    PMID: 29260656 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0738
    The aim of this study was to develop a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip method for specific diagnosis of Plasmodium knowlesi. With incubation at 37°C, the 18S rRNA gene of P. knowlesi was successfully amplified within 12 minutes. By adding a specifically designed probe to the reaction solution, the amplified RPA product can be visualized on a LF strip. The RPA assay exhibited high sensitivity with limits of detection down to 10 parasites/μL of P. knowlesi. Nonetheless, it was demonstrated that all P. knowlesi (N = 41) and other Plasmodium sp. (N = 25) were positive while negative samples (N = 8) were negative. Therefore, a combination of RPA and LF strip detection is a highly promising approach with the potential to be suitable for use in resource-limited settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
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