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  1. Liu J, Lončar I, Collée JM, Bolla MK, Dennis J, Michailidou K, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 11 15;6:36874.
    PMID: 27845421 DOI: 10.1038/srep36874
    NBS1, also known as NBN, plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability. Interestingly, rs2735383 G > C, located in a microRNA binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of NBS1, was shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to lung and colorectal cancer. However, the relation between rs2735383 and susceptibility to breast cancer is not yet clear. Therefore, we genotyped rs2735383 in 1,170 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 1,077 controls using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) analysis, but found no association between rs2735383CC and breast cancer risk (OR = 1.214, 95% CI = 0.936-1.574, P = 0.144). Because we could not exclude a small effect size due to a limited sample size, we further analyzed imputed rs2735383 genotypes (r2 > 0.999) of 47,640 breast cancer cases and 46,656 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). However, rs2735383CC was not associated with overall breast cancer risk in European (OR = 1.014, 95% CI = 0.969-1.060, P = 0.556) nor in Asian women (OR = 0.998, 95% CI = 0.905-1.100, P = 0.961). Subgroup analyses by age, age at menarche, age at menopause, menopausal status, number of pregnancies, breast feeding, family history and receptor status also did not reveal a significant association. This study therefore does not support the involvement of the genotype at NBS1 rs2735383 in breast cancer susceptibility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  2. Myrvang B
    Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen., 2010 Feb 11;130(3):282-3.
    PMID: 20160773 DOI: 10.4045/tidsskr.09.0554
    Since 2004, malaria with a "fifth" plasmodium, Plasmodium knowlesi (common in macaque monkeys), has been diagnosed in a number of people in Southeast Asia. This article gives a short overview of the epidemiology, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of P. knowlesi infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  3. Nga VT, Ngoc TU, Minh LB, Ngoc VTN, Pham VH, Nghia LL, et al.
    Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 2019 Jun;38(6):1047-1058.
    PMID: 30806904 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-019-03505-2
    In recent decades, exceeding 60% of infectious cases in human beings are originated from pathogenic agents related to feral or companion animals. This figure continues to swiftly increase due to excessive exposure between human and contaminated hosts by means of applying unhygienic farming practices throughout society. In Asia countries-renowned for lax regulation towards animal-trading markets-have experienced tremendous outbreaks of zoonotic diseases every year. Meanwhile, various epidemic surges were first reported in the residential area of China-one of the largest distributor of all animal products on the planet. Some noticeable illnesses comprising of A/H5N1 or H7N9-known as avian influenza which transmitted from poultry and also wild birds-have caused inevitable disquiet among inhabitants. Indeed, poultry farming industry in China has witnessed dynamic evolution for the past two decades, both in quantity and degree of output per individual. Together with this pervasive expansion, zoonotic diseases from poultry have incessantly emerged as a latent threat to the surrounding residents in entire Asia and also European countries. Without strict exporting legislation, Vietnam is now facing the serious problem in terms of poultry distribution between the two countries' border. Even though several disease investigations have been conducted by many researchers, the disease epidemiology or transmission methods among people remained blurred and need to be further elucidated. In this paper, our aim is to provide a laconic review of common zoonotic diseases spread in Vietnam, outstanding cases and several factors predisposing to this alarming situation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  4. Dinh TC, Bac ND, Minh LB, Ngoc VTN, Pham VH, Vo HL, et al.
    Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 2019 Sep;38(9):1585-1590.
    PMID: 31044332 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-019-03563-6
    Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia have reported first cases of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection since 2010 (Cambodia) and 2016 (Vietnam and Laos). One case of ZIKV-related microcephaly was recognized among a hundred infected cases in these areas, raising a great concern about the health risk related to this virus infection. At least 5 cases of ZIKV infection among travelers to Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia were recorded. It is noticeable that ZIKV in these areas can cause birth defects. This work aims to discuss the current epidemics of ZIKV in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia and update the infection risk of ZIKV for travelers to these areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  5. Maharajan MK, Ranjan A, Chu JF, Foo WL, Chai ZX, Lau EY, et al.
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol, 2016 Dec;51(3):383-394.
    PMID: 27236440
    The Zika virus outbreaks highlight the growing importance need for a reliable, specific and rapid diagnostic device to detect Zika virus, as it is often recognized as a mild disease without being identified. Many Zika virus infection cases have been misdiagnosed or underreported because of the non-specific clinical presentation. The aim of this review was to provide a critical and comprehensive overview of the published peer-reviewed evidence related to clinical presentations, various diagnostic methods and modes of transmission of Zika virus infection, as well as potential therapeutic targets to combat microcephaly. Zika virus is mainly transmitted through bites from Aedes aegypti mosquito. It can also be transmitted through blood, perinatally and sexually. Pregnant women are advised to postpone or avoid travelling to areas where active Zika virus transmission is reported, as this infection is directly linked to foetal microcephaly. Due to the high prevalence of Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly in the endemic area, it is vital to confirm the diagnosis of Zika virus. Zika virus infection had been declared as a public health emergency and of international concern by the World Health Organisation. Governments and agencies should play an important role in terms of investing time and resources to fundamentally understand this infection so that a vaccine can be developed besides raising awareness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  6. Chan KK, Dassanayake B, Deen R, Wickramarachchi RE, Kumarage SK, Samita S, et al.
    World J Surg Oncol, 2010;8:82.
    PMID: 20840793 DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-8-82
    This study compares clinico-pathological features in young (<40 years) and older patients (>50 years) with colorectal cancer, survival in the young and the influence of pre-operative clinical and histological factors on survival.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  7. Wahab S, Tan SM, Marimuthu S, Razali R, Muhamad NA
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:95-102.
    PMID: 23857844 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12051
    Research in the field of child sexual abuse is lacking in Malaysia. The aims of this study are to identify the association between sociodemographic factors and depression among sexually abused females.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  8. Zuhdi AS, Mariapun J, Mohd Hairi NN, Wan Ahmad WA, Abidin IZ, Undok AW, et al.
    Ann Saudi Med, 2014 1 15;33(6):572-8.
    PMID: 24413861 DOI: 10.5144/0256-4947.2013.572
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Understanding the nature and pattern of young coronary artery disease (CAD) is important due to the tremendous impact on these patients' socio-economic and physical aspect. Data on young CAD in the southeast Asian region is rather patchy and limited. Hence we utilized our National Cardiovascular Disease Database (NCVD)-Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) Registry to analyze young patients who underwent PCI in the year 2007 to 2009.

    DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This is a retrospective study of all patients who had undergone coronary angioplasty from 2007 to 2009 in 11 hospitals across Malaysia.

    METHODS: Data were obtained from the NCVD-PCI Registry, 2007 to 2009. Patients were categorized into 2 groups-young and old, where young was defined as less than 45 years for men and less than 55 years for women and old was defined as more than or equals to 45 years for men and more than or equals to 55 years for women. Patients' baseline characteristics, risk factor profile, extent of coronary disease and outcome on dis.charge, and 30-day and 1-year follow-up were compared between the 2 groups.

    RESULTS: We analyzed 10268 patients, and the prevalence of young CAD was 16% (1595 patients). There was a significantly low prevalence of Chinese patients compared to other major ethnic groups. Active smoking (30.2% vs 17.7%) and obesity (20.9% vs 17.3%) were the 2 risk factors more associated with young CAD. There is a preponderance toward single vessel disease in the young CAD group, and they had a favorable clinical outcome in terms of all-cause mortality at discharge (RR 0.49 [CI 0.26-0.94]) and 1-year follow-up (RR 0.47 [CI 0.19-1.15]).

    CONCLUSION: We observed distinctive features of young CAD that would serve as a framework in the primary and secondary prevention of the early onset CAD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  9. Ahmad Aizat AA, Siti Nurfatimah MS, Aminudin MM, Ankathil R
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2013 Jun 21;19(23):3623-8.
    PMID: 23801864 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i23.3623
    To investigate the risk association of xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) Lys939Gln polymorphism alone and in combination with cigarette smoking on colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  10. Norsa'adah B
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 Dec;59(5):692; author reply 693-5.
    PMID: 15889579
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  11. Maakip I, Keegel T, Oakman J
    J Occup Rehabil, 2015 Dec;25(4):696-706.
    PMID: 25808991 DOI: 10.1007/s10926-015-9577-2
    PURPOSE: Workstyle can be defined as an individual pattern of cognitions, behaviours and physiological reactivity that can occur while performing job tasks. Workstyle has been associated with the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) amongst office workers in developed countries. However, little is known about the contribution of workstyle on MSDs in developing countries such as Malaysia. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between workstyle and musculoskeletal discomfort in a sample of office workers in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Office workers (N = 417; response rate 65.5 %) from four organisations completed a survey measuring physical and psychosocial hazards, job satisfaction, work-life balance, workstyle, and MSD discomfort levels. Hierarchical regression analyses were undertaken to examine predictors associated with self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort, and more specifically the relationship between workstyle and MSD discomfort.

    RESULTS: Musculoskeletal discomfort was significantly associated with working through pain, mental health, physical demands, gender and work-life balance (R (2) = 50.2, adjusted R (2) = 0.48; F (13, 324) = 25.09, p = 0.001). Working through pain is the strongest risk factor associated with MSD discomfort (ß = 0.49, p = 0.001) compared to other potential risk factors.

    CONCLUSIONS: Working through pain is influenced by work, social culture and religious beliefs. Workplace MSDs interventions that focus on the impact of physical and psychosocial hazards with emphasis on addressing adverse workstyles should take into account aspects related to work and social culture of the target population. Changes are recommended at both employee and management levels such as better communications and understanding concerning workplace problems with regards to minimizing MSDs at work.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  12. Roseni Abdul Aziz, Mat Rebi Abdul Rani, Jafri Mohd Rohani, Ademola James Adeyemi
    MyJurnal
    Studies have identified working postures as a major risk factors associated with Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) in industries. This study investigated the prevalence of WMSD among assembly workers in Malaysia and how psychosocial factors such as personal values and workers relationship with family and superior are associated with discomfort and pain. A survey was conducted among 127 workers at assembly process in the manufacturing industry. The workers were aged 28.74±6.74 years and 64.6% of them were males. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the effect of workplace factors on WMSD at different body regions. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to investigate association between psychosocial factors and occurrence of discomfort and pain. Only occupation and job activities revealed any significant different with WMSD in the major body regions while there was no significant difference in gender, age and work duration classifications. Shoulder painis the most prevalent in terms of frequency and intensity of occurrence. Psychosocial issues that have to do with person values, effect of job on family relationship and workers rapport with superiors are all found to be associated with the discomfort and pain among the occupational group. Employers and concerned government agencies need to take more proactive steps in tackling the problem as the occurrence of WMSD will have a significant effect on the overall wellbeing of the working population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  13. Nordin NA, Leonard JH, Thye NC
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2011;66(3):373-8.
    PMID: 21552658
    OBJECTIVES: A cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the prevalence of work-related injuries among physiotherapists in Malaysia and to explore the influence of factors such as gender, body mass index, years of work experience and clinical placement areas on the occurrence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires adapted from the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire were sent to 105 physiotherapists at three main public hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The questionnaire had 12 items that covered demographic information, areas of musculoskeletal problems and physiotherapy techniques that could contribute to work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The data obtained were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science version 14 software.

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of work-related injuries during the past 12 months was 71.6%. Female therapists reported a significantly higher prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders than the male therapists (73.0%, p,0.001). Significant differences were observed between the proportion of therapists who had work-related musculoskeletal disorders and those who did not for the group with a body mass index (BMI) .25 (x² = 9.0, p = 0.003) and the group with a BMI of 18-25 (x² = 7.8, p = 0.006). Manual therapy (58.6%) and lifting/transfer tasks (41.3%) were the two physiotherapy techniques that most often contributed to work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    CONCLUSION: Work-related injuries are significantly higher among the physiotherapists in Malaysia compared with many other countries. Female therapists reported a higher incidence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in this study, and work-related musculoskeletal disorders were more common among therapists working in the pediatric specialty. This study contributes to the understanding of work-related disorders among physiotherapists from a southeast Asian perspective where the profession is in its development stage.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  14. Abu Bakar F, Shaharir SS, Mohd R, Kamaruzaman L, Mohamed Said MS
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2019 Jun;22(6):1002-1007.
    PMID: 30968556 DOI: 10.1111/1756-185X.13572
    AIM: To determine the prevalence of work disability (WD) among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its associated factors.

    METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study involving SLE patients aged 18-56 years from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). Employment history was obtained from clinical interviews. WD was defined as unemployment, interruption of employment or premature cessation of employment due to SLE at any time after the diagnosis. SLE disease characteristics, presence of organ damage and Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment-SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) flare index were determined from the medical records. Self-reported quality of life (QoL) was performed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36). Demographic factors, disease characteristics, and QoL were compared between patients with and without WD using statistical analyses.

    RESULTS: A total of 215 patients were recruited and the majority were Malay (60.5%), followed by Chinese (33.5%), Indian (4.5%) and others (n = 4, 1.9%). The prevalence of WD was 43.2% (n = 93) with 22.3% (n = 48) patients were unemployed at the time of study. Over half the patients with WD (n = 51, 54.8%) had onset of disability at <5 years from diagnosis. Patients with WD had significantly lower health-related QoL. The independent factors associated with WD were SLEDAI score at diagnosis, frequency of flare, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics score, being married, had lower education and lupus nephritis.

    CONCLUSION: We found a high rate of WD in patients with SLE and it was significantly associated with SLE-related factors, in particular higher disease activity, presence of renal involvement and organ damage.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  15. Mohd Ridzuan J, Aziah BD, Zahiruddin WM
    Int J Occup Environ Med, 2016 07;7(3):156-63.
    PMID: 27393322 DOI: 10.15171/ijoem.2016.699
    BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that is recognized as a re-emerging global public health issue, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. Malaysia, for example, has increasingly registered leptospirosis cases, outbreaks, and fatalities over the past decade. One of the major industries in the country is the palm oil sector, which employs numerous agricultural workers. These laborers are at a particularly high risk of contracting the disease.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the work environment-related risk factors for leptospirosis infection among oil palm plantation workers in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 350 workers was conducted. The participants were interviewed and administered a microscopic agglutination test. Seropositivity was determined using a cut-off titer of ≥1:100.

    RESULTS: 100 of 350 workers tested positive for leptospiral antibodies, hence, a seroprevalence of 28.6% (95% CI 23.8% to 33.3%). The workplace environment-related risk factors significantly associated with seropositive leptospirosis were the presence of cows in plantations (adjusted OR 4.78, 95% CI 2.76 to 8.26) and the presence of a landfill in plantations (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.40).

    CONCLUSION: Preventing leptospirosis incidence among oil palm plantation workers necessitates changes in policy on work environments. Identifying modifiable factors may also contribute to the reduction of the infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  16. Rajadurai J, Lopez EA, Rahajoe AU, Goh PP, Uboldejpracharak Y, Zambahari R
    Nat Rev Cardiol, 2012 Aug;9(8):464-77.
    PMID: 22525668 DOI: 10.1038/nrcardio.2012.59
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an under-recognized major health problem among women in South-East Asia. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, physical inactivity, and being overweight or obese has shown a significantly increasing trend among women in the region, with the exception of Singapore. The problem is compounded by low awareness that CVD is a health problem for women as well as for men, by misconceptions about the disease, and by the lack of suitable, locally available health literature. Efforts have been made by the national heart associations and other organizations to increase heart health awareness and promote healthy lifestyles. Singapore initiated these prevention programs in the early 1990s and has been successful in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The governments of the region, in accordance with the Noncommunicable Disease Alliance, have begun implementing appropriate preventive strategies and improving health-delivery systems. However, psychological, social, and cultural barriers to cardiovascular health awareness in women need to be addressed before these programs can be fully and successfully implemented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  17. Jan Mohamed HJ, Mitra AK, Zainuddin LR, Leng SK, Wan Muda WM
    Women Health, 2013;53(4):335-48.
    PMID: 23751089 DOI: 10.1080/03630242.2013.788120
    Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to determine gender differences in the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in a rural Malay population. This cross-sectional study, conducted in Bachok, Kelantan, involved 306 respondents aged 18 to 70 years. The survey used a structured questionnaire to collect information on demographics, lifestyle, and medical history. Anthropometric measurements, such as weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were measured. Venous blood samples were taken by a doctor or nurses and analyzed for lipid profile and fasting glucose. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.5% and was higher among females (42.9%). Being unemployed or a housewife and being of older age were independently associated with metabolic syndrome in a multivariate analysis. Weight management and preventive community-based programs involving housewives, the unemployed, and adults of poor education must be reinforced to prevent and manage metabolic syndrome effectively in adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  18. Jackson N, Menon BS, Zarina W, Zawawi N, Naing NN
    Ann. Hematol., 1999 May;78(5):233-6.
    PMID: 10391104
    Acute leukemia is more common in males at almost every age, and this fact remains unexplained. A study was carried out in northeast peninsular Malaysia, where the population is predominantly Malay, to examine whether there was a difference in ABO blood group distribution between males and females with acute leukemia (AL). The ABO blood groups of 109 male and 79 female patients with AL (98 ALL, 90 AML) were compared with those of 1019 controls. In the control population, 39.7% were group O. Among males with AL, 39.4% were group O, whereas among females with AL, the proportion was 24.1% (p=0.03). The same trend to a lower proportion of group O among females was seen if the group was divided into adult/pediatric or lymphoblastic/myeloblastic groups, though these differences were not statistically significant. If these findings can be confirmed, they suggest the presence of a "sex-responsive" gene near to the ABO gene locus on chromosome 9, which relatively protects group O women against AL, at least in our population. The existence of such a gene might also partly explain why acute leukemia, and possibly other childhood cancers, are more common in males.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  19. Wan Ismail WS, Nik Jaafar NR, Sidi H, Midin M, Shah SA
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S114-20.
    PMID: 23763872 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.05.002
    INTRODUCTION: To determine sociodemographic and psychological factors associated with bullying behavior among young adolescents in Malaysia.
    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of four hundred ten 12-year-old adolescents from seven randomly sampled schools in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sociodemographic features of the adolescents and their parents, bullying behavior (Malaysian Bullying Questionnaire), ADHD symptoms (Conners Rating Scales), and internalizing and externalizing behavior (Child Behaviour Checklist) were obtained from adolescents, parents and teachers, respectively.
    RESULTS: Only male gender (OR=7.071, p=0.01*, CI=1.642-30.446) was a significant sociodemographic factor among bullies. Predominantly hyperactive (OR=2.285, p=0.00*, CI=1.507-3.467) and inattentive ADHD symptoms reported by teachers (OR=1.829, p=0.03*, CI=1.060-3.154) and parents (OR=1.709, p=0.03*, CI=1.046-2.793) were significant risk factors for bullying behavior while combined symptoms reported by young adolescents (OR=0.729, p=0.01*, CI=0.580-0.915) and teachers (OR=0.643, p=0.02*, CI=0.440-0.938) were protective against bullying behavior despite the influence of conduct behavior (OR=3.160, p=0.00*, CI=1.600-6.241). Internalizing behavior, that is, withdrawn (OR=0.653, p=0.04*, CI=0.436-0.977) and somatic complaints (OR=0.619, p=0.01*, CI=0.430-0.889) significantly protect against bullying behavior.
    DISCUSSIONS: Recognizing factors associated with bullying behavior, in particular factors distinctive to the local population, facilitates in strategizing effective interventions for school bullying among young adolescents in Malaysian schools.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
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