Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 50 in total

  1. Abd Rahim MR, Kho SL, Kuppusamy UR, Tan JA
    Clin. Lab., 2015;61(9):1325-30.
    PMID: 26554253
    BACKGROUND: Beta-thalassemia is the most common genetic disorder in Malaysia. Confirmation of the β-globin gene mutations involved in thalassemia is usually carried out by molecular analysis of DNA extracted from leukocytes in whole blood. Molecular analysis is generally carried out when affected children are around 1 - 2 years as clinical symptoms are expressed during this period. Blood taking at this age can be distressing for the child. High yield and pure DNA extracted from non-invasive sampling methods can serve as alternative samples in molecular studies for genetic diseases especially in pediatric cases.

    METHODS: In this study, mouthwash, saliva, and buccal cytobrush samples were collected from β-thalassemia major patients who had previously been characterized using DNA extracted from peripheral blood. DNA was extracted from mouthwash, saliva, and buccal cytobrush samples using the conventional inexpensive phenol-chloroform method and was measured by spectrophotometry for yield and purity. Molecular characterization of β-globin gene mutations was carried out using the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS).

    RESULTS: DNA extracted from mouthwash, saliva, and buccal cytobrush samples produced high concentration and pure DNA. The purified DNA was successfully amplified using ARMS. Results of the β-globin gene mutations using DNA from the three non-invasive samples were in 100% concordance with results from DNA extracted from peripheral blood.

    CONCLUSIONS: The conventional in-house developed methods for non-invasive sample collection and DNA extraction from these samples are effective and negate the use of more expensive commercial kits. In conclusion, DNA extracted from mouthwash, saliva, and buccal cytobrush samples provided sufficiently high amounts of pure DNA suitable for molecular analysis of β-thalassemia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  2. Choi JR, Liu Z, Hu J, Tang R, Gong Y, Feng S, et al.
    Anal. Chem., 2016 06 21;88(12):6254-64.
    PMID: 27012657 DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b00195
    In nucleic acid testing (NAT), gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based lateral flow assays (LFAs) have received significant attention due to their cost-effectiveness, rapidity, and the ability to produce a simple colorimetric readout. However, the poor sensitivity of AuNP-based LFAs limits its widespread applications. Even though various efforts have been made to improve the assay sensitivity, most methods are inappropriate for integration into LFA for sample-to-answer NAT at the point-of-care (POC), usually due to the complicated fabrication processes or incompatible chemicals used. To address this, we propose a novel strategy of integrating a simple fluidic control strategy into LFA. The strategy involves incorporating a piece of paper-based shunt and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) barrier to the strip to achieve optimum fluidic delays for LFA signal enhancement, resulting in 10-fold signal enhancement over unmodified LFA. The phenomena of fluidic delay were also evaluated by mathematical simulation, through which we found the movement of fluid throughout the shunt and the tortuosity effects in the presence of PDMS barrier, which significantly affect the detection sensitivity. To demonstrate the potential of integrating this strategy into a LFA with sample-in-answer-out capability, we further applied this strategy into our prototype sample-to-answer LFA to sensitively detect the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in clinical blood samples. The proposed strategy offers great potential for highly sensitive detection of various targets for wide application in the near future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  3. Wang LY, Wang YS, Cheng H, Zhang JP, Yeok FS
    Ecotoxicology, 2015 Oct;24(7-8):1705-13.
    PMID: 26044931 DOI: 10.1007/s10646-015-1502-0
    Chitinases in terrestrial plants have been reported these are involved in heavy metal tolerance/detoxification. This is the first attempt to reveal chitinase gene (AcCHI I) and its function on metal detoxification in mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum. RT-PCR and RACE techniques were used to clone AcCHI I, while real-time quantitative PCR was employed to assess AcCHI I mRNA expressions in response to Cadmium (Cd). The deduced AcCHI I protein consists of 316 amino acids, including a signal peptide region, a chitin-binding domain (CBD) and a catalytic domain. Protein homology modeling was performed to identify potential features in AcCHI I. The CBD structure of AcCHI I might be critical for metal tolerance/homeostasis of the plant. Clear tissue-specific differences in AcCHI I expression were detected, with higher transcript levels detected in leaves. Results demonstrated that a short duration of Cd exposure (e.g., 3 days) promoted AcCHI I expression in roots. Upregulated expression was also detected in leaves under 10 mg/kg Cd concentration stress. The present study demonstrates that AcCHI I may play an important role in Cd tolerance/homeostasis in the plant. Further studies of the AcCHI I protein, gene overexpression, the promoter and upstream regulation will be necessary for clarifying the functions of AcCHI I.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  4. Tay BY, Ahmad N, Hashim R, Mohamed Zahidi J, Thong KL, Koh XP, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2015;15:220.
    PMID: 26033227 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-015-0958-0
    Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide. It can cause acute febrile illness in human and is a major health problem. Studies in human brucellosis in Malaysia is limited and so far no genotyping studies has been done on Brucella isolates. The aim of the study was to determine the genetic diversity among Brucella species isolated from human brucellosis, obtained over a 6-year period (2009-2014).
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  5. Chang YM, Swaran Y, Phoon YK, Sothirasan K, Sim HT, Lim KB, et al.
    Forensic Sci Int Genet, 2009 Jun;3(3):e77-80.
    PMID: 19414156 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2008.07.007
    17 Y-STRs (DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635 or Y-GATA C4, DYS392, Y-GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS448) have been analyzed in 320 male individuals from Sarawak, an eastern state of Malaysia on the Borneo island using the AmpFlSTR Y-filer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). These individuals were from three indigenous ethnic groups in Sarawak comprising of 103 Ibans, 113 Bidayuhs and 104 Melanaus. The observed 17-loci haplotypes and the individual allele frequencies for each locus were estimated, whilst the locus diversity, haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity were calculated in the three groups. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 87.6% of the haplotypic variation was found within population and 12.4% between populations (fixation index F(ST)=0.124, p=0.000). This study has revealed that the indigenous populations in Sarawak are distinctly different to each other, and to the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malays, Chinese and Indians), with the Melanaus having a strikingly high degree of shared haplotypes within. There are rare unusual variants and microvariants that were not present in Malaysian Malay, Chinese or Indian groups. In addition, occurrences of DYS385 duplications which were only noticeably present in Chinese group previously was also observed in the Iban group whilst null alleles were detected at several Y-loci (namely DYS19, DYS392, DYS389II and DYS448) in the Iban and Melanau groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  6. Wee YC, Tan KL, Tan PC, Yap SF, Tan JAMA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Oct;60(4):447-53.
    PMID: 16570706
    Haemoglobin Bart's hydrops foetalis syndrome (--SEA/--SEA) is not compatible with life and contributes to a majority of the hydropic foetuses in the Malaysian Chinese alpha-thalassaemia carriers who possess the 2-alpha-gene deletion in cis (--SEA/alphaalpha). A duplex-PCR which simultaneously amplifies a normal 136 bp sequence between the psialpha-alpha2-globin genes and a 730 bp Southeast Asian deletion-specific sequence (--SEA) between the psialpha2-theta1-globin genes was established. The duplex-PCR which detects the --SEA deletion in both chromosomes serves as a rapid and cost-effective confirmatory test in the antenatal diagnosis of Haemoglobin Bart's hydrops foetalis syndrome in Malaysia. In addition, the duplex-PCR is simple to perform as both the normal and deletion-specific alpha-globin gene sequences are amplified in the same PCR reaction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  7. Al-Marzooq F, Mohd Yusof MY, Tay ST
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:601630.
    PMID: 24860827 DOI: 10.1155/2014/601630
    Ninety-three Malaysian extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were investigated for ciprofloxacin resistance. Two mismatch amplification mutation (MAMA) assays were developed and used to facilitate rapid detection of gyrA and parC mutations. The isolates were also screened for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes including aac(6')-Ib-cr, qepA, and qnr. Ciprofloxacin resistance (MICs 4- ≥ 32  μ g/mL) was noted in 34 (37%) isolates, of which 33 isolates had multiple mutations either in gyrA alone (n = 1) or in both gyrA and parC regions (n = 32). aac(6')-Ib-cr was the most common PMQR gene detected in this study (n = 61), followed by qnrB and qnrS (n = 55 and 1, resp.). Low-level ciprofloxacin resistance (MICs 1-2  μ g/mL) was noted in 40 (43%) isolates carrying qnrB accompanied by either aac(6')-Ib-cr (n = 34) or a single gyrA 83 mutation (n = 6). Ciprofloxacin resistance was significantly associated with the presence of multiple mutations in gyrA and parC regions. While the isolates harbouring gyrA and/or parC alteration were distributed into 11 PFGE clusters, no specific clusters were associated with isolates carrying PMQR genes. The high prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance amongst the Malaysian ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates suggests the need for more effective infection control measures to limit the spread of these resistant organisms in the hospital.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
  8. Hafiza A, Noor HH, Noor FA, Azlin I, Ainoon O
    Malays J Pathol, 2010 Dec;32(2):137-41.
    PMID: 21329186 MyJurnal
    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited red cell disorder, characterized by the tendency of haemoglobin S or sickle haemoglobin to polymerize and assume a characteristic sickle shape. Molecular analysis has been the mainstay of detection method when confirmation is required. Previously a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction enzyme analysis was used for this purpose. A simple bidirectional allele-specific amplification, recently described by Waterfall in 2001 was used to detect the GAG --> GTG mutation on codon 6 of the beta globin gene. Two sets of primers for the mutant and the wild type alleles were used in a single PCR reaction to amplify the regions of interest. The resultant PCR products will produce two fragments at 517 and 267 base pair (bp) respectively. This report highlights the investigations for SCD in the family of a 16-year old girl with recurrent painful crisis affecting the lower limbs whereby the family members are asymptomatic for the disease. Her haemoglobin electrophoresis at an alkaline pH showed dense bands at the HbS and HbF regions, while her father and two sisters had bands at HbS, HbF and HbA. The PCR analysis showed that she was homozygous for the mutation by the presence of only one band at 267 bp fragment, while the father and her sisters were heterozygotes, with the presence of two bands at 267 as well as 517 bp fragments. DNA sequencing of the sample confirmed the mutation. In conclusion, this case report highlighted the simple and cheap yet practical method for molecular confirmation of the presence of HbS gene in subjects with homozygous or heterozygous state of the condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  9. Lau YL, Lai MY, Fong MY, Jelip J, Mahmud R
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2016 Feb;94(2):336-339.
    PMID: 26598573 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0569
    The lack of rapid, affordable, and accurate diagnostic tests represents the primary hurdle affecting malaria surveillance in resource- and expertise-limited areas. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a sensitive, rapid, and cheap diagnostic method. Five species-specific LAMP assays were developed based on 18S rRNA gene. Sensitivity and specificity of LAMP results were calculated as compared with microscopic examination and nested polymerase chain reaction. LAMP reactions were highly sensitive with the detection limit of one copy for Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, and Plasmodium malariae and 10 copies for Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium ovale. LAMP positively detected all human malaria species in all positive samples (N = 134; sensitivity = 100%) within 35 minutes. All negative samples were not amplified by LAMP (N = 67; specificity = 100%). LAMP successfully detected two samples with very low parasitemia. LAMP may offer a rapid, simple, and reliable test for the diagnosis of malaria in areas where malaria is prevalent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  10. Lim KT, Teh CS, Thong KL
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:895816.
    PMID: 23509796 DOI: 10.1155/2013/895816
    Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is an important human pathogen that produces a variety of toxins and causes a wide range of infections, including soft-tissue infections, bacteremia, and staphylococcal food poisoning. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the arcC gene of S. aureus was developed and evaluated with 119 S. aureus and 25 non-S. aureus strains. The usefulness of the assay was compared with the PCR method that targets spa and arcC genes. The optimal temperature for the LAMP assay was 58.5°C with a detection limit of 2.5 ng/μL and 10(2) CFU/mL when compared to 12.5 ng/μL and 10(3) CFU/mL for PCR (spa and arcC). Both LAMP and PCR assays were 100% specific, 100% sensitive, 100% positive predictive value (PPV), and 100% negative predictive value (NPV). When tested on 30 spiked blood specimens (21 MRSA, eight non-S. aureus and one negative control), the performance of LAMP and PCR was comparable: 100% specific, 100% sensitive, 100% PPV, and 100% NPV. In conclusion, the LAMP assay was equally specific with a shorter detection time when compared to PCR in the identification of S. aureus. The LAMP assay is a promising alternative method for the rapid identification of S. aureus and could be used in resource-limited laboratories and fields.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  11. Piera KA, Aziz A, William T, Bell D, González IJ, Barber BE, et al.
    Malar. J., 2017 01 13;16(1):29.
    PMID: 28086789 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-016-1676-9
    BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia. However, microscopic diagnosis is inaccurate and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are insufficiently sensitive. PCR is sensitive and specific but not feasible at a district level. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) shows potential with only basic requirements. A commercially available LAMP assay, the Eiken Loopamp™ MALARIA Pan Detection kit, is sensitive for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, but has not previously been evaluated for P. knowlesi. This study aims to determine the sensitivity of this LAMP assay for detecting P. knowlesi infection.

    METHODS: Study participants included 73 uncomplicated malaria patients with PCR species confirmation: 50 P. knowlesi, 20 P. falciparum and 3 P. vivax. Nineteen malaria-negative, non-endemic area controls were also included. The sensitivity of the Eiken Loopamp™ MALARIA Pan Detection kit (Pan LAMP) for detecting each Plasmodium species was evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity of the Eiken Loopamp™ MALARIA Pf Detection kit (Pf LAMP) for P. falciparum were also determined. The limit of detection for each LAMP assay was evaluated, with results compared to PCR. All P. knowlesi patients were also tested by CareStart™ (Pf/VOM) and OptiMAL-IT™ (Pan/Pf) RDTs.

    RESULTS: The sensitivity of the Pan LAMP assay was 100% for P. knowlesi (95% CI 92.9-100), P. falciparum (95% CI 83.2-100), and P. vivax (95% CI 29.2-100). The Pf LAMP was 100% sensitive and specific for P. falciparum detection, with all P. knowlesi samples having a negative reaction. LAMP sensitivity was superior to both RDTs, with only 10 and 28% of P. knowlesi samples testing positive to CareStart™ and OptiMAL-IT™, respectively. Limit of detection using the Pan LAMP for both P. knowlesi and P. vivax was 2 parasites/μL, comparable to PCR. For P. falciparum both the Pan LAMP and Pf LAMP demonstrated a limit of detection of 20 parasites/μL.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Eiken Loopamp™ MALARIA Pan Detection kit is sensitive for detection of P. knowlesi in low parasitaemia clinical infections, as well as P. falciparum and P. vivax. However, a P. knowlesi-specific field assay in a simpler format would assist correct species identification and initiation of optimal treatment for all malaria patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  12. Amir A, Cheong FW, De Silva JR, Lau YL
    Parasit Vectors, 2018 01 23;11(1):53.
    PMID: 29361963 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-018-2617-y
    Every year, millions of people are burdened with malaria. An estimated 429,000 casualties were reported in 2015, with the majority made up of children under five years old. Early and accurate diagnosis of malaria is of paramount importance to ensure appropriate administration of treatment. This minimizes the risk of parasite resistance development, reduces drug wastage and unnecessary adverse reaction to antimalarial drugs. Malaria diagnostic tools have expanded beyond the conventional microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood films. Contemporary and innovative techniques have emerged, mainly the rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and other molecular diagnostic methods such as PCR, qPCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Even microscopic diagnosis has gone through a paradigm shift with the development of new techniques such as the quantitative buffy coat (QBC) method and the Partec rapid malaria test. This review explores the different diagnostic tools available for childhood malaria, each with their characteristic strengths and limitations. These tools play an important role in making an accurate malaria diagnosis to ensure that the use of anti-malaria are rationalized and that presumptive diagnosis would only be a thing of the past.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
  13. Britton S, Cheng Q, Grigg MJ, Poole CB, Pasay C, William T, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2016 Feb;10(2):e0004443.
    PMID: 26870958 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004443
    INTRODUCTION: Plasmodium vivax malaria has a wide geographic distribution and poses challenges to malaria elimination that are likely to be greater than those of P. falciparum. Diagnostic tools for P. vivax infection in non-reference laboratory settings are limited to microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests but these are unreliable at low parasitemia. The development and validation of a high-throughput and sensitive assay for P. vivax is a priority.

    METHODS: A high-throughput LAMP assay targeting a P. vivax mitochondrial gene and deploying colorimetric detection in a 96-well plate format was developed and evaluated in the laboratory. Diagnostic accuracy was compared against microscopy, antigen detection tests and PCR and validated in samples from malaria patients and community controls in a district hospital setting in Sabah, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: The high throughput LAMP-P. vivax assay (HtLAMP-Pv) performed with an estimated limit of detection of 1.4 parasites/ μL. Assay primers demonstrated cross-reactivity with P. knowlesi but not with other Plasmodium spp. Field testing of HtLAMP-Pv was conducted using 149 samples from symptomatic malaria patients (64 P. vivax, 17 P. falciparum, 56 P. knowlesi, 7 P. malariae, 1 mixed P. knowlesi/P. vivax, with 4 excluded). When compared against multiplex PCR, HtLAMP-Pv demonstrated a sensitivity for P. vivax of 95% (95% CI 87-99%); 61/64), and specificity of 100% (95% CI 86-100%); 25/25) when P. knowlesi samples were excluded. HtLAMP-Pv testing of 112 samples from asymptomatic community controls, 7 of which had submicroscopic P. vivax infections by PCR, showed a sensitivity of 71% (95% CI 29-96%; 5/7) and specificity of 93% (95% CI87-97%; 98/105).

    CONCLUSION: This novel HtLAMP-P. vivax assay has the potential to be a useful field applicable molecular diagnostic test for P. vivax infection in elimination settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  14. Britton S, Cheng Q, Grigg MJ, William T, Anstey NM, McCarthy JS
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2016 07 06;95(1):120-2.
    PMID: 27162264 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0670
    The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is now the commonest cause of malaria in Malaysia and can rapidly cause severe and fatal malaria. However, microscopic misdiagnosis of Plasmodium species is common, rapid antigen detection tests remain insufficiently sensitive and confirmation of P. knowlesi requires polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thus available point-of-care diagnostic tests are inadequate. This study reports the development of a simple, sensitive, colorimetric, high-throughput loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (HtLAMP) diagnostic test using novel primers for the detection of P. knowlesi. This assay is able to detect 0.2 parasites/μL, and compared with PCR has a sensitivity of 96% for the detection of P. knowlesi, making it a potentially field-applicable point-of-care diagnostic tool.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  15. Kong BH, Hanifah YA, Yusof MY, Thong KL
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Dec;28(3):563-8.
    PMID: 22433885 MyJurnal
    Acinetobacter baumannii, genomic species 3 and 13TU are being increasingly reported as the most important Acinetobacter species that cause infections in hospitalized patients. These Acinetobacter species are grouped in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus- Acinetobacter baumannii (Acb) complex. Differentiation of the species in the Acb-complex is limited by phenotypic methods. Therefore, in this study, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) was applied to confirm the identity A. baumannii strains as well as to differentiate between the subspecies. One hundred and eighty-five strains from Intensive Care Unit, Universiti Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) were successfully identified as A. baumannii by ARDRA. Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU and 15TU were identified in 3 and 1 strains, respectively. ARDRA provides an accurate, rapid and definitive approach towards the identification of the species level in the genus Acinetobacter. This paper reports the first application ARDRA in genospecies identification of Acinetobacter in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  16. Lau YL, Fong MY, Mahmud R, Chang PY, Palaeya V, Cheong FW, et al.
    Malar. J., 2011;10:197.
    PMID: 21774805 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-197
    The emergence of Plasmodium knowlesi in humans, which is in many cases misdiagnosed by microscopy as Plasmodium malariae due to the morphological similarity has contributed to the needs of detection and differentiation of malaria parasites. At present, nested PCR targeted on Plasmodium ssrRNA genes has been described as the most sensitive and specific method for Plasmodium detection. However, this method is costly and requires trained personnel for its implementation. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), a novel nucleic acid amplification method was developed for the clinical detection of P. knowlesi. The sensitivity and specificity of LAMP was evaluated in comparison to the results obtained via microscopic examination and nested PCR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  17. Gaydos CA, Ngeow YF, Lee HH, Canavaggio M, Welsh LE, Johanson J, et al.
    Sex Transm Dis, 1996 9 1;23(5):402-6.
    PMID: 8885072
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Noninvasive urine screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infections offers a valuable public health tool, which could be of vast importance in chlamydial control programs. The authors evaluated a new DNA amplification method, ligase chain reaction (LCR).

    GOALS: The goal was to ascertain whether urine testing could be used as screening method to detect C. trachomatis infections in commercial sex workers, patients at sexually transmitted diseases clinic, and asymptomatic patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    METHODS: First-void urine specimens from 300 men and 300 women were tested by LCR, as well as by a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. The LCR assay amplifies specific sequences within the chlamydial plasmid with ligand-labeled probes, and the resultant amplicons are detected by an automated immunoassay. Specimens with discrepant results were confirmed by another LCR of the specimen that targeted the gene for the major outer membrane protein (OMP1).

    RESULTS: There were 31 LCR-positive male urine and 37 LCR-positive female urine specimens. The resolved sensitivity and specificity for the LCR of the male urine specimens were 100% and 99.6%, respectively, whereas for female urine specimens, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 98.5%, respectively. After resolution of discrepant test results by OMP1 LCR, the prevalence was 10% for men and 11% for women. The urine enzyme immunoassay was not useful in diagnosing C. trachomatis infections in either men or women, as the resolved sensitivities were 10% and 15.2%, respectively. The specificities were 99.6% for men and 98.9% for women.

    CONCLUSIONS: Testing first-void urine specimens by LCR is a highly sensitive and specific method to diagnose C. trachomatis infections in men and women, providing health care workers and public health officials with a new molecular amplification assay that uses noninvasive urine specimens for population-based screening purposes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques*
  18. Liew PS, Teh CS, Lau YL, Thong KL
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Dec;31(4):709-20.
    PMID: 25776596 MyJurnal
    Shigellosis is a foodborne illness caused by the genus Shigella and is an important global health issue. The development of effective techniques for rapid detection of this pathogen is essential for breaking the chain of transmission. Therefore, we have developed a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the invasion plasmid antigen H (ipaH) gene to rapidly detect Shigella species. This assay could be performed in 90 min at an optimal temperature of 64ºC, with endpoint results visualized directly. Notably, the method was found to be more sensitive than conventional PCR. Indeed, the detection limit for the LAMP assay on pure bacterial cultures was 5.9 x 10(5) CFU/ml, while PCR displayed a limit of 5.9 x 10(7) CFU/ml. In spiked lettuce samples, the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 3.6 x 10(4) CFU/g, whereas PCR was 3.6 x 10(5) CFU/g. Overall, the assay accurately identified 32 Shigella spp. with one enteroinvasive Escherichia coli displaying positive reaction while the remaining 32 non-Shigella strains tested were negative.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  19. Tan le V, Tuyen NT, Thanh TT, Ngan TT, Van HM, Sabanathan S, et al.
    J. Virol. Methods, 2015 Apr;215-216:30-6.
    PMID: 25704598 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2015.02.011
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has emerged as the most important cause of large outbreaks of severe and sometimes fatal hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) across the Asia-Pacific region. EV-A71 outbreaks have been associated with (sub)genogroup switches, sometimes accompanied by recombination events. Understanding EV-A71 population dynamics is therefore essential for understanding this emerging infection, and may provide pivotal information for vaccine development. Despite the public health burden of EV-A71, relatively few EV-A71 complete-genome sequences are available for analysis and from limited geographical localities. The availability of an efficient procedure for whole-genome sequencing would stimulate effort to generate more viral sequence data. Herein, we report for the first time the development of a next-generation sequencing based protocol for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 directly from clinical specimens. We were able to sequence viruses of subgenogroup C4 and B5, while RNA from culture materials of diverse EV-A71 subgenogroups belonging to both genogroup B and C was successfully amplified. The nature of intra-host genetic diversity was explored in 22 clinical samples, revealing 107 positions carrying minor variants (ranging from 0 to 15 variants per sample). Our analysis of EV-A71 strains sampled in 2013 showed that they all belonged to subgenogroup B5, representing the first report of this subgenogroup in Vietnam. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a high-throughput next-generation sequencing-based assay for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 from clinical samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
  20. Teh CS, Chua KH, Lim YA, Lee SC, Thong KL
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:457839.
    PMID: 24967435 DOI: 10.1155/2014/457839
    We have successfully developed a Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that could specifically detect generic Escherichia coli (E. coli). This assay was tested on 85 bacterial strains and successfully identified 54 E. coli strains (average threshold time, Tt = 21.26). The sensitivity of this assay was evaluated on serial dilutions of bacterial cultures and spiked faeces. The assay could detect 10(2) CFU/mL for bacterial culture with Tt = 33.30 while the detection limit for spiked faeces was 10(3) CFU/mL (Tt = 31.12). We have also detected 46 generic E. coli from 50 faecal samples obtained from indigenous individuals with 16% of the positive samples being verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) positive. VT1/VT2 allele was present in one faecal sample while the ratio of VT1 to VT2 was 6 : 1. Overall, our study had demonstrated high risk of VTEC infection among the indigenous community and most of the asymptomatic infection occurred among those aged below 15 years. The role of asymptomatic human carriers as a source of dissemination should not be underestimated. Large scale screening of the VTEC infection among indigenous populations and the potential contamination sources will be possible and easy with the aid of this newly developed rapid and simple LAMP assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods*
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