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  1. Tahir AA, Mohd Barnoh NF, Yusof N, Mohd Said NN, Utsumi M, Yen AM, et al.
    Microbes Environ., 2019 Jun 27;34(2):161-168.
    PMID: 31019143 DOI: 10.1264/jsme2.ME18117
    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) are the most abundant, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly lignocellulosic biomass in Malaysia. Investigations on the microbial diversity of decaying OPEFB may reveal microbes with complex enzymes that have the potential to enhance the conversion of lignocellulose into second-generation biofuels as well as the production of other value-added products. In the present study, fungal and bacterial diversities in decaying OPEFB were identified using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene and V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene. Fungal diversity in decaying OPEFB was dominated by the phylum Ascomycota (14.43%), while most of the bacterial sequences retrieved belonged to Proteobacteria (76.71%). Three bacterial strains isolated from decaying OPEFB, designated as S18, S20, and S36, appeared to grow with extracted OPEFB-lignin and Kraft lignin (KL) as the sole carbon source. 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified the 3 isolates as Paenibacillus sp.. The molecular weight distribution of KL before and after degradation showed significant depolymerization when treated with bacterial strains S18, S20, and S36. The presence of low-molecular-weight lignin-related compounds, such as vanillin and 2-methoxyphenol derivatives, which were detected by a GC-MS analysis, confirmed the KL-degrading activities of isolated Paenibacillus strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate
  2. Khor HG, Cho I, Lee KRCK, Chieng LL
    Eye Contact Lens, 2019 May 17.
    PMID: 31145209 DOI: 10.1097/ICL.0000000000000621
    PURPOSE: To report the predisposing factors, microorganisms, antibiotic sensitivity associated with bacterial keratitis, and treatment outcomes in Miri, Borneo which has a tropical climate.

    METHODS: This is a retrospective study on patients presenting with microbial keratitis in Miri, Sarawak, Borneo over a 7-year period from January 1, 2010 until December 31, 2016. Demographic data, predisposing factors, culture and sensitivity results together with treatment outcomes were studied.

    RESULTS: There were a total of 221 cases treated as microbial keratitis with a peak age group of 21 to 30 years. The predisposing factors were trauma (49.3%), improper contact lens usage (29.1%), ocular surface diseases (5.9%), ocular surgeries (0.9%), drugs (1.8%), and other factors (19.0%). Occupational injuries among oil palm plantation workers was the leading cause within the trauma cohort (28.8%). Corneal scraping was performed in 189 cases, 61.4% of them yielded positive cultures. The cultures demonstrated that 49.1% were of bacterial origin, 46.6% were fungal, and 4.3% showed mixed growth. The most common bacteria isolated was Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which was sensitive toward ceftazidime and gentamicin antibiotics. One hundred ninety-two cases (86.9%) were treated with purely topical medication, whereas 29 cases (13.1%) required further interventions.

    CONCLUSION: The commonest predisposing factor for microbial keratitis was trauma. With the nearby oil palm industries, we report a corresponding increase of incidence in fungal keratitis at our center. Culture and sensitivity reports from corneal scrapings are essential in treatment guidance; however, more than a third of the microbial keratitis cases studied were culture-negative. The organisms cultured reflect the profile expected in tropical climates. Fortunately, there was no increase in resistance rates observed for the commonly used antibiotics.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate
  3. Goh HW, Lem KS, Azizan NA, Chang CK, Talei A, Leow CS, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 May;26(15):14904-14919.
    PMID: 30977005 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05041-0
    Bioretention systems have been implemented as stormwater best management practices (BMPs) worldwide to treat non-point sources pollution. Due to insufficient research, the design guidelines for bioretention systems in tropical countries are modeled after those of temperate countries. However, climatic factors and stormwater runoff characteristics are the two key factors affecting the capacity of bioretention system. This paper reviews and compares the stormwater runoff characteristics, bioretention components, pollutant removal requirements, and applications of bioretention systems in temperate and tropical countries. Suggestions are given for bioretention components in the tropics, including elimination of mulch layer and submerged zone. More research is required to identify suitable additives for filter media, study tropical shrubs application while avoiding using grass and sedges, explore function of soil faunas, and adopt final discharged pollutants concentration (mg/L) on top of percentage removal (%) in bioretention design guidelines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate
  4. Dhandapani S, Ritz K, Evers S, Yule CM, Sjögersten S
    Sci. Total Environ., 2019 Mar 10;655:220-231.
    PMID: 30471590 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.046
    Tropical peatlands are globally important ecosystems with high C storage and are endangered by anthropogenic disturbances. Microbes in peatlands play an important role in sustaining the functions of peatlands as a C sink, yet their characteristics in these habitats are poorly understood. This research aimed to elucidate the responses of these complex ecosystems to disturbance by exploring greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, nutrient contents, soil microbial communities and the functional interactions between these components in a primary and secondary peat swamp forest in Peninsular Malaysia. GHG measurements using closed chambers, and peat sampling were carried out in both wet and dry seasons. Microbial community phenotypes and nutrient content were determined using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses respectively. CO2 emissions in the secondary peat swamp forest were > 50% higher than in the primary forest. CH4 emission rates were ca. 2 mg m-2 h-1 in the primary forest but the secondary forest was a CH4 sink, showing no seasonal variations in GHG emissions. Almost all the nutrient concentrations were significantly lower in the secondary forest, postulated to be due to nutrient leaching via drainage and higher rates of decomposition. Cu and Mo concentrations were negatively correlated with CO2 and CH4 emissions respectively. Microbial community structure was overwhelmingly dominated by bacteria in both forest types, however it was highly sensitive to land-use change and season. Gram-positive and Gram-negative relative abundance were positively correlated with CO2 and CH4 emissions respectively. Drainage related disturbances increased CO2 emissions, by reducing the nutrient content including some with known antimicrobial properties (Cu & Na) and by favouring Gram-positive bacteria over Gram-negative bacteria. These results suggest that the biogeochemistry of secondary peat swamp forest is fundamentally different from that of primary peat swamp forest, and these differences have significant functional impacts on their respective environments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate
  5. Ghaffarianhoseini A, Berardi U, Ghaffarianhoseini A, Al-Obaidi K
    Sci. Total Environ., 2019 Jan 26.
    PMID: 30857724 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.284
    The rapid urban expansion in East-Asian cities has increased the need for comfortable public spaces. This study presents field measurements and parametric simulations to evaluate the microclimatic characteristics in a university campus in the tropical climate of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The study attempts to identify the thermally uncomfortable areas and their physical and design characteristics while debating on the circumstances of enhancing the outdoor comfort conditions for the campus users. Simulations in Envi-met and IES-VE are used to investigate the current outdoor thermal conditions, using classic thermal metric indices. Findings show high levels of thermal discomfort in most of the studied spaces. As a result, suggestions to improve the design quality of outdoor areas optimizing their thermal comfort conditions are proposed. The study concludes that effective re-design of outdoor spaces in the tropics, through adequate attention to the significant impacts of shading and vegetation, can result in achieving outdoor spaces with high frequency of use and improved comfort level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate
  6. Hara H, Yusaimi YA, Zulkeflle SNM, Sugiura N, Iwamoto K, Goto M, et al.
    J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 2019 Jan 24;64(6):284-292.
    PMID: 29877296 DOI: 10.2323/jgam.2018.02.003
    The emergence of antibiotic resistance among multidrug-resistant (MDR) microbes is of growing concern, and threatens public health globally. A total of 129 Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from lowland aqueous environments near hospitals and medical service centers in the vicinity of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Among the eleven antibacterial agents tested, the isolates were highly resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (83.7%) and nalidixic acid (71.3%) and moderately resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol (66.7%), tetracycline (65.1%), fosfomycin (57.4%), cefotaxime (57.4%), and ciprofloxacin (57.4%), while low resistance levels were found with aminoglycosides (kanamycin, 22.5%; gentamicin, 21.7%). The presence of relevant resistance determinants was evaluated, and the genotypic resistance determinants were as follows: sulfonamides (sulI, sulII, and sulIII), trimethoprim (dfrA1 and dfrA5), quinolones (qnrS), β-lactams (ampC and blaCTX-M), chloramphenicol (cmlA1 and cat2), tetracycline (tetA and tetM), fosfomycin (fosA and fosA3), and aminoglycosides (aphA1 and aacC2). Our data suggest that multidrug-resistant E. coli strains are ubiquitous in the aquatic systems of tropical countries and indicate that hospital wastewater may contribute to this phenomenon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate
  7. Ashton LA, Griffiths HM, Parr CL, Evans TA, Didham RK, Hasan F, et al.
    Science, 2019 01 11;363(6423):174-177.
    PMID: 30630931 DOI: 10.1126/science.aau9565
    Termites perform key ecological functions in tropical ecosystems, are strongly affected by variation in rainfall, and respond negatively to habitat disturbance. However, it is not known how the projected increase in frequency and severity of droughts in tropical rainforests will alter termite communities and the maintenance of ecosystem processes. Using a large-scale termite suppression experiment, we found that termite activity and abundance increased during drought in a Bornean forest. This increase resulted in accelerated litter decomposition, elevated soil moisture, greater soil nutrient heterogeneity, and higher seedling survival rates during the extreme El Niño drought of 2015-2016. Our work shows how an invertebrate group enhances ecosystem resistance to drought, providing evidence that the dual stressors of climate change and anthropogenic shifts in biotic communities will have various negative consequences for the maintenance of rainforest ecosystems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate
  8. Ramli SR, Moreira GMSG, Zantow J, Goris MGA, Nguyen VK, Novoselova N, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2019 01;13(1):e0007131.
    PMID: 30677033 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007131
    BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is the most common zoonotic disease worldwide. The diagnostic performance of a serological test for human leptospirosis is mainly influenced by the antigen used in the test assay. An ideal serological test should cover all serovars of pathogenic leptospires with high sensitivity and specificity and use reagents that are relatively inexpensive to produce and can be used in tropical climates. Peptide-based tests fulfil at least the latter two requirements, and ORFeome phage display has been successfully used to identify immunogenic peptides from other pathogens.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two ORFeome phage display libraries of the entire Leptospira spp. genomes from five local strains isolated in Malaysia and seven WHO reference strains were constructed. Subsequently, 18 unique Leptospira peptides were identified in a screen using a pool of sera from patients with acute leptospirosis. Five of these were validated by titration ELISA using different pools of patient or control sera. The diagnostic performance of these five peptides was then assessed against 16 individual sera from patients with acute leptospirosis and 16 healthy donors and was compared to that of two recombinant reference proteins from L. interrogans. This analysis revealed two peptides (SIR16-D1 and SIR16-H1) from the local isolates with good accuracy for the detection of acute leptospirosis (area under the ROC curve: 0.86 and 0.78, respectively; sensitivity: 0.88 and 0.94; specificity: 0.81 and 0.69), which was close to that of the reference proteins LipL32 and Loa22 (area under the ROC curve: 0.91 and 0.80; sensitivity: 0.94 and 0.81; specificity: 0.75 and 0.75).

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This analysis lends further support for using ORFeome phage display to identify pathogen-associated immunogenic peptides, and it suggests that this technique holds promise for the development of peptide-based diagnostics for leptospirosis and, possibly, of vaccines against this pathogen.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate
  9. Le DQ, Satyanarayana B, Fui SY, Shirai K
    Biol Trace Elem Res, 2018 Dec;186(2):538-545.
    PMID: 29577182 DOI: 10.1007/s12011-018-1313-2
    The present study, aimed at observing the total concentration of mercury (Hg) in edible finfish species with an implication to human health risk, was carried out from the Setiu mangrove wetlands on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Out of 20 species observed, the highest Hg concentrations were found among carnivores-fish/invertebrate-feeders, followed by omnivores and carnivores-invertebrate-feeders, while the lowest concentrations in herbivores. The Hg concentrations varied widely with fish species and body size, from 0.12 to 2.10 mg/kg dry weight. A positive relationship between body weight and Hg concentration was observed in particular for Toxotes jaculatrix and Tetraodon nigroviridis. Besides the permissible range of Hg concentration up to 0.3 mg/kg (cf. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)) in majority of species, the carnivore feeders such as Acanthopagrus pacificus, Gerres filamentosus, and Caranx ignobilis have shown excess amounts (> 0.40 mg/kg flesh weight) that raising concerns over the consumption by local people. However, the weekly intake of mercury-estimated through the fish consumption in all three trophic levels-suggests that the present Hg concentrations are still within the range of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) reported by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Perhaps, a multi-species design for Hg monitoring at Setiu wetlands would be able to provide further insights into the level of toxicity transfer among other aquatic organisms and thereby a strong health risk assessment for the local communities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate
  10. Hayakawa T, Nathan SKSS, Stark DJ, Saldivar DAR, Sipangkui R, Goossens B, et al.
    Environ Microbiol Rep, 2018 12;10(6):655-662.
    PMID: 29992728 DOI: 10.1111/1758-2229.12677
    Foregut fermentation is well known to occur in a wide range of mammalian species and in a single bird species. Yet, the foregut microbial community of free-ranging, foregut-fermenting monkeys, that is, colobines, has not been investigated so far. We analysed the foregut microbiomes in four free-ranging proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) from two different tropical habitats with varying plant diversity (mangrove and riverine forests), in an individual from a semi-free-ranging setting with supplemental feeding, and in an individual from captivity, using high-throughput sequencing based on 16S ribosomal RNA genes. We found a decrease in foregut microbial diversity from a diverse natural habitat (riverine forest) to a low diverse natural habitat (mangrove forest), to human-related environments. Of a total of 2700 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in all environments, only 153 OTUs were shared across all individuals, suggesting that they were not influenced by diet or habitat. These OTUs were dominated by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The relative abundance of the habitat-specific microbial communities showed a wide range of differences among living environments, although such bacterial communities appeared to be dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, suggesting that those phyla are key to understanding the adaptive strategy in proboscis monkeys living in different habitats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate
  11. Johnson DJ, Needham J, Xu C, Massoud EC, Davies SJ, Anderson-Teixeira KJ, et al.
    Nat Ecol Evol, 2018 09;2(9):1436-1442.
    PMID: 30104751 DOI: 10.1038/s41559-018-0626-z
    Survival rates of large trees determine forest biomass dynamics. Survival rates of small trees have been linked to mechanisms that maintain biodiversity across tropical forests. How species survival rates change with size offers insight into the links between biodiversity and ecosystem function across tropical forests. We tested patterns of size-dependent tree survival across the tropics using data from 1,781 species and over 2 million individuals to assess whether tropical forests can be characterized by size-dependent life-history survival strategies. We found that species were classifiable into four 'survival modes' that explain life-history variation that shapes carbon cycling and the relative abundance within forests. Frequently collected functional traits, such as wood density, leaf mass per area and seed mass, were not generally predictive of the survival modes of species. Mean annual temperature and cumulative water deficit predicted the proportion of biomass of survival modes, indicating important links between evolutionary strategies, climate and carbon cycling. The application of survival modes in demographic simulations predicted biomass change across forest sites. Our results reveal globally identifiable size-dependent survival strategies that differ across diverse systems in a consistent way. The abundance of survival modes and interaction with climate ultimately determine forest structure, carbon storage in biomass and future forest trajectories.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  12. Sabri NSA, Zakaria Z, Mohamad SE, Jaafar AB, Hara H
    Microbes Environ., 2018 Jul 04;33(2):144-150.
    PMID: 29709895 DOI: 10.1264/jsme2.ME17181
    A soil cooling system that prepares soil for temperate soil temperatures for the growth of temperate crops under a tropical climate is described herein. Temperate agriculture has been threatened by the negative impact of temperature increases caused by climate change. Soil temperature closely correlates with the growth of temperate crops, and affects plant processes and soil microbial diversity. The present study focuses on the effects of soil temperatures on lettuce growth and soil microbial diversity that maintains the growth of lettuce at low soil temperatures. A model temperate crop, loose leaf lettuce, was grown on eutrophic soil under soil cooling and a number of parameters, such as fresh weight, height, the number of leaves, and root length, were evaluated upon harvest. Under soil cooling, significant differences were observed in the average fresh weight (P<0.05) and positive development of the roots, shoots, and leaves of lettuce. Janthinobacterium (8.142%), Rhodoplanes (1.991%), Arthrospira (1.138%), Flavobacterium (0.857%), Sphingomonas (0.790%), Mycoplana (0.726%), and Pseudomonas (0.688%) were the dominant bacterial genera present in cooled soil. Key soil fungal communities, including Pseudaleuria (18.307%), Phoma (9.968%), Eocronartium (3.527%), Trichosporon (1.791%), and Pyrenochaeta (0.171%), were also recovered from cooled soil. The present results demonstrate that the growth of temperate crops is dependent on soil temperature, which subsequently affects the abundance and diversity of soil microbial communities that maintain the growth of temperate crops at low soil temperatures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  13. Riutta T, Malhi Y, Kho LK, Marthews TR, Huaraca Huasco W, Khoo M, et al.
    Glob Chang Biol, 2018 07;24(7):2913-2928.
    PMID: 29364562 DOI: 10.1111/gcb.14068
    Tropical forests play a major role in the carbon cycle of the terrestrial biosphere. Recent field studies have provided detailed descriptions of the carbon cycle of mature tropical forests, but logged or secondary forests have received much less attention. Here, we report the first measures of total net primary productivity (NPP) and its allocation along a disturbance gradient from old-growth forests to moderately and heavily logged forests in Malaysian Borneo. We measured the main NPP components (woody, fine root and canopy NPP) in old-growth (n = 6) and logged (n = 5) 1 ha forest plots. Overall, the total NPP did not differ between old-growth and logged forest (13.5 ± 0.5 and 15.7 ± 1.5 Mg C ha-1  year-1 respectively). However, logged forests allocated significantly higher fraction into woody NPP at the expense of the canopy NPP (42% and 48% into woody and canopy NPP, respectively, in old-growth forest vs 66% and 23% in logged forest). When controlling for local stand structure, NPP in logged forest stands was 41% higher, and woody NPP was 150% higher than in old-growth stands with similar basal area, but this was offset by structure effects (higher gap frequency and absence of large trees in logged forest). This pattern was not driven by species turnover: the average woody NPP of all species groups within logged forest (pioneers, nonpioneers, species unique to logged plots and species shared with old-growth plots) was similar. Hence, below a threshold of very heavy disturbance, logged forests can exhibit higher NPP and higher allocation to wood; such shifts in carbon cycling persist for decades after the logging event. Given that the majority of tropical forest biome has experienced some degree of logging, our results demonstrate that logging can cause substantial shifts in carbon production and allocation in tropical forests.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  14. Jucker T, Bongalov B, Burslem DFRP, Nilus R, Dalponte M, Lewis SL, et al.
    Ecol. Lett., 2018 07;21(7):989-1000.
    PMID: 29659115 DOI: 10.1111/ele.12964
    Topography is a key driver of tropical forest structure and composition, as it constrains local nutrient and hydraulic conditions within which trees grow. Yet, we do not fully understand how changes in forest physiognomy driven by topography impact other emergent properties of forests, such as their aboveground carbon density (ACD). Working in Borneo - at a site where 70-m-tall forests in alluvial valleys rapidly transition to stunted heath forests on nutrient-depleted dip slopes - we combined field data with airborne laser scanning and hyperspectral imaging to characterise how topography shapes the vertical structure, wood density, diversity and ACD of nearly 15 km2 of old-growth forest. We found that subtle differences in elevation - which control soil chemistry and hydrology - profoundly influenced the structure, composition and diversity of the canopy. Capturing these processes was critical to explaining landscape-scale heterogeneity in ACD, highlighting how emerging remote sensing technologies can provide new insights into long-standing ecological questions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  15. Omar TFT, Aris AZ, Yusoff FM, Mustafa S
    Mar. Pollut. Bull., 2018 Jun;131(Pt A):284-293.
    PMID: 29886949 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.04.019
    This baseline assessment reports on the occurrence, distribution, and sources of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in tropical coastal sediments of anthropogenically impacted Klang River estuary, Malaysia. Bisphenol A was the highest concentration detected at 16.84 ng g-1 dry weight, followed by diclofenac (13.88 ng g-1 dry weight) and E1 (12.47 ng g-1 dry weight). Five compounds, namely, amoxicillin, progesterone, diazinon, bisphenol A, and E1, were found in all sampling stations assessed, and other compounds such as primidone, diclofenac, testosterone, E2, and EE2 were ubiquitously present in sediment samples, with percentage of detection range from 89.04% to 98.38%. Organic carbon content and pH were the important factors controlling the fate of targeted compounds in the tropical estuarine sediment. On the basis of the literature from other studies, the sources of EOCs are thought to be from wastewater treatment plants, domestic/medical waste discharge, livestock activities, industrial waste discharge, and agricultural activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate
  16. How SW, Lim SY, Lim PB, Aris AM, Ngoh GC, Curtis TP, et al.
    Water Sci. Technol., 2018 May;77(9-10):2274-2283.
    PMID: 29757179 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2018.143
    Intensive aeration for nitrification is a major energy consumer in sewage treatment plants (STPs). Low-dissolved-oxygen (low-DO) nitrification has the potential to lower the aeration demand. However, the applicability of low-DO nitrification in the tropical climate is not well-understood. In this study, the potential of low-DO nitrification in tropical setting was first examined using batch kinetic experiments. Subsequently, the performance of low-DO nitrification was investigated in a laboratory-scale sequential batch reactor (SBR) for 42 days using real tropical sewage. The batch kinetic experiments showed that the seed sludge has a relatively high oxygen affinity. Thus, the rate of nitrification was not significantly reduced at low DO concentrations (0.5 mg/L). During the operation of the low-DO nitrification SBR, 90% of NH4-N was removed. The active low-DO nitrification was mainly attributed to the limited biodegradable organics in the sewage. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealed the nitrifiers were related to Nitrospira genus and Nitrosomonadaceae family. Phylogenetic analysis suggests 47% of the operational taxonomic units in Nitrospira genus are closely related to a comammox bacteria. This study has demonstrated active low-DO nitrification in tropical setting, which is a more sustainable process that could significantly reduce the energy footprint of STPs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate
  17. Low JSY, Chew LL, Ng CC, Goh HC, Lehette P, Chong VC
    J. Therm. Biol., 2018 May;74:14-22.
    PMID: 29801619 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2018.02.012
    Heat shock response (HSR), in terms of transcription regulation of two heat shock proteins genes hsp70 and hsp90), was analysed in a widespread tropical copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei. The mRNA transcripts of both genes were quantified after copepods at a salinity of 20 underwent an acclimation process involving an initial acclimation temperature of 29 °C, followed by gradual thermal ramping to the target exposure temperature range of 24-36 °C. The respective cellular HSR and organismal metabolism, measured by respiratory activity at exposure temperatures, were compared. The fold change in mRNA expression for both hsp70 and hsp90 (8-9 fold) peaks at 32 °C, which is very close to 32.4 °C, the upper thermal optimum for respiration in the species. Unexpectedly, the modelled HSR curves peak at only 3 °C (hsp90) and 3.5 °C (hsp70) above the mean water temperature (29.32 °C) of the copepod in the field. We propose that copepods in tropical waters adopt a preparative HSR strategy, early at the upper limit of its thermal optimum, due to the narrow thermal range of its habitat thus precluding substantial energy demand at higher temperatures. However, the model suggests that the species could survive to at least 36 °C with short acclimation time. Nevertheless, the significant overlap between its thermal range of hsp synthesis and the narrow temperature range of its habitat also suggests that any unprecedented rise in sea temperature would have a detrimental effect on the species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate
  18. Senior RA, Hill JK, Benedick S, Edwards DP
    Glob Chang Biol, 2018 03;24(3):1267-1278.
    PMID: 29052295 DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13914
    Tropical rainforests are subject to extensive degradation by commercial selective logging. Despite pervasive changes to forest structure, selectively logged forests represent vital refugia for global biodiversity. The ability of these forests to buffer temperature-sensitive species from climate warming will be an important determinant of their future conservation value, although this topic remains largely unexplored. Thermal buffering potential is broadly determined by: (i) the difference between the "macroclimate" (climate at a local scale, m to ha) and the "microclimate" (climate at a fine-scale, mm to m, that is distinct from the macroclimate); (ii) thermal stability of microclimates (e.g. variation in daily temperatures); and (iii) the availability of microclimates to organisms. We compared these metrics in undisturbed primary forest and intensively logged forest on Borneo, using thermal images to capture cool microclimates on the surface of the forest floor, and information from dataloggers placed inside deadwood, tree holes and leaf litter. Although major differences in forest structure remained 9-12 years after repeated selective logging, we found that logging activity had very little effect on thermal buffering, in terms of macroclimate and microclimate temperatures, and the overall availability of microclimates. For 1°C warming in the macroclimate, temperature inside deadwood, tree holes and leaf litter warmed slightly more in primary forest than in logged forest, but the effect amounted to <0.1°C difference between forest types. We therefore conclude that selectively logged forests are similar to primary forests in their potential for thermal buffering, and subsequent ability to retain temperature-sensitive species under climate change. Selectively logged forests can play a crucial role in the long-term maintenance of global biodiversity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  19. Slik JWF, Franklin J, Arroyo-Rodríguez V, Field R, Aguilar S, Aguirre N, et al.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2018 02 20;115(8):1837-1842.
    PMID: 29432167 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714977115
    Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northern-hemisphere forests.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate*
  20. van der Ent A, Edraki M
    Environ Geochem Health, 2018 Feb;40(1):189-207.
    PMID: 27848090 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-016-9892-3
    The Mamut Copper Mine (MCM) located in Sabah (Malaysia) on Borneo Island was the only Cu-Au mine that operated in the country. During its operation (1975-1999), the mine produced 2.47 Mt of concentrate containing approximately 600,000 t of Cu, 45 t of Au and 294 t of Ag, and generated about 250 Mt of overburden and waste rocks and over 150 Mt of tailings, which were deposited at the 397 ha Lohan tailings storage facility, 15.8 km from the mine and 980 m lower in altitude. The MCM site presents challenges for environmental rehabilitation due to the presence of large volumes of sulphidic minerals wastes, the very high rainfall and the large volume of polluted mine pit water. This indicates that rehabilitation and treatment is costly, as for example, exceedingly large quantities of lime are needed for neutralisation of the acidic mine pit discharge. The MCM site has several unusual geochemical features on account of the concomitant occurrence of acid-forming sulphide porphyry rocks and alkaline serpentinite minerals, and unique biological features because of the very high plant diversity in its immediate surroundings. The site hence provides a valuable opportunity for researching natural acid neutralisation processes and mine rehabilitation in tropical areas. Today, the MCM site is surrounded by protected nature reserves (Kinabalu Park, a World Heritage Site, and Bukit Hampuan, a Class I Forest Reserve), and the environmental legacy prevents de-gazetting and inclusion in these protected area in the foreseeable future. This article presents a preliminary geochemical investigation of waste rocks, sediments, secondary precipitates, surface water chemistry and foliar elemental uptake in ferns, and discusses these results in light of their environmental significance for rehabilitation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tropical Climate
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